BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, bowel obstruction, ascites, constipation, and anorexia, are common and often refractory in advanced cancer patients. The palliation of gastrointestinal symptoms is important in improving the quality of life of cancer patients, as well as that of their families and caregivers. Currently published clinical guidelines for the management of gastrointestinal symptoms in cancer patients do not comprehensively cover the topics or are not based on a formal process for the development of clinical guidelines.
METHODS: The Japanese Society for Palliative Medicine (JSPM) developed comprehensive clinical guidelines for the management of gastrointestinal symptoms in cancer patients after a formal guideline development process.
RESULTS: This article summarizes the recommendations along with their rationale and a short summary of the development process of the JSPM gastrointestinal symptom management guidelines. We established 31 recommendations, all of which are based on the best available evidence and agreement of expert taskforce members.
DISCUSSION: Future clinical studies and continuous guideline updates are required to improve gastrointestinal symptom management in cancer patients.
BACKGROUND: Although palliative care is expanding globally for patients with serious illness, Turkey has not had widespread integration of early concurrent oncology palliative care. Hence, adapting and testing models of concurrent oncology palliative care for Turkish patients is imperative. Furthermore, it is critical that these care models also address the needs of family caregivers.
OBJECTIVE: To assess needs and elicit suggestions that would inform the adaptation of the ENABLE (Educate, Nurture, Advise, Before Life Ends) evidence-based early palliative care model for Turkish family caregivers of older persons with cancer.
METHODS: Formative evaluation study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 primary family caregivers of older individuals with cancer. Thematic analyses yielded themes in four domains: meaning of caregiving, effect of caregiving, education and consulting needs, and preferences about the delivery of the ENABLE model of palliative care support.
RESULTS: Caregivers described the impact of the cancer on their daily lives and responsibilities in the areas of physical, psychological, work, social, and family life. Caregivers emphasized their needs for information about symptoms, physical care, cancer pathology, and prognosis. Regarding the ENABLE model of early concurrent palliative care, participants wanted encounters to be in-person with educational material support that was simple and focused on disease information (prognosis, medication, handling emergency situations), psychological support, caring, nutrition, and acquiring community services.
CONCLUSION: Themes from this study will be used to modify the ENABLE intervention protocol for future pilot and efficacy testing in Turkish caregivers.
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to examine whether a longitudinal advance care planning (ACP) intervention facilitates concordance between the preferred and received life-sustaining treatments (LSTs) of terminally ill patients with cancer and improves quality of life (QoL), anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms during the dying process.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of 795 terminally ill patients with cancer from a medical center in Taiwan, 460 were recruited and randomly assigned 1:1 to the experimental and control arms. The experimental arm received an interactive ACP intervention tailored to participants' readiness to engage in this process. The control arm received symptom management education. Group allocation was concealed, data collectors were blinded, and treatment fidelity was monitored. Outcome measures included 6 preferred and received LSTs, QoL, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms. Intervention effectiveness was evaluated by intention-to-treat analysis.
RESULTS: Participants providing data had died through December 2017. The 2 study arms did not differ significantly in concordance between the 6 preferred and received LSTs examined (odds ratios, 0.966 [95% CI, 0.653-1.428] and 1.107 [95% CI, 0.690-1.775]). Participants who received the ACP intervention had significantly fewer anxiety symptoms (β, -0.583; 95% CI, -0.977 to -0.189; P= .004) and depressive symptoms (ß, -0.533; 95% CI, -1.036 to -0.030; P= .038) compared with those in the control arm, but QoL did not differ.
CONCLUSIONS: Our ACP intervention facilitated participants' psychological adjustment to the end-of-life (EoL) care decision-making process, but neither improved QoL nor facilitated EoL care honoring their wishes. The inability of our intervention to improve concordance may have been due to the family power to override patients' wishes in deeply Confucian doctrine-influenced societies such as Taiwan. Nevertheless, our findings reassure healthcare professionals that such an ACP intervention does not harm but improves the psychological well-being of terminally ill patients with cancer, thereby encouraging physicians to discuss EoL care preferences with patients and involve family caregivers in EoL care decision-making to eventually lead to patient value-concordant EoL cancer care.
OBJECTIVES: To compare aggressiveness of end-of-life (EoL) care for older cancer patients attributed to Medicare Shared Savings Programs with that for similar fee for service (FFS) beneficiaries not in an accountable care organization (ACO) and examine whether observed differences in EoL care utilization vary across markets that differ in ACO penetration.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study comparing ACO-attributed beneficiaries with propensity score-matched beneficiaries not attributed to an ACO.
SETTING: A total of 21 hospital referral regions (HRRs) in the United States.
PARTICIPANTS: Medicare FFS beneficiaries with a cancer diagnosis who were 66 years or older and died in 2013-2014.
MEASUREMENTS: Outcome measures were claims-based quality measures of aggressive EoL care: (1) one or more intensive care unit (ICU) admissions in the last month of life, (2) two or more hospitalizations in the last month of life, (3) two or more emergency department visits in the last month of life, (4) chemotherapy 2 weeks or less before death, and (5) no hospice enrollment or hospice enrollment within 3 days of death. Analyses were adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics of beneficiaries and practice characteristics.
RESULTS: Compared with beneficiaries not in an ACO, ACO-attributed beneficiaries had a higher rate of ICU admission during the last month of life (37.7% vs 34.0%; adjusted difference = +2.8 percentage points; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-4.6) but fewer repeated hospitalizations (14.5% vs 15.2%; adjusted difference = -1.7 percentage points; CI = -3.1 to -.3). Other measures did not differ for the two groups. Although the ICU admission rates tended to decrease as ACO-penetration rates increased (P < .01), ACO patients had higher rates of ICU admission than non-ACO patients in both medium and high ACO-penetration HRRs.
CONCLUSION: Cancer patients attributed to ACOs had fewer repeated hospitalizations but more ICU admissions in the last month of life than non-ACO patients; they had similar rates of other measures of aggressive care at the EoL. This suggests opportunities for ACOs to improve EoL care for cancer patients.
It is important for the health care community to understand the impact of a child's death on parent functioning. Yet involving bereaved parents in research that enquires about such a stressful time in their life can potentially bring harm to them. The current study examines the perceived benefit and burden of parents participating in a survey exploring their perceptions of their child's end-of-life (EoL) and bereavement experiences. Parents whose child died from cancer or complications of cancer treatment were invited to complete a survey developed by pediatric psychosocial oncology professionals with input from bereaved parent advocates through a closed social media (Facebook) group. One hundred seventy-eight parents of children aged 0 to 37 years at death (median age 12 years) participated. More than three quarters of parents reported at least "a little benefit" and half reported at least "a little burden" associated with participation. Less burden was perceived by younger and female parents, parents of younger children, those who had felt prepared to meet their children's emotional needs at EoL, and those not using bereavement services at the time of the survey. With the increasing use of social media as a source for bereaved parents to receive and provide emotional support, it is important for clinicians and researchers to understand the perceived benefits and risks of participating in research about EoL experiences via online recruitment. Our findings suggest that the benefit and burden of online research participation may vary for bereaved parents, but further research is necessary to replicate the findings and explore ways to optimize the use of this approach.
Background: Little is known about how immigration status influences preference for life-extending care (LEC) at the end of life (EoL).
Objective: The purpose was to determine how preference for LEC at the EoL for advanced cancer patients varied by Latino ethnicity and immigrant status, and over time between two large cohorts.
Methods: Data were derived from two sequential multi-institutional, longitudinal cohort studies of advanced cancer patients, recruited from 2002 to 2008 (coping with cancer I [CwC-1]) and 2010 to 2015 (coping with cancer II [CwC-2]). Self-reported U.S.-born whites (whites) (N = 253), U.S.-born Latinos (US-L) (N = 34), and Latino immigrants (LI) (N = 65) with a poor-prognosis cancer were included. The primary independent variables were immigrant status, Latino ethnicity, and CwC cohort. The primary dependent variable was preference for LEC.
Results: Within CwC-2, LI were 9.4 times more likely to prefer LEC over comfort care versus US-L (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 9.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–72.4), and US-L were 0.3 times less likely to prefer LEC versus whites (AOR = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1–1.0). LI from CwC-2 were 11.4 times more likely to prefer LEC versus LI from CwC-1 (AOR = 11.4; 95% CI: 2.7–48.4). Within CwC-1, there was no difference in LEC preference between LI and US-L, nor between US-L and whites.
Conclusions: Immigrant status had a strong effect on preference for LEC at the EoL among the more recent cohort of Latino cancer patients. Preference for LEC appears to have increased significantly over time for LI but remained unchanged for US-L. LI may increasingly want LEC near death.
PURPOSE: To describe outcomes of Electrochemotherapy as palliative treatment in patients with advanced head and neck (H&N) tumours.
METHODS: Ninety-three patients (120 treatment sessions) with H&N recurrent and/or metastatic neoplasm were treated. Treatment response was assessed 4 weeks after ECT with clinical examination and two months after the first evaluation with a CT scan of the H&N for deep lesions evaluation. The grade of bleeding and pain before, at the end of treatment and one week after ECT were evaluated.
RESULTS: Five percent of complete responses, 40% of partial responses were registered. Disease progression was seen in 20% of patients after the first ECT procedure, the remaining 34% of patients experienced stable disease. A good control of pain and bleeding was obtained, especially in patients with moderate symptoms before the treatment. No toxicities related to ECT were seen.
CONCLUSIONS: ECT is an interesting antitumoral therapy in advanced chemo and radio-refractory H&N neoplasms. ECT is able to reduce frequent symptoms, such as pain and bleeding, improving quality of life without damage to healthy tissue and with limited side effects. Moreover, ECT reduces hospitalization time and may contribute to an overall reduction in healthcare costs associated with advanced H&N cancers care.
The Quality Oncology Practice Initiative has several metrics related to end-of life (EOL) care, including hospice enrollment =3 days, with lower scores signaling better performance. Of privately insured patients with head and neck cancer, 3.5% were enrolled in hospice prior to death and 21.3% spent =3 days in hospice, indicating aggressive EOL care. Patients with late hospice enrollment had higher spending in the last 30 days of life (DOL). Patients in hospice =3 days spent $37,426, while those in hospice >3 days spent $24,418 (P = .002). The largest portion of this difference was attributable to inpatient services. Patients in hospice =3 days spent $22,089 on inpatient services in the last 30 DOL, while those in hospice >3 days spent $8361 (P < .001). Further research is needed to determine if more high-value care can be provided with earlier hospice enrollment and to ensure that goal concordance is included in defining high-value care.
BACKGROUND: The intensity of end-of-life care varies substantially both within and between areas. Differing practice patterns of individual physicians are likely influenced by their peers.
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether intensity of end-of-life care previously provided by a physician's peers influences patterns of care at the end-of-life for that physician's patients.
RESEARCH DESIGN: Observational study.
SUBJECTS: A total of 185,947 fee-for-service Medicare enrollees with cancer who died during 2006-2010 who were treated by 26,383 physicians.
MEASURES: Spending in the last month of life, >1 emergency room visit, >1 hospitalization, intensive care unit admission in the last month of life, chemotherapy within 2 weeks of death, no/late hospice, terminal hospitalization.
RESULTS: Mean (SD) spending in the last month of life was $16,237 ($17,124). For each additional $1000 of spending for a peer physician's patients in the prior year, spending for the ego physician's patients was $83 higher (P<0.001). Among physicians with peers both in and out of their practice, more of the peer effect was explained by physicians outside of the practice ($72 increase for each $1000 increase by peer physicians' patients, P<0.001) than peer physicians in the practice ($27 for each $1000 increase by within-practice peer physicians' patients, P=0.01). Results were similar across the other measures of end-of-life care intensity.
CONCLUSIONS: Physician's peers exert influence on the intensity of care delivered to that physician's patients at the end-of-life. Physician education efforts led by influential providers and provider organizations may have potential to improve the delivery of high-value end-of-life care.
BACKGROUND: The oligometastatic paradigm suggests that some patients with a limited number of metastases might be cured if all lesions are eradicated. Evidence from randomised controlled trials to support this paradigm is scarce. We aimed to assess the effect of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) on survival, oncological outcomes, toxicity, and quality of life in patients with a controlled primary tumour and one to five oligometastatic lesions.
METHODS: This randomised, open-label phase 2 study was done at 10 hospitals in Canada, the Netherlands, Scotland, and Australia. Patients aged 18 or older with a controlled primary tumour and one to five metastatic lesions, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score of 0-1, and a life expectancy of at least 6 months were eligible. After stratifying by the number of metastases (1-3 vs 4-5), we randomly assigned patients (1:2) to receive either palliative standard of care treatments alone (control group), or standard of care plus SABR to all metastatic lesions (SABR group), using a computer-generated randomisation list with permuted blocks of nine. Neither patients nor physicians were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was overall survival. We used a randomised phase 2 screening design with a two-sided a of 0·20 (wherein p<0·20 designates a positive trial). All analyses were intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01446744.
FINDINGS: 99 patients were randomised between Feb 10, 2012, and Aug 30, 2016. Of 99 patients, 33 (33%) were assigned to the control group and 66 (67%) to the SABR group. Two (3%) patients in the SABR group did not receive allocated treatment and withdrew from the trial; two (6%) patients in the control group also withdrew from the trial. Median follow-up was 25 months (IQR 19-54) in the control group versus 26 months (23-37) in the SABR group. Median overall survival was 28 months (95% CI 19-33) in the control group versus 41 months (26-not reached) in the SABR group (hazard ratio 0·57, 95% CI 0·30-1·10; p=0·090). Adverse events of grade 2 or worse occurred in three (9%) of 33 controls and 19 (29%) of 66 patients in the SABR group (p=0·026), an absolute increase of 20% (95% CI 5-34). Treatment-related deaths occurred in three (4·5%) of 66 patients after SABR, compared with none in the control group.
INTERPRETATION: SABR was associated with an improvement in overall survival, meeting the primary endpoint of this trial, but three (4·5%) of 66 patients in the SABR group had treatment-related death. Phase 3 trials are needed to conclusively show an overall survival benefit, and to determine the maximum number of metastatic lesions wherein SABR provides a benefit.
FUNDING: Ontario Institute for Cancer Research and London Regional Cancer Program Catalyst Grant.
Disparities in access to palliative care services for populations with social disparities have been reported in Western countries. Studies indicate that these populations tend to report higher symptom distress than other population groups. We need to further investigate how social disparities influence symptom burden to improve symptom relief in these populations.
PURPOSE: To examine the perspectives of specialist palliative care providers concerning the relationship between social disparities and symptom burden in populations with advanced cancer.
METHODS: Two sequential qualitative studies that followed a combination of interpretive and critical methodologies. The interpretive approach was outlined by van Manen's hermeneutic phenomenology while the critical component was informed by the works of Paulo Freire. Participants involved two specialist palliative care teams from a large acute care hospital and a large cancer center in Western Canada. Participants included 11 palliative care providers including registered nurses, nurse practitioners, physicians, and pharmacists.
RESULTS: Participants perceived that social conditions that might aggravate symptom burden included low income, low education, lack of social support, language barriers, and rurality. The relationship between income and symptom burden reflected diverse views. Participants identified populations prone to complex symptom burden including homeless individuals, Indigenous people, people with a history of addictions, and people with mental health or psychosocial issues.
CONCLUSION: Participants perceived that social disparities may increase symptom complexity in populations with advanced cancer. Participants did not identify ethnicity and gender as influencing symptom burden. Further research is needed to examine the interactions of social disparities, patient individuality, and symptom burden.
BACKGROUND: Patients with terminal conditions are often admitted to the emergency department (ED) for acute medical services, but studies have suggested that multiple ED admissions may negatively impact end-of-life (EOL) care. Research have shown that incorporating palliative care (PC) is integral to optimal EOL care, but it is an aspect of medical practice that is often neglected. The current study sought to provide an overview of health outcomes and hospital costs of patients with cancer admitted to The Ottawa Hospital and/or received acute medical services during their final 2 weeks of life. Cost comparisons and estimates were made between hospital and hospice expenditures.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of palliative patients who died at The Ottawa Hospital in 2012. A total of 130 patients who visited the ED within 2 weeks of death were included in the analyses.
RESULTS: In this cohort of patients, 71% of admitted patients did not have advanced care directives and 85% experienced a metastasis, but only 18% had a PC medical doctor. Patients were hospitalized, on average, for 7 days and hospitalization costs exceeded the estimated hospice cost by approximately 2.5 times (Can$1 041 170.00 at Can$8009.00/patient vs Can$401 570.00 at Can$3089.00/patient, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Our study highlighted the importance of PC integration in high-risk patients, such as those in oncology. Patients in our sample had minimal PC involvement, low advanced care directives, and accrued high costs. Based on our analyses, we concluded that these patients would have likely benefited more from hospice care rather than hospitalization.
BACKGROUND: There is little consensus on how best to manage head and neck cancer with palliative intent. Predicting outcome is difficult and reported survival varies. The present study sought to delineate local practice and outcomes in patients treated with palliative intent.
METHODS: The clinical records of all head and neck cancer patients treated with palliative intent presenting between 2015 and 2016 to our multidisciplinary team were reviewed.
RESULTS: Eighty-four patients (21.5 per cent) were treated with palliative intent. All had squamous cell carcinoma. Mean survival time was 151 days (standard deviation = 121.1; range, 8-536 days). Of the patients, 83.3 per cent had a palliative care referral; 74.1 per cent had a hospice referral. Patients received a variety of interventions, and there was an associated complication in 8.2 per cent. The mean number of days spent in hospital for interventions was 11.9 days (standard deviation = 12.5; range, 0-41 days).
CONCLUSION: Different interventions are used to manage head and neck cancer patients with palliative intent, and these may be associated with significant morbidity. Survival time is variable, often several months; thus, any treatment must take into account morbidity in conjunction with the patient's wishes.
Supportive and palliative care at the end of life (EOL) is a core component of health systems. Providing care at the EOL may require the interaction of several care providers working in different settings including nursing homes, home care, hospices, and hospitals. This work aims to (a) provide evidence on the performance of EOL care for cancer patients across healthcare organizations, with a focus on the place of care, aggressive treatments, opioids, and the place of death and (b) analyze factors associated with dying in hospital. A population-based retrospective study was performed using administrative data from Tuscany region (Italy). Thirteen thousand sixty-six cancer patients who died in 2016 were considered. There is a marked variability in EOL care within regional areas, with the multilevel logistic regression highlighting a greater likelihood of dying in hospital for patients who were admitted to intensive care units or previously hospitalized. There is a lower probability of dying in acute care setting for patients assisted in hospices and in both hospital and hospices/home care and for patients treated with opioids. This intraregional variation highlights the need to improve EOL planning and rethink the delivery of supportive/palliative care. Further investigations on the preferences of patients may lead to more understanding.
BACKGROUND: Advance care planning (ACP), palliative care (PC), and hospice are often underutilized by African Americans (AAs). This study assessed the impact of stage of intent to discuss ACP options as key potential barriers.
METHODS: We examined intent to discuss completion of ACP, PC, and hospice among 22 AA patients with cancer admitted to a local safety net hospital. Participants were asked about intent to discuss an advanced directive or living will (AD/LW), medical power of attorney (MPOA), PC, and hospice with their doctors. Intent to discuss these ACP components was based on the transtheoretical model. Electronic health records were reviewed at various intervals to assess completion of ACP behaviors and survival.
RESULTS: Participants had colorectal (33%), breast (44%), and lung (23%) cancer, and 82% had stage III/IV disease. Low percentages of patients were in the precontemplation stage for AD/LW completion (4.6%), MPOA completion (13.6%), and PC discussions (27.2%), but 77.2% were in the precontemplation stage for hospice discussions. At 1 year, only 5% completed an AD/LW, 36.4% appointed an MPOA, 42.9% were referred to PC, and 12.5% were referred to hospice. More than half (54.6%) were deceased by the study's conclusion. Most (81%) of these died within 6 months of their baseline study assessment.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite being hospitalized with advanced cancer and having poor prognosis, intent to discuss ACP options, PC, and hospice in this population was variable, and completion of these activities was low. This formative research is needed to develop education and counseling interventions for this high-risk, vulnerable population.
OBJECTIVES: To summarise the current body of published evidence on the use of low-dose and/or adjuvant methadone in the palliative care setting.
METHODS: The authors searched multiple databases (PubMED, SCORPUS, EMBASE and the Cochrane library) for relevant articles using the terms 'methadone', 'palliative', 'low dose' and 'adjuvant'. The review was restricted to articles published between 2003 and 2018. Paediatric and single-case studies were also excluded. Evidence quality was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) method.
RESULTS: Our search yielded 171 results, of which seven met the inclusion criteria. Four were retrospective chart reviews, one was a retrospective cohort study, one was a case series and one was a double-blind randomised control trial. The overall quality was found to be very low. Of the seven articles, all seven reported some improvement in pain with the addition of low-dose or adjuvant methadone. This improvement was statistically significant in four out of seven articles; statistical significance was not commented on in the remaining three articles.
CONCLUSION: While case series and chart reviews offer promising results about the utility of adjuvant and/or low-dose methadone in the management of complex pain, the very low evidence quality, relative dearth of studies and near absence of randomised controlled trials make it impossible to draw firm conclusions. Thus, while very preliminary evidence suggests methadone is a potentially effective and valuable agent, further research must be performed before such findings can be implemented into clinical practice.
Objective: Cancer patients face many health challenges, including spiritual issues. Therefore, an awareness of health-care providers' perspective on spiritual care provision is important. This study aimed to determine health-care providers' perception of spiritual care and to examine the individual barriers to its implementation in cancer patients.
Methods: The present descriptive study included 136 physicians and nurses. The Spiritual Care Survey was used as a research tool. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 20.0.
Results: In this study, 70.6% of the participants considered spiritual care to be influential in the patients' quality of life. However, 64.7% had received no spiritual care training, while 82.4% indicated a willingness to attend these courses. Regarding the obstacles to providing spiritual care, the highest and lowest scores, respectively, belonged to the lack of time and the person's reluctance to talk about spiritual issues.
Conclusions: Spiritual care has not yet found its proper place in the care setting of Iran, and health-care team members do not have sufficient training to provide this kind of care despite their belief in its positive impact on patients' quality of life.
Between 2014 and 2017, four patients with widespread cancer were referred to a home palliative care team from a hospital in Oviedo (Spain) with subcutaneous elastomeric infusion pump containing 180-260 mg/day of morphine for previously uncontrolled pain. 3-4 rotations were performed over 5-11 days, gradually substituting morphine for oral methadone (three times a day) to minimise the risks of rapid conversion, with a highly variable final subcutaneous morphine:oral methadone ratio (5:1 to 17:1), guided by the absence of pain, and to enhance the patient's functional capacity avoiding device dependence. The final methadone dose varied between 15 and 39 mg/day. There was daily telephone supervision and visits every 2-4 days. Patient demise occurred 56, 111, 168 and 350 days following the opioid conversion, and methadone was maintained until then. In all cases and prior to concluding the rotation, pain was controlled and sleepiness had subsided.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe preferences for a good death among Chinese patients with advanced cancer and then to explore factors contributing to their preferences including patient demographics and disease variables.
METHODS: A convenience sample of 275 patients with advanced cancer was recruited from a tertiary cancer hospital in Beijing, China, between February and December 2017. A Chinese version of the Good Death Inventory (GDI) was used to measure patients' preferences for dying and death. Besides, data were collected using a multi-itemed questionnaire focusing on demographic and disease characteristics of patients.
RESULTS: Of the 275 questionnaires returned, 248 responses were analysed (effective response rate 90.2%). According to the total scores for each of the 20 domains, the five most important domains of a good death were: good relationship with family (19.80±2.39), independence (19.66±2.56), maintaining hope and pleasure (19.56±2.55), good relationship with medical staff (18.92±3.73), not being a burden to others (18.89±3.30). Patients' characteristics including age, educational status, religious belief, medical payment types, family economic status, past experiences of the death of others, the period since cancer diagnosis, past experiences of hospitalisation and subjective physical condition influenced their preferences for a good death (all p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: We had an in-depth knowledge and understanding of their preferences for good death among Chinese patients with advanced cancer. Meanwhile, we found some patients' factors contributed to different preferences for a good death. These findings have the potential to guide hospice care services aimed at achieving a good death for patients with advanced cancer.
INTRODUCTION: It is generally accepted that depression, affecting the quality of life, is a serious and common complication in patients with cancer. Given that there is no integrated study on this topic in Iran, the present study sought to investigate the prevalence of depression in patients with cancer by a systematic review and meta-analysis.
METHODS: To meet the study objectives, all English and Persian papers published from 2000 to January 2018 were systematically collected and the data were extracted for analysis.
RESULTS: There were 14 studies which were selected on the basis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total number of 2831 patients with cancer had participated in the studies. The prevalence of depression among Iranian patients with cancer was 35% (95% CI 16% to 70%) based on random effects model. Among various types of cancer, the highest prevalence of depression appeared to patients suffering from breast cancer.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depression among patients with cancer in Iran was higher than the developed countries. As depression affects the quality of life of patients with cancer, the results can help policymakers and service providers in planning to reduce the prevalence of depression.