Ce numéro d'Essaim est consacré à la mort et à ses relations avec la psychanalyse. Les contributeurs étudient les points de vue de penseurs tels que Freud ou Lacan et abordent des notions telles que l'entre-deux-morts, la douleur d'exister, la fin de vie, les formes de deuil ou la pulsion de mort.
Avocat au Barreau de Bruxelles, Bernard Mouffe livre une réflexion sur le droit à la mort, qu'il s'agisse de suicide, d'avortement ou d'euthanasie. Il analyse ce qui rassemble ces trois sujets et ce qui les sous-tend.
A person's body can, it seems, survive well after losing the capacity to support Lockean personhood. If our rights in our bodies are, basically, rights in our selves or persons, this seems to imply that we do not after all have a right to direct the disposition of our living remains via advance directive. Govind Persad argues that our rights over our bodies persist after the loss of our personhood; we have a right to insist that our bodies die after we are gone for much the same reason that we have a right to decide whether or not to donate organs, after our death. Persad's conclusion may be right; however, his arguments regarding body rights are insufficient. Persad's suggestion that our rights in our bodies come from a history of acting and sensing through them cannot, quite, be right, since we act and sense through tools, as well. Nor should we accept Persad's arguments, from intuitions in cases involving posthumous pregnancy, that our posthumous body rights (however acquired) are powerful enough to allow choices that will result in the death of beings that need our living remains to survive. Problems with these intuitions point to a more general concern for this sort of case-based intuitionistic method: it presupposes that what body rights we have is a matter of 'natural right', accessible to all, rather than a function of how social institutions do or should resolve conflicts about the proper way of defining our authority over our bodies.
While many people are skeptical that we can harm the dead, much of our discourse depends on it. I defend the claim that we can harm the dead by presenting a new way to think about how the dead can be harmed, and I show that the reasons we can harm the dead shed light on many issues in bioethics, including organ donation, posthumous reproduction, end-of-life decisions, and advance directives for dementia.
Trois caractéristiques des soins palliatifs pédiatriques sont susceptibles de fragiliser les soignants. Il s’agit du processus complexe d’identification à l’enfant, de la confrontation avec la mort d’un enfant et enfin de l’enjeu lié à la triade enfant/parents/soignant pouvant conduire à l’épuisement professionnel. Quelques possibilités pour prévenir ces phénomènes sont étudiés.
The purpose of this study is to determine family caregivers' recommendations for professional health care professionals on how to help prepare them for the death of an elder with dementia. Purposive criterion sampling was employed to identify 30 bereaved caregivers of family members aged 65 and older who died with a dementia-related diagnosis. In-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted over a 12-month period, and qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Three primary themes emerged: (a) Educate Caregivers, (b) Lead Caregivers, and (c) Provide a Caring and Compassionate Presence. The results highlight the importance of various health care professionals' roles in preparing family caregivers for a death. In doing so, both the dying and their caregivers may have a better end-of-life experience with improved bereavement outcomes.
The current study examined Posttraumatic Growth (PTG) experienced by bereaved pet owners in the United States, French-Canada, Japan, and Hong Kong following the death of their pet. Using qualitative methodology, we analyzed responses of participants who answered “yes” to a question about experiencing PTG and explored to what extent the cross-cultural responses mapped onto the five factors of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). For the U.S. sample, 58% of responses mapped onto the PTGI. For French-Canada, 72% of responses mapped onto the PTGI. For Japan, 50% of responses mapped onto the PTGI and for Hong Kong, 39% of responses mapped onto the PTGI. We also explored emergent categories related to PTG for individuals who have lost a pet and discerned the unique aspects for PTG across cultures.
Si pour la plupart des gens Noël représente les fêtes en famille, les yeux des enfants qui pétillent en ouvrant les cadeaux, les repas festifs, il n’en est rien pour Lyse. Ce jour-là, son monde s’est effondré, Parti en éclat en une fraction de seconde.
La perte subite et inattendue de la personne qui comptait le plus au monde la laisse anéantie.
Mais il faut continuer à vivre. Reprendre le cours de la vie malgré la douleur.
Par un matin humide de janvier, Lyse reprend le chemin du lycée comme si de rien n’était.
Même si elle ne laisse rien paraître de son mal-être, la souffrance et la culpabilité la rongent petit à petit de l’intérieur.
Se recueillir le long des sentiers littoraux varois et contempler la mer l’apaisent. Mais comment faire face à ce deuil impossible ? Comment se reconstruire ? Ou trouver la force de continuer à vivre ?
Une rencontre accidentelle va bouleverser sa vie et remettre en question toutes ses certitudes.
Tu es handicapé. Tu es mort. Tu avais quinze ans. Yannick, ton visage est encore dessiné par le souvenir, comme un papier calque collé sur une vitre. Mais les contours s'estompent et les couleurs s'effacent, un peu comme un paysage que l'on devine à peine dans la brume. Les traits de ma fille qui vient de naître vont-ils effacer les tiens ? Et si, avec le temps, ma mémoire ne parvenait plus à les retrouver ?
Dans ce récit intimiste adressé à son frère défunt, Magali Hack explore, avec sobriété et authenticité, les douleurs et les joies de nos existences et pose des questions essentielles : la perte, la filiation et le temps qui passe.
I explore the complexities of moral experience during the phase of life after a terminal diagnosis by examining the experiences of one woman living as a hospice patient in St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. Introducing the notion of “existential ambivalence,” I show that this can be a period of deep uncertainty, in which what matters to individuals can shift and fluctuate through time, not necessarily lining up with collective ideals of “the good death.” I focus on a promise this woman made that continued to pull her toward a version of living well while she was also pulled toward dying.
What might the good life amount to at the margins of life? Taking our point of departure in Jonathan Lear’s notions of ontological breakdown and radical hope as well as the phenomenology of lived time, we explore hope within the institutional aging process in Denmark. Drawing on two ethnographic cases, Vagn and Thea, we propose a phenomenological and responsive hope emerging within complex temporalities. This is a relational hope to be included among the living, to be a human being among others. Importantly, it is neither optimistic nor naive but rather hope practiced in the face of devastating life circumstances.
This paper focuses on the author’s mother, a subject whose ageing process was speeded and whose morality was challenged by the myriad and unpredictable effects of Alzheimer’s disease. Using an archive of recorded conversations, the paper examines some of the existential questions with which the mother grappled until she lost the ability to speak. It considers these late ethical expressions in the context of her earlier political activism, marks her brief obsession with the possibility of assisted dying, and concludes by assessing the relative “goodness” of her very recent death in some of the terms that she herself established.
Building on work on post-Fordist affect, we argue that the group-based and person-centered forms of production in mining and milling, respectively, produce contingent conceptualizations of culture, identity, and personhood and, in turn, of dying and death. The “communal solidarism” characteristic of post-mining milieu engenders senses of dying and death entailing a communal merging of erstwhile individual selfhoods. In post-milling milieu dying and death are conceptualized as individuated, but subject to social evaluation. The evaluative criterion in this regard is ability to “perform” dying and death in ways that reflect the valorized essence of local culture, identity, and personhood, “resilient autonomy.”
AIDS has devastated communities across southern Africa, leaving many children orphaned. Grandmothers are considered ideal caregivers because of cultural expectations of intergenerational care, and because they have not been decimated by AIDS to the same extent as younger adults. However, these grandmothers, who currently carry the majority of the burden of care for AIDS orphans, are themselves aging and dying. I argue here that in Lesotho, the caregiving demanded of grandmothers late into their lives not only alters kin relations for the living but has increasingly made a “good” death unachievable for elderly caregivers.
In this introduction to the special issue, Life’s End: Ethnographic Perspectives, we review the field of anthropological studies of death and dying. We make the argument that, largely because of its sub-disciplining into the larger field of the anthropology of religion, ritual and symbolism, the focus of anthropological research on death has been predominantly on post- rather than pre-death events, on death’s beginnings rather than life’s ends. Additionally, we argue that an anthropological aversion to the study of dying may also lie in the intimacy of the discipline’s principal method, ethnography. Contrastingly, we argue that this very methodological intimacy can be a source of insight, and we offer this as a rationale for the special issue as a whole, which comprises eight ethnographic studies of dying and social relations at life’s end from across Africa, Australia, Europe, and North America. Each of these studies is then summarized, and a rationale for their presentation around the themes of “structures of dying,” “care for the dying,” “hope in dying,” and “ending life” is presented.
The United States military began to experience a steady increase in suicide rates across all service branches at the inception of the wars in Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003). As the number of suicide deaths increased, so did the number of affected survivors who seek postvention support. Unique issues that accompany suicide death may expose survivors to a more distressing and complicated grief process. Peer support has clinically been observed to be widely utilized by suicide loss survivors. This article explores unique issues accompanying military suicide loss, potential benefits of postvention peer-based support, clinical considerations, and future directions.
Luxury goods have been shown to help individuals coping with death-related anxiety. However, the extent to which the symbolic value allocated to possessions (i.e., materialism) moderates this effect is still unclear. Here, we investigated the impact of materialism on impulsive approach tendencies toward luxury clothing brands in a context of mortality salience. Results showed that the impact of mortality salience was moderated by materialism with lower impulsive approach tendencies toward luxury clothing brands observed in non-materialistic participants. These findings highlight how materialism values may impact luxury consumption through impulsive pathways in a situation of death-related anxiety.
Parents who experience the death of a child are at high risk for psychopathology. Because a large percentage of pediatric deaths occur in the pediatric intensive care unit each year, a follow-up meeting between bereaved parents and intensivists could provide essential emotional support, although some parents may not attend. The aim of this study was to explore demographic and medical factors that may distinguish between bereaved parents who attend a follow-up meeting with their child’s pediatric intensivist and those who do not. Our analysis revealed that parents of children who died of trauma were less likely to attend a follow-up meeting with an intensivist. It is possible that symptoms of posttraumatic stress play a role in these findings. Enhanced efforts to identify other interventions for this specific subset of bereaved parents may be necessary.