Context: High-quality advance care planning (ACP) discussions are important to ensure patient receipt of goal-concordant care; however, there is no existing tool for assessing ACP communication quality.
Objectives: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a novel instrument that can be used to assess ACP communication skills of clinicians and trainees.
Methods: We developed a 20-item ACP Communication Assessment Tool (ACP-CAT) plus two summative items. Randomized rater pairs assessed residents' performances in video-recorded standardized patient encounters before and after an ACP training program using the ACP-CAT. We tested the tool for its 1) discriminating ability, 2) interrater reliability, 3) concurrent validity, 4) feasibility, and 5) raters' satisfaction.
Results: Fifty-eight pre/post-training video recordings from 29 first-year internal medicine residents at Mount Sinai Hospital were evaluated. ACP-CAT reliably discriminated performance before and after training (median score 6 vs. 11, P < 0.001). For both pre/post-training encounters, interrater reliability was high for ACP-CAT total scores (intraclass correlation coefficient or ICC = 0.83 and 0.82) and the summative items Overall impression of ACP communication skills (ICC = 0.73 and 0.80) and Overall ability to respond to emotion (ICC = 0.83 and 0.82). Concurrent validity was shown by the strong correlation between ACP-CAT total score and both summative items. Raters spent an average of 4.8 minutes to complete the ACP-CAT, found it feasible, and were satisfied with its use.
Conclusion: ACP-CAT provides a validated measure of ACP communication quality for assessing video-recorded encounters and can be further studied for its applicability with clinicians in different clinical contexts.
Background: The McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire - Expanded (MQOL-E) and the Quality of Life in Life-Threatening Illness-Family Carer/Caregiver version (QOLLTI-F) are developed for use with patients facing the end of life and their family carers, respectively. They are also developed for possible use as companion instruments. Contemporary measurement validity theory places emphasis on response processes, i.e. what people feel and think when responding to items. Response processes may be affected when measurement instruments are translated and adapted for use in different cultures. The aim of this study was to translate and examine content validity and response processes during completion of MQOL-E and QOLLTI-F version 2 (v2) among Swedish patients with life-threatening illness and their family carers.
Methods: The study was conducted in two stages (I) translation and adaptation (II) examination of content validity and response processes using cognitive interviews with 15 patients and 9 family carers. Participants were recruited from the hemodialysis unit, heart clinic, lung clinic and specialized palliative care of a Swedish county hospital. Patients had life-threatening illness such as advanced heart failure, advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, end-stage kidney disease or advanced cancer. Patients were outpatients, inpatients or receiving home care.
Results: Patients and family carers respectively believed that the items of the MQOL-E and QOLLTI-F v2 reflect relevant and important areas of their quality of life. Although some items needed more time for reflection, both instruments were considered easy to understand. Some changes were made to resolve issues of translation. Participants expressed that reflecting on their situation while answering questions was valuable and meaningful to them, and that responding was an opportunity to express feelings.
Conclusions: The results of response processes pertaining to the Swedish translations of both MQOL-E and QOLLTI-F v2 contribute evidence regarding content validity, linguistic equivalence and cultural appropriateness of the translated instruments. In addition, results show that the instruments may support conversations on matters of importance for quality of life between patients and/or family carers and health care professionals. Further research is needed to study the psychometric properties of Swedish translations.
Objectives: Patients in oncological and palliative care (PC) often have complex needs, which require a comprehensive treatment approach. The assessment of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) has been shown to improve identification of patient needs and foster adjustment of treatment. This study explores occupational routines, attitudes and expectations of physicians and nurses with regards to a planned electronic assessment system of PROs.
Methods: ten physicians and nine nurses from various PC settings in Southern Germany were interviewed. The interviews were analysed with qualitative content analysis.
Results: The interviewees were sceptical about the quality of data generated through a patient self-assessment system. They criticised the rigidity of the electronic assessment questionnaire, which the interviewees noted may not fit the profile of all palliative patients. They feared the loss of personal contact between medical staff and patients and favoured in-person conversation and on-site observations on site over the potential system. Interviewees saw potential in being able to discover unseen needs from some patients. Interviewees evaluated the system positively in the case that the system served to broadly orient care plans without affecting or reducing the patient-caregiver relationship.
Conclusions: A significant portion of the results touch upon the symbolic acceptance of the suggested system, which stands for an increasing standardisation and technisation of medicine where interpersonal contact and the professional expertise are marginalized. The study results can provide insight for processes and communication in the run-up to and during the implementation of electronic assessment systems.
Background: Knowing the opinions of patients with Progressive Neurological Diseases (PNDs) and their family members on end-of-life care can help initiate communication and the drawing up of a care plan. The aim of this paper is to describe the creation and psychometric properties of the newly developed APND-EoLC questionnaire (the Attitudes of Patients with Progressive Neurological Disease to End of Life Care questionnaire).
Methods: Following focus group discussion, four main areas of interest were identified: patients’ and family members’ attitudes towards end-of-life care, factors influencing decisions about treatment to prolong patients’ life, concerns and fears regarding dying, and opinions on the system of care. The created questions were divided into domains based on factor analysis and psychometric properties were evaluated by sample of 209 patients with PND and 118 their family members.
Results: The final version of the scale contains a total of 28 questions divided into six domains (end-of-life control, keeping patients alive, trust in doctors/treatment, trust in social support, sense of suffering, and dependence/loss of control) and five individual questions determining views of the care system with specified response options. Construct validity was verified by confirmatory factor analysis for each evaluated area individually. Appropriate psychometric properties were identified in the questionnaire.
Conclusions: The APND-EoLC questionnaire can be recommended for use in both research and clinical practice.
Background: To provide high quality care to all patients who have serious illness, health-care systems must develop effective generalist palliative care strategies.
Objective: To identify palliative care quality gaps within a range of settings in the California safety net and to develop theory-based interventions to address them.
Design: Structured assessment using the National Consensus Project for Quality Palliative Care Clinical Practice Guidelines and a Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Constructs in Educational/Environmental Diagnosis and Evaluation intervention planning model-based worksheet, which integrates behavior theories to identify factors that predispose, enable, and reinforce clinicians to perform recommended behaviors.
Setting and Participants: Adviser pairs—one from palliative care and one from a partner service line—from 10 California public health-care systems conducted assessments at their sites. A steering committee provided educational webinars, best practices, and assessment tools.
Measurements: Adviser pairs interviewed at least 6 partner service line stakeholders to identify palliative care quality gaps, behaviors clinicians should perform to close gaps, and factors that predispose, enable, and reinforce those behaviors.
Results: Partner service lines were primary care (n = 4), surgery (n = 3), emergency department (n = 2), and radiation oncology (n = 1). Selected gaps were advance care planning and goals of care communication (n = 6), identifying patients with serious illness (n = 3), and pain management (n = 1). All sites designed multiple interventions to address gaps, based on factors that predispose, enable, and reinforce a target audience to perform a target behavior. Advisers reported that the program strengthened relationships between palliative care and the partner service line
Conclusion: This structured assessment helped busy clinicians develop theory-based generalist palliative care interventions.
Objectif : Dans le cadre d’un projet de compagnonnage à destination des soignants du domicile, notre Equipe Mobile de Soins Palliatifs a souhaité évaluer leur niveau de qualification en soins palliatifs.
Matériel et méthode : Un QCM de 20 questions a été créé afin d’explorer le niveau de formation, d’expérience et de connaissances en soins palliatifs. Il a été soumis à toutes les infirmières libérales installées sur la communauté de commune du Grand Pontarlier, soit 20 infirmières. Ce travail original a fait l’objet d’un mémoire de DIU soins palliatifs.
Résultats : Le taux de réponse est de 85 %. Le niveau de formation et d’expérience est très faible. Aucune infirmière n’a de diplôme universitaire ou d’expérience en équipe mobile ou unité de soins palliatifs. La prise en charge des symptômes et les lois de soins palliatifs sont peu connues.
Conclusion : La méthode est simple. Elle peut être utilisée par d’autres équipes pour évaluer d’autres professionnels de santé. Ce travail a suscité un vif intérêt de la part des infirmières libérales, sans doute parce que si elles suivent peu de patients en soins palliatifs chaque année, leurs difficultés sont réelles. Ces difficultés, révélées dans d’autres travaux, peuvent être mises en lien avec le faible niveau de formation et d’expérience mis en évidence. Notre travail de formation devra permettre une meilleure qualité de prise en charge du patient.
Background: Generalist nurses frequently care for people who have advanced chronic diseases in decline, or who are dying. Few studies have measured graduating nurses' knowledge about end-of-life (EoL) care.
Aims: To measure and compare knowledge about EoL care using the palliative care quiz for nurses among two cohorts of graduating nurses in a baccalaureate nursing programme.
Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional survey design using a convenience sample of two cohorts of students.
Findings: Total mean scores were low at 44.5% and 46.5% for the cohorts, respectively; this was not statistically significant. Misconceptions related to presentation and symptom management of the dying patient and integration of palliative with acute care. Palliative care knowledge was higher among the cohort who completed the dedicated EoL care course.
Conclusion: Significant misconceptions about EoL care exist among these graduating nurses; this information provides direction for curriculum revision.
OBJECTIVE: Although the psychometric properties of the Family Satisfaction with End-of-Life Care measure have been examined in diverse settings internationally; little evidence exists regarding measurement equivalence in Hispanic caregivers. The aim was to examine the psychometric properties of a short-form of the FAMCARE in Hispanics using latent variable models and place information on differential item functioning (DIF) in an existing family satisfaction item bank.
METHOD: The graded form of the item response theory model was used for the analyses of DIF; sensitivity analyses were performed using a latent variable logistic regression approach. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine dimensionality were performed within each subgroup studied. The sample included 1,834 respondents: 317 Hispanic and 1,517 non-Hispanic White caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease and cancer, respectively.
RESULTS: There was strong support for essential unidimensionality for both Hispanic and non-Hispanic White subgroups. Modest DIF of low magnitude and impact was observed; flagged items related to information sharing. Only 1 item was flagged with significant DIF by both a primary and sensitivity method after correction for multiple comparisons: "The way the family is included in treatment and care decisions." This item was more discriminating for the non-Hispanic, White responders than for the Hispanic subsample, and was also a more severe indicator at some levels of the trait; the Hispanic respondents located at higher satisfaction levels were more likely than White non-Hispanic respondents to report satisfaction.
SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: The magnitude of DIF was below the salience threshold for all items. Evidence supported the measurement equivalence and use for cross-cultural comparisons of the short-form FAMCARE among Hispanic caregivers, including those interviewed in Spanish.
The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Advance Directive Attitude Survey in Korean (K-ADAS), a measure of attitudes toward advance directives (ADs). A total of 118 low-income, community-dwelling older adults (mean age, 75.09 years) participated. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to determine the factor structure of the K-ADAS. Validity was further assessed by known associations of the K-ADAS with perceived susceptibility and severity using part of the Advance Care Planning surveys. Its reliability was examined by calculating alpha coefficients. EFA determined a three-factor structure model with good model fit. Validity was further supported with significant correlations between the K-ADAS and susceptibility and severity. Reliability was supported by adequate level of Cronbach's alpha. The K-ADAS was a valid and reliable measure for assessment of AD attitudes with a sound model fit. Thus, the K-ADAS can be used to assess AD attitudes among community-dwelling elders.
BACKGROUND: The U.S. health care system is poorly designed to meet the needs of patients at the end of life (EOL) and their families. Nursing students often have reported feeling inadequate to provide EOL care.
METHOD: Following an EOL simulation, reflective journals were collected from junior and senior nursing students and analyzed for themes using qualitative content analysis. The condensed meaning units were abstracted into codes based on Carper's fundamental patterns of knowing.
RESULTS: Thirty-one junior and senior nursing students (mean age, 21.04 ± 0.52 years, 96.2% female) in a baccalaureate program participated in the study. The broad themes of student reflections included empirics (theoretical or natural historical) aesthetics (transformative nursing action), personal (interpersonal process of nurse-patient interaction), and ethics (emotion influences actions).
CONCLUSION: Student perception and participation in all roles contributes to the gestalt of the experience of a highly emotional EOL simulation for both students and faculty.
Caring for the dying patient can be stressful for nursing students. The purpose of this study was to describe a multimodal educational intervention designed to improve nursing students' attitude toward care of the dying patient and the family. Sophomore nursing students participated in an interactive end-of-life (EOL) lecture and simulation. A quasi-experimental, pretest/posttest design with a convenience sample was used for this study. Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying version A was used to measure attitudes toward care of the dying patient before and after educational intervention. In addition, students were given an open-ended questionnaire to reflect on their perceptions of the EOL experience and a demographic questionnaire. A paired t test revealed a statistically significant difference between the pretest and posttest (t50 = 3.1, P = .003) on the Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying, suggesting that students gained a more positive attitude toward caring for the dying patient. Three themes emerged from the content analysis and included knowing what to say and how to offer presence, becoming emotionally prepared, and learning skills to comfort. The use of lecture and simulation allowed students to assimilate the knowledge and affective skills needed to provide quality EOL care.
PURPOSE: Pain assessment at the end of life remains a problem for patients who are unable to self-report their pain when transitioning across care settings. This study therefore tested the internal consistency and discriminant, concurrent, and convergent validity of the Critical-Care Pain Observational Tool (French version) when used with end-of-life patients in a palliative care setting.
DESIGN: This was a descriptive correlational study that used a repeated-measures within-subjects prospective design.
METHODS: The pain of 13 patients was assessed when at rest and during turning.
RESULTS: The internal consistency reliability coefficient alphas were .64 at rest and .70 during turning. Discriminant validity was shown by a decrease in the total Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool score. Concurrent validity was demonstrated by the association between the patients' self-report of pain and the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool score at rest (0.65, p < .016) and during turning (0.77, p = .002). Finally, the convergent validity between the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool score and the Algoplus scale score was demonstrated with a Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.76 at rest and 0.84 during turning.
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool can be used with end-of-life patients in French-speaking countries.
BACKGROUND: Insufficient knowledge of radiotherapy among hospice and palliative medicine (HPM) physicians is a barrier to providing optimal palliative care. We sought to assess the impact of a palliative radiotherapy curriculum on the knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors of HPM fellows at a single institution.
METHODS: We implemented a palliative radiotherapy didactic course for HPM fellows. The course consisted of three one-hour lectures and a guided tour of the radiation oncology suite. Anonymous pre-post was performed using descriptive statistics with P values calculated using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test with continuity correction.
RESULTS: All eligible fellows completed the questionnaires. Prior to the course, all fellows agreed that possessing a working knowledge of palliative radiotherapy was important yet lacked confidence in this domain. Fellow-reported confidence increased significantly on post-course assessment, as did the mean score on objective knowledge assessment. This increased knowledge was retained on longitudinal evaluation at three months. The curricular intervention also impacted fellow-reported practice behaviors and attitudes. In the three months following the intervention, fellows were more likely to refer patients for palliative radiotherapy, more likely to collaborate with radiation oncologists, and more likely to view radiation oncologists as members of a comprehensive palliative care team.
CONCLUSIONS: This feasibility study suggests that a brief curricular intervention can impact HPM fellows' knowledge about, attitudes towards, and practice behaviors associated with the use of radiotherapy in the palliative management of advanced cancer patients.
Background/Aim: Previous research has suggested that palliative radiotherapy is a useful measure, unless short survival reduces the time spent without active treatment, and in the case of a low likelihood of experiencing a net benefit in quality of life. Patients with reduced performance status (PS) may be especially at risk of futile treatment, despite having a relatively high symptom burden and thus a potential benefit. Therefore, we analyzed the symptom burden of patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) PS 3-4 in our center. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study was performed of 102 consecutive patients who received palliative radiotherapy for different indications. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) was employed to assess the pre-radiotherapy symptoms.
Results: When applying the lowest threshold (ESAS =1), up to 97% of patients with PS 3-4 reported symptoms, such as fatigue and dry mouth. When focusing on moderate/severe symptoms (ESAS =4), still up to 77% of patients with PS 3-4 reported such a burden. The largest differences between patients with PS 3-4 and those with 0-1 were seen with regard to nausea, fatigue, dry mouth and reduced appetite. The median survival of patients with PS 3-4 was 2 months.
Conclusion: Given that many of the symptoms reported by patients with PS 3-4 tend to worsen temporarily after radiotherapy, patients with short survival may not experience a net benefit during the few weeks before death. However, if other symptoms such as dyspnea or pain prevail, short-course radiotherapy may result in worthwhile palliation and should, therefore, be considered on a case-by-case basis and after estimation of the remaining lifespan.
OBJECTIVES: The wish to die may be different in geriatric patients than in younger terminally ill patients. This study aimed to develop and validate instruments for assessing the wish to die in geriatric patients.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
SETTING: Geriatric rehabilitation unit of a university hospital.
PARTICIPANTS: Patients (N = 101) aged 65 years or older with a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 20 or higher, admitted consecutively over a 5-month period.
MEASUREMENTS: The Schedule of Attitudes Toward Hastened Death (SAHD) was adapted to the older population (SAHD-Senior). A second tool was developed based on qualitative literature, the Categories of Attitudes Toward Death Occurrence (CADO). After cognitive pretesting, these instruments were validated in a sample of patients admitted to a geriatric rehabilitation unit.
RESULTS: The SAHD-Senior showed good psychometric properties and a unifactorial structure. In the studied sample, 12.9% had a SAHD-Senior score of 10 or higher, suggesting a significant wish to die. Associations were observed between high levels of the SAHD-Senior and advanced age, high levels of depressive symptoms, lower quality of life, and lower cognitive function. The CADO allowed for passive death wishes to be distinguished from wishes to actively hasten death. According to the CADO, 14.9% of the sample had a wish to die. The two instruments showed a concordance rate of 90.1%.
CONCLUSION: The wish to die in older patients admitted to rehabilitation can be validly assessed with two novel instruments. The considerable proportion with a wish to die warrants investigation into concept, determinants, and management of the wish to die.
BACKGROUND: Frailty and palliative performance scores are 2 markers used in the measurement of functional decline in oncology and hospice care.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frailty and palliative performance scores of a long-term care resident community and determine whether frailty and palliative performance scores can predict hospital readmissions (HR) and survivability of the long-term care resident.
METHODS: One hundred seventy-one long-term care residents from 2 urban facilities were evaluated for functional decline using the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) and Palliative Performance Scale (PPS). Sociodemographic, HR, and survival data for 1 year from study initiation were recorded.
RESULTS: The 171 long-term care residents, of lower socioeconomic status, primarily Medicare/Medicaid or dual-eligible, evaluated for functional decline using the CFS and PPS, had mean age of 73.1 years, 52.6% female, 94.7% African American, with 18.1% having HR and 87.1% surviving more than a year. There was a negative association between age and HR (P = .384). Among functional evaluation scales, CFS was positively associated with age (P = .013) but not PPS (P = .673). The residents scored 6.0 ± 1.2 on CFS and 52.8 ± 13.2 on PPS (%) with those residents readmitted to hospital having poorer outcomes. Readmission to hospital and survivability of the long-term care resident were both strongly associated with CFS (P = .001) and PPS (P = .001).
CONCLUSION: There is a strong association between the 2 markers used in the measurement of functional decline-Frailty measured by CFS and Palliative Performance Score measured by PPS. Frailty and palliative performance scores can strongly predict HR and survivability of the long-term care resident.
CONTEXT: Few studies have examined how clinicians assess decision-making capacity for research in the last weeks of life.
OBJECTIVE: We examined the decision-making capacity for participation in a research study and its association with clinician impression and delirium among cancer patients with days to weeks of life expectancy.
METHODS: Patients admitted to our Palliative and Supportive Care Unit (PSCU) were approached for a prospective observational study. We assessed for their decision-making capacity based on clinical impression of physician and nurse, Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) and the MacArthur Competency Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR).
RESULTS: Among the 206 patients, 131 patients (64%) did not require MacCAT-CR assessment because they were overtly delirious or unresponsive; 37 (18%) patients were alert but did not complete the MacCAT-CR assessment for other reasons and 38 patients (18%) completed the MacCAT-CR assessment. Among these 38 patients, 5 (13%) were incapable and had normal albeit significantly higher MDAS scores compared to those who were capable (1.8 vs. 4.2, P=0.002). Compared against MacCAT-CR and MDAS, the overall agreement with capacity assessment with a clinician was 88% (95% CI 82-93%) for physicians and 90% (95% CI 82-94%) for nurses. The area-under the receiver-operating characteristics curve was 0.93 (95% CI 0.88-0.96) for physicians and 0.94 (95% CI 0.89-0.97) for nurses, suggesting high discrimination.
CONCLUSION: A majority of patients in the PSCU lacked decision-making capacity for participation in clinical research. Clinician impression had high accuracy. Few patients with normal MDAS were found to be incapable with MacCAT-CR assessment.
CONTEXT: Assessing consciousness and pain during continuous sedation until death (CSD) by behavior-based observational scales alone has recently been put into question. Instead, the use of monitoring technology has been suggested to make more objective and reliable assessments. Insights into which factors influence attitudes towards using these monitoring devices in a context of CSD is a first step in formulating recommendations to inform future practice.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to find out what influences professional caregivers' and family members' attitudes regarding the use of monitors during CSD.
METHODS: We conducted semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 20 professional caregivers and 15 family members, who cared for a patient or had a family member respectively who took part in a study using monitoring devices. Recruitment took place in an academic hospital, a loco-regional hospital and 2 nursing homes, all located in Belgium. Two researchers independently analysed the data, using grounded theory to inductively develop a model that represents the emerging attitude towards use of monitors during CSD.
RESULTS: Our model shows that the emerging attitudes towards using monitors during CSD is determined by view on CSD, desire for peace of mind, emotional valence attached to using monitors and the realization that the sole use of behavior-based observational measures could be unreliable in a CSD context. We identified several facilitators and barriers to inform future implementation strategies.
CONCLUSION: Most participants had no objections and all participants found the use of monitoring devices during CSD feasible and acceptable. We identified a number of facilitators and barriers and suggested that being aware that care can be improved, good communication, shared decision making and continuing professional education can overcome the identified barriers. We suggest future research would focus on developing implementation strategies and guidelines for introducing objective monitoring devices in diverse palliative care settings.
Survival estimates are very important to patients with terminal cancer. The C-reactive protein (CRP)/albumin ratio is associated with cancer outcomes. However, few studies have investigated the dose-response association in terminal cancer patients. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the association between the CRP/albumin ratio and mortality in terminal cancer patients using a longitudinal analysis. We retrospectively investigated the electronic medical records of 435 inpatients with terminal cancer admitted to the palliative care unit of Yeouido St. Mary's Hospital between October 8, 2015, and January 17, 2018. In total, 382 patients with terminal cancer were enrolled in the study. The serum CRP/albumin ratio measured at admission had a linear dose-response relationship with the risk of death among the terminal cancer patients (P for linearity = .011). The multivariate analyses showed that the CRP/albumin ratio was an independent prognostic factor (Model 1, CRP/albumin ratio >48.53 × 10-4: HR = 2.68, 95% CI = 1.82–3.93; Model 2, tertile 2: HR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.31–2.82 and tertile 3: HR = 3.66, 95% CI = 2.24–5.97). The relationship between a high CRP/albumin ratio and poor survival was a flat L-shape for survival time with an inflection point at approximately 15 days, while the relationship was not significant in terminal cancer patients who survived beyond 30 days. This study demonstrated that high CRP/albumin ratios are significantly and independently associated with the short-term survival prognosis of terminal cancer patients within 30 days.
BACKGROUND: Spirituality is particularly important for patients suffering from life-threatening illness. Despite research showing the benefits of spiritual assessment and care for terminally ill patients, their spiritual needs are rarely addressed in clinical practice. This study examined the factor structure and reliability of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual (FACIT-Sp) in patients with advanced cancer. It also examined the clinical meaning and reference intervals of FACIT-Sp scores in cancer patients subgroups through a literature review.
METHODS: A forward-backward translation procedure was adopted to develop the Italian version of the FACIT-Sp, which was administered to 150 terminally ill cancer patients. Exploratory factor analysis was used for construct validity, while Cronbach's a was used to assess the reliability of the scale.
RESULTS: This study replicates previous findings indicating that the FACIT-Sp distinguish well between features of meaning, peace, and faith. In addition, the internal consistency of the FACIT-Sp was acceptable. The literature review also showed that terminal cancer patients have the lowest scores on the Faith and Meaning subscales, whereas cancer survivors have the highest scores on Faith.
CONCLUSIONS: The Italian version of the FACIT-Sp has good construct validity and acceptable reliability. Therefore, it can be used as a tool to assess spiritual well-being in Italian terminally ill cancer patients. This study provides reference intervals of FACIT-Sp scores in newly diagnosed cancer patients, cancer survivors, and terminally ill cancer patients and further highlights the clinical meaning of such detailed assessment.