Le Catalogue de la mort est une exploration décomplexée de la dernière grande étape de notre existence : la mort. Dans cet ouvrage à la fois drôle et érudit, Bunpei Yorifuji aborde tous les aspects imaginables du « passage vers l’au-delà » : où meurt-on le plus ? De quelles causes ? Qui vit le plus longtemps ? Quelles sont les cultures où l’on craint le plus la mort et comment la représentent-ils ? Quelles sont les meilleures (et pires) façons de mourir ? Bref : qu’est-ce que la mort ?
À cette interrogation naïve, l’auteur répond comme à son habitude en texte et en image, mêlant dessins humoristiques, anecdotes et recherches approfondies. Fort d’une culture japonaise où ce sujet est appréhendé sans tabou, Bunpei Yorifuji s’adresse dans cet ouvrage autant aux adultes qu’aux plus jeunes. Un livre à mettre entre les mains de toutes celles et ceux qui cherchent à aborder avec finesse et humour le thème de la mort.
La bioéthique est née des progrès médicaux d'une part et de la nécessité de se prémunir contre toute répétition des horreurs pratiquées par les expérimentateurs nazies d'autre part. Cela a conduit à des règles très diversement définies dans les différents pays. La France est sous un régime éthique caractérisé par un dirigisme important et des responsabilités confiées essentiellement aux professionnels.
Dans ce livre, il est proposé d'ouvrir un peu plus le champ de la responsabilisation individuelle, de privilégier les droits du malade et d'accroître le respect de la liberté (encadrée) de chacun. En pratique, cela implique notamment moins de restriction dans la possibilité pour les malades en fin de vie de choisir la modalité de leur mort.
Depuis la seconde moitié du XXe siècle, de nombreux sociologues, anthropologues et historiens, ont souligné le fait que la civilisation occidentale se caractérisait par un "déni social de la mort" et qu'elle procédait ainsi à une occultation dramatique des personnes en fin de vie. La mort et le mourir seraient devenus " tabous " et notre culture jeuniste et consumériste nous inciterait à en détourner nos regards.
Vouloir éloigner le tragique, faire décliner l'importance traditionnellement accordée aux rituels funéraires et au deuil, tel serait un des aspects majeurs de notre culture. Les sciences sociales étaient alors accusatrices : elles dénonçaient le " mal mourir " et faisaient la critique d'un monde où le rapport à la mort avait globalement cessé d'être familier. Ce constat exigeait donc un remède : dès les années 80, se sont développés en France les soins palliatifs et de nombreux débats sur la fin de vie ont fait leur apparition dans l'espace public (notamment la question de l'euthanasie et celle du refus de l'acharnement thérapeutique).
Pour autant, avons-nous aujourd'hui réussi à modifier notre rapport au mourir, à "resocialiser la mort" et à mieux accompagner les personnes en fin de vie ? Avons-nous trouvé les moyens d'enrayer le processus d'occultation de la mort dont beaucoup pensent qu'il est inévitablement pathologique ?
OBJECTIVES: To assess the availability and efficacy of interventions open to adolescents and young adults (AYAs; 15-25 years) bereaved by a parent's or sibling's cancer.
METHODS: A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature on interventions available to AYAs bereaved by a parent's or sibling's cancer was conducted through searches of six online databases (PsycINFO, Medline, Scopus, Embase, SWAB and Web of Science Core Collection).
RESULTS: Database and reference searches yielded 2985 articles, 40 of which were included in the review. Twenty-two interventions were identified that were available for bereaved young people. However, only three were specific to young people bereaved by familial cancer, and none were specific to AYAs. Interventions primarily provided opportunities for participants to have fun, share their experiences and/or memorialise the deceased; psychoeducation about bereavement, grief and coping was less common. Only six interventions had been satisfactorily evaluated, and no intervention targeted or analysed data for AYAs separately. Overall, some evidence suggested that interventions (especially those that were theoretically grounded) had positive effects for bereaved young people. However, benefits were inconsistently evidenced in participants' self-reports and often only applied to subgroups of participants (eg, older youths and those with better psychological well-being at baseline).
CONCLUSIONS: Considering the very limited number of interventions specific to bereavement by familial cancer and the lack of interventions targeting AYAs specifically, it is unclear whether currently available interventions would benefit this population. The population of AYAs bereaved by familial cancer is clearly under-serviced; further development and evaluation of interventions is needed.
The death of a partner may be stressful for unmarried intimate partners as they lack legal status vis-à-vis the partner, and, thus, lack sufficient cultural support. This qualitative study examined the meaning attributed to the loss by 12 Israeli bereaved intimate partners of fallen soldiers. Through applying a constructivist-narrative methodology, we derived three clusters from interviews with the intimate partners: (a) The relationships never ended – “an unfinished business,” (b) The need to conceal the relationships – “a hidden wound,” and (c) The relationship guides their lives – “a compass.” Practical implications were discussed.
This cross-sectional survey compares the risk of mental health problems like poor well-being, complicated and prolonged grief, and mental disorders between young adults experiencing a divorced or non-divorced parent’s death. 190 participants were recruited from Facebook via the Danish National Center for Grief. Well-being was measured using WHO-5, prolonged grief using PG-13 and complicated grief using BGQ, and common mental disorders using CMDQ. Findings confirmed deleterious effects on mental health in young adults experiencing parental death, but higher risk, when losing a divorced parent compared to a non-divorced parent, was associated to prolonged grief, complicated grief, bodily distress syndrome, and alcohol misuse.
This qualitative study asked 70 mothers and 26 fathers 3 open-ended questions on what they wish they had and had not done and on coping 2, 4, 6, and 13 months after their infant’s/child’s neonatal intensive care unit/pediatric intensive care unit/emergency department death. Mothers wished they spent more time with the child, chosen different treatments, advocated for care changes, and allowed the child his or her wishes. Fathers wished they had spent more time with the child and gotten care earlier. Mothers wished they had not agreed to child’s surgery/treatment, taken her own actions (self-blame), and left the hospital before the death. Fathers wished they had not been so hard on the child, agreed with doctors/treatment, and taken own actions (self-blame). Religious activities, caring for herself, and talking about/with the deceased child were the most frequent mothers’ coping strategies; those of the fathers were caring for self and religious activities. Both mothers and fathers wished they had spent more time with their child and had not agreed to surgery/treatments. The most frequent coping was caring for themselves, likely to care for the family and retain employment. Nurses must be sensitive to parents’ need for time with their infant/child before and after death and to receive information on child’s treatments at levels and in languages they understand.
A retrospective audit of terminology utilized in discharge summaries to convey the death of inpatients in an Australian tertiary hospital was undertaken. Completion rates of summaries for this patient cohort were also assessed. Less than 60% had a summary finalized, and for those that did, euphemisms were utilized most commonly; passed away was employed in >70% of cases. There is no difference in terminology choice between doctors at the beginning, compared to the end, of their first year as a doctor, nor between first year or more experienced doctors. Irrespective of clinician level, doctors use euphemisms to convey a death.
This study explored the bereavement experience of mothers after losing a child to cancer in Korea, using photovoice. The mothers took photos reflecting five subject areas they selected: (a) if I had one more day with my child, (b) memories with my child, (c) dreaming of my child’s healthy future, (d) what gave me strength, and (e) fulfilling my child’s wishes for the future. The findings show that mothers who lost a child to cancer need bereavement care to promote well-being. This study can help pediatric oncology providers develop bereavement interventions that address parental grief and improve quality of life.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between death anxiety and depressive and anxiety symptoms among Norwegian and Turkish female psychology students. For this purpose, 304 participants were recruited, of whom 127 were Norwegian and 177 were Turkish. Participants’ ages ranged from 18 to 35 years. The Beck Depression Inventory, the trait anxiety subscale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Death Anxiety Scale were used to examine these relationships. The findings showed that death anxiety was significantly related to depressive and anxiety symptoms in both countries. Furthermore, Turkish participants scored higher on both death anxiety and depressive and anxiety symptoms than their Norwegian counterparts. The findings encourage researchers to focus more on the relationship between death anxiety and depressive and anxiety symptoms in a cross-cultural frame.
The experience of parental death concomitant with parental divorce occurs for 46% of Danish children and 50% of American children who lose a parent to death. This experience of loss and double bereavement compounds increased risk of mental health problems. The aim of this study was to explore nursing interventions for double bereaved children that promoted their well-being. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach was used to conduct 20 interviews with nurses in family cancer care. Ricoeur's theoretical framework was followed with naïve reading, structural analysis, and critical interpretation, resulting in the formulation of a new model of nursing care for these children: the Divorced Family-Focused Care Model. Four themes were apparent: (a) collection of information about family structure, (b) assessment of support needs, (c) initiation of well-being support, and (d) coordination and follow-up focused on the child's well-being. The new intervention model has implications for health care education and implementation of health care policies.
This qualitative study examined the language of women who were child sexual abuse survivors (N = 16) to gain insight into their grief experiences following the death of their abusers. Participants ranged in age from 22 to 62 years (M = 47.4) and the majority were White, had been abused by a family member, and had sought child sexual abuse-related counseling. Five primary themes emerged during analysis: (a) grief reflecting a complex relationship; (b) loss of opportunity for confrontation, clarity, and connection; (c) funeral as liability, not benefit; (d) others’ lack of understanding of multilayered grief; and (e) coping through transformation. Discussion illuminates sense-making and connections between themes and existing thanatological concepts and research.
The combination of aging and losing their only adult child challenges an increasing number of older adults in China. Current literature primarily focuses on older parents' bereavement but seldom examines their effort to cope with subsequent life changes brought about by only-child loss. This study explores how older parents in Shanghai who lost their only adult child restore their lives and prepare for future care. Twenty-four older adults were purposively sampled and participated in face-to-face, in-depth interviews. The findings suggest that participants tried to restore their lives by rationalizing grief and expanding their social networks. Despite their losses, participants remained in favor of family caregiving and reluctantly prepared for future care. Their ambivalent attitudes toward government support call for caution in approaches to service delivery.
We present three datasets from a project about the relationship between death anxiety and religiosity. These include data from 1,838 individuals in the United States (n = 813), Brazil (n = 800), Russia (n = 800), the Philippines (n = 200), South Korea (n = 200), and Japan (n = 219). Measures were largely consistent across samples: they include measures of death anxiety, experience of and exposure to death, religious belief, religious behaviour, religious experience, and demographic information. Responses have also been back-translated into English where necessary, though original untranslated data are also included.
This article elaborates on Robert Kastenbaum’s death system analysis by explaining social change efforts among Ecological Death Advocates (EDAs), a diverse group of designers, scientists, spiritualists, and entrepreneurs who seek to develop more environmentally sensitive and humanistic alternatives to contemporary death management practices. Drawing from online and documentary data, we highlight EDAs claims about problems with conventional death management and the solutions they propose. Specifically, EDAs challenge hyperrationalized and professionalized death management practices by advocating for more ecologically benign approaches that link past traditions with new technological innovations to better align death practices with personal and community needs. We theorize EDA reform efforts as an aspect of “death-system” politics to carve out cultural, economic, and political space for alternative end-of-life decisions that better reflect broad ecological sensibilities and changing attitudes toward death.
BACKGROUND: There is no international consensus on the definition and components of severe maternal morbidity (SMM).
OBJECTIVES: To propose a comprehensive definition of SMM, to create an empirically justified list of SMM types and subtypes, and to use this to examine SMM in Canada.
METHODS: Severe maternal morbidity was defined as a set of heterogeneous maternal conditions known to be associated with severe illness and with prolonged hospitalisation or high case fatality. Candidate SMM types/subtypes were evaluated using information on all hospital deliveries in Canada (excluding Quebec), 2006-2015. SMM rates for 2012-2016 were quantified as a composite and as SMM types/subtypes. Rate ratios and population attributable fractions (PAF) associated with overall and specific SMM types/subtypes were estimated in relation to length of hospital stay (LOS > 7 days) and case fatality.
RESULTS: There were 22 799 cases of SMM subtypes (among 1 418 545 deliveries) that were associated with a prolonged LOS or high case fatality. Between 2012 and 2016, the composite SMM rate was 16.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 15.9, 16.3) per 1000 deliveries. Severe pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome (514.6 per 100 000 deliveries), and severe postpartum haemorrhage (433.2 per 100 000 deliveries) were the most common SMM types, while case fatality rates among SMM subtypes were highest among women who had cardiac arrest and resuscitation (241.1 per 1000), hepatic failure (147.1 per 1000), dialysis (67.6 per 1000), and cerebrovascular accident/stroke (51.0 per 1000). The PAF for prolonged hospital stay related to SMM was 17.8% (95% CI 17.3, 18.3), while the PAF for maternal death associated with SMM was 88.0% (95% CI 74.6, 94.4).
CONCLUSIONS: The proposed definition of SMM and associated list of SMM subtypes could be used for standardised SMM surveillance, with rate ratios and PAFs associated with specific SMM types/subtypes serving to inform clinical practice and public health policy.
Grounded in work on health narratives of public figures, an online survey (N = 305) explored amplification of Carrie Fisher's mental health advocacy following her death through sharing about mental health on SNSs. Parasocial relationship (PSR) to Fisher and grief in response to her death both predicted greater sharing about mental health on social network sites, but parasocial grief fully mediated the influence of PSR on social sharing. Prosocial motivations (pleasure, pressure) moderated the relationship between parasocial grief and social sharing. In a separate analysis, parasocial grief predicted greater exposure to both media about mental health and media that mourned/celebrated Fisher. Mental health-related media exposure mediated the influence of parasocial grief on social sharing, but this mediation occurred only among people who were not aware of Fisher's mental health advocacy prior to her death.
BACKGROUND: Some people experience exceptionally severe bereavement grief, and this level of post-death grief could potentially be the result of a low quality dying process.
AIMS: A pilot study was conducted to determine if a relationship exists between perceived death quality and bereavement grief intensity.
METHODS: A questionnaire was developed and posted online for data on bereavement grief intensity, perceived death quality, and decedent and bereaved person characteristics. Data from 151 Canadian volunteers were analysed using bi-variate and multiple linear regression tests.
FINDINGS: Half had high levels of grief, and over half rated the death as more bad than good. Perceived death quality and post-death grief intensity were close to being negatively correlated.
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate research is needed to explore possible connections between bereavement grief and the survivor's perceptions of whether a good or bad death took place. In the meantime, it is important for palliative care nurses to think of the quality of the dying process as being potentially very impactful on the people who will be left to grieve that death.