Nous ferons d'abord dans ce chapitre un travail de précision sémantique qui apparaît nécessaire avant d'entrer dans le questionnement sur le suicide. Nous aborderons ensuite la question du rapport entre maladie grave et suicide, puis entre fin de vie et suicide et enfin entre suicide et soins palliatifs. Nous mènerons une réflexion spécifique sur le suicide à la fin de la vie des personnes âgées tant cette question doit être traitée spécifiquement.
[Extrait de l'Intro.]
Accumulating evidence suggests that a dementia diagnosis, for many, triggers feelings of grief, and often marks the first of many losses that will be experienced by both the person who has received the diagnosis and their loved ones, as the disease progresses. Previous research has also revealed that carers who report higher levels of pre-death grief are at greater risk of complicated grief after their loved one has died. Despite this evidence, appropriate bereavement support for people bereaved by dementia is a significant unmet need.
The Bereaved by Dementia project was delivered collaboratively by Cruse Cymru and Alzheimer’s Cymru to address the bereavement needs of people bereaved by dementia throughout Wales. This paper draws on an independent evaluation of the Bereaved by Dementia Project conducted by Aston University and the University of Bristol. We summarise our main findings, recommendations, and suggestions for future research.
BACKGROUND: This study examined factors associated with potentially burdensome end-of-life (EOL) transitions between care settings among older adults with advanced cancer in nursing homes (NHs).
METHODS: A retrospective analysis of deceased older NH residents with poor-prognosis solid tumors was conducted with Medicare claims and the Minimum Data Set. A potentially burdensome transition was defined as 2 or more hospitalizations or an intensive care unit admission in the last 90 days of life.
RESULTS: Among 34,670 subjects, many had moderate to severe cognitive impairment (53.8%), full dependence in activities of daily living (ADLs; 66.5%), and comorbidities such as congestive heart failure (CHF; 29.3%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (34.1%). Only 56.3% of the patients used hospice at any time in the 90 days before death; 36.0% of the patients experienced a potentially burdensome EOL transition, and this was higher among patients who did not receive hospice (45.4% vs 28.7%; P < .01). In multivariable analyses, full dependence in ADLs (odds ratio [OR], 1.70; P < .01), CHF (OR, 1.48; P < .01), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR, 1.28; P < .01) were associated with a higher risk of burdensome EOL transitions. Those with do-not-resuscitate directives (OR, 0.60; P < .01) and impaired cognition (OR, 0.89; P < .01) had lower odds of burdensome EOL transitions.
CONCLUSIONS: NH residents with advanced cancer have substantial comorbidities and functional impairment, yet more than a third experience potentially burdensome EOL transitions. These findings help to identify a population at risk for poor EOL outcomes in order to target interventions, and they point to the importance of advanced care planning in this population.
Background: Patient-reported medical status and treatment goal are measures of prognostic understanding with demonstrated relationships to important clinical and patient-reported outcomes in the general cancer population. Among older adults, relationships between these measures and other patient-reported (quality of life [QOL], symptoms, functional impairment) and clinical (hospitalization risk, survival) outcomes remains unclear.
Methods: We enrolled patients =70 with advanced gastrointestinal cancers, collecting patient-reported medical status (terminally ill vs not), treatment goal (curative vs non-curative), QOL (EORTC-Elderly Cancer Patients), symptoms (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System [ESAS]), and functional impairment (activities of daily living [ADLs]). We also obtained information about hospitalizations and survival. To explore relationships between patient-reported medical status, treatment goal, QOL, symptoms, functional impairment, hospitalizations, and survival, we used regression models adjusted for age, sex, and education.
Results: Of 103 patients, 49.5% reported terminally ill status and 64.0% a non-curative treatment goal. Terminally ill status was associated with worse QOL (EORTC illness burden: 53.59 vs 35.26, p = 0.001), higher symptom burden (ESAS: 28.15 vs 16.79, p = 0.002), more functional impairment (ADLs: 3.63 vs 5.24, p = 0.006), greater hospitalization risk (HR = 2.41, p = 0.020), and worse survival (HR = 1.93, p = 0.010). We did not find associations between patient-reported treatment goal and these outcomes.
Conclusions: In older adults with advanced cancer, report of terminally ill status was associated with other important patient-reported and clinical outcomes, suggesting disease severity may inform illness perceptions. We did not find similar associations for patient-reported treatment goal, indicating that questions related to medical status and treatment goal measure different constructs and more nuanced measures are needed.
Background: Older people in Thailand receive general medical and social care at the end of life, and many rarely access palliative services. In light of this, improving the quality of care for the ageing population relies on addressing the needs of family caregivers, who provide the majority of care in a home setting. Understanding caregivers' perspectives when caring for a friend or relative will help to improve the quality of care that they provide.
Aim: To explore caregivers' perspectives on improving care for older people in Thailand in the palliative stage.
Methods: A qualitative study using in-depth interviews and observation of 10 older people in the palliative stage and their caregivers was undertaken. Data were analysed using content analysis.
Findings: Data analysis revealed three themes: caregivers cared to repay the older person's previous kindness, caregivers cared and changed their caregiving behaviour to minimise the older person's perception of being abandoned or being a burden, and to follow Thai ancestral traditions, so that the older person could die peacefully.
Conclusion: This study provides specific instructions for those who provide care for older Thai people in the palliative stage. Finding ways to address caregivers' perspectives on improving care quality could enhance the experience of care recipients.
Background: Understanding current patterns of functional decline will inform patient care and has health service and resource implications.
Aim: This prospective consecutive cohort study aims to map the shape of functional decline trajectories at the end of life by diagnosis.
Design: Changes in functional status were measured using the Australia-modified Karnofsky Performance Status Scale. Segmented regression was used to identify time points prior to death associated with significant changes in the slope of functional decline for each diagnostic cohort. Sensitivity analyses explored the impact of severe symptoms and late referrals, age and sex.
Setting/participants: In all, 115 specialist palliative care services submit prospectively collected patient data to the national Palliative Care Outcomes Collaboration across Australia. Data on 55,954 patients who died in the care of these services between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2015 were included.
Results: Two simplified functional decline trajectories were identified in the last 4 months of life. Trajectory 1 has an almost uniform slow decline until the last 14 days of life when function declines more rapidly. Trajectory 2 has a flatter more stable trajectory with greater functional impairment at 120 days before death, followed by a more rapid decline in the last 2 weeks of life. The most rapid rate of decline occurs in the last 2 weeks of life for all cohorts.
Conclusions: Two simplified trajectories of functional decline in the last 4 months of life were identified for five patient cohorts. Both trajectories present opportunities to plan for responsive healthcare that will support patients and families.
OBJECTIVES: Evidence on associations between marital status and frailty is limited. The objectives of this study were to perform a systematic review for associations between marital status and physical frailty and to perform a meta-analysis to combine findings.
DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling older people with mean age =60 years.
METHODS: Systematic literature search using 5 databases was conducted in February 2019 to identify longitudinal and cross-sectional studies examining associations between marital status and Fried's phenotype-based frailty status. Additional studies were searched for by reviewing the reference lists of relevant articles and conducting forward citation tracking of included articles. Odds ratio (OR) of marital status and frailty was pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Subgroup analysis and analyses stratified by gender and marital status (married, widowed, divorced or separated, and never married) were completed.
RESULTS: A total of 1565 studies were found, from which 3 studies with longitudinal data and 35 studies with cross-sectional data were included. Although longitudinal studies suggested that married men had lower frailty risks than unmarried men while married women had higher frailty risks than widowed women, meta-analysis was not possible because of different methodologies. Meta-analyses of cross-sectional data from 35 studies including 80,754 individuals showed that unmarried individuals were almost twice more likely to be frail than married individuals (pooled odds ratio = 1.88, 95% confidence interval = 1.70-2.07). A high degree of heterogeneity was observed (I2 = 69%) and was partially explained by reasons for not being married and study location. Stratified analyses showed that pooled risks of frailty in the unmarried compared with the married were not statistically different between women and women (P for difference = .62).
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Three and 35 studies, respectively, were found providing longitudinal and cross-sectional data regarding associations between marital status and frailty among community-dwelling older people. A meta-analysis of cross-sectional data showed almost twice higher frailty risk in unmarried individuals compared with married individuals. Marital status should be recognized as an important factor, and more longitudinal studies controlling for potential confounding factors are needed.
Terminally ill cancer patients with limited life expectancies (LLEs) are often prescribed multiple medications to control acute symptoms associated with cancer such as dyspnoea, pain, nausea and vomiting, and anxiety. Medications are also commonly prescribed to prevent or treat other common, long-term comorbid conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia. Early identification of unnecessary preventive medications at the end of life can improve quality of life. Limited research has investigated whether preventive medications are withdrawn in patients with terminal cancer. The aim of this project was to evaluate the prevalence of preventive medication use in terminally ill cancer patients with LLE of 6 months or less.
[Début de l'article]
The prevalence of urinary incontinence increases as a person ages, as age-related changes make it more difficult to maintain continence. Long-term conditions and treatments prescribed to treat conditions, such as heart failure, can lead to an urgency to void the bladder. Frailty can make it difficult for an older person to respond this need. At end of life, mobility is often compromised and people can experience extreme fatigue. Caregivers can obtain support to manage an individual's incontinence during the day but often struggle alone at night. Caregivers can become exhausted and a situation can reach breaking point. Working with the older person and caregivers to determine the goals of care and how to meet them can make a huge difference. It can take the pressure off the entire family, meet a person's needs and enable the person to stay at home. This article aims to enable nurses to understand the problems older people may experience and how to work with the older person and caregivers to develop solutions that maintain dignity and enhance quality of life.
BACKGROUND: The length of stay in nursing homes before death in Sweden has significantly decreased, and nearly one-third of people die within 6 weeks of entering a nursing home. Support for the next of kin is one of the cornerstones of palliative care, but the principles are not always adhered to as recommended when caring for the elderly, which can affect the quality of life of their next of kin. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of quality of life among the next of kin of older persons who live in nursing homes before an educational intervention of palliative care.
METHODS: This is an explorative qualitative interview study with 40 next of kin using qualitative content analysis performed at baseline before the implementation of the principles of palliative care in nursing homes.
RESULTS: The next of kin's experiences of quality of life were expressed in three themes: Orientation to the new life situation, Challenges in their relationship and the Significance of the quality of care in the nursing home. The next of kin experienced a sense of relief, although the older person was constantly on their minds, and they could feel lonely. The difference in the couple's life situations was experienced as burdensome by the next of kin. The challenges in the relationship were described as stressful, related to a guilty conscience and the older person's vulnerability. The nursing home could be a context facilitating good relations. The perceptions of quality of care in terms of person-centredness affected the quality of life of the next of kin.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings show that four factors are decisive for the quality of life of next of kin: the relationships within the family, the degree of relief that nursing home care entails as compared to home care, the older person's health status and whether the care is person-centred. Increased knowledge and education regarding palliative care in nursing homes are needed to better meet the needs of next of kin. Implementation of palliative care should take into account the need for support for next of kin.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02708498, 15 March 2016.
PURPOSE: Although rates of hospice use have increased over time, insurance plan- and racial/ethnic-based disparities in rates have been reported in the USA. We hypothesized that increased rates of hospice use would reduce or eliminate insurance plan-based disparities and that racial/ethnic disparities would be eliminated in managed care (MC) insurance plans.
METHODS: We studied the use of hospice care in the final 30 days of life among 40,184 elderly Texas Medicare beneficiaries who died from primary breast, colorectal, lung, pancreas, or prostate cancer between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2013, using statewide Medicare claims linked to cancer registry data. Rates of hospice use were computed by race/ethnicity and insurance plan (MC or fee-for-service (FFS)). We used logistic regression to account for the impact of confounding factors.
RESULTS: Rates of hospice use increased significantly over time, from 68.9% in 2007 to 76.1% in 2013. By 2013, differences in hospice use rates between MC and FFS plans had been reduced from 10% to < 5%. However, after accounting for insurance plan and confounding factors, racial/ethnic minority beneficiaries' hospice use was significantly lower than non-Hispanic white beneficiaries' (p < 0.0001). This disparity was observed among both FFS and MC beneficiaries.
CONCLUSIONS: Hospice use in the final 30 days of life has increased among elderly cancer patients in Texas, virtually eliminating the difference between FFS and MC insurance plans. Despite these positive trends, racial/ethnic-based disparities persist. These disparities are not explained by confounding factors. Future research should address social and behavioral influences on end-of-life decisions.
BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients have significant symptom burden. Reduced provider awareness of symptoms contributes to underutilization of symptom management resources.
METHOD: We hypothesized that improved nephrologist awareness of symptoms leads to symptom improvement. In this prospective, multicenter interventional study, 53 (age >65) ESRD inpatients underwent symptom assessment using the modified Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) at admission and 1-week post-discharge. Physicians caring for the enrollees were asked if they felt their patients would die within the year, and then sequentially randomized to receive the results of the baseline survey (group 1) or to not receive the results (group 2).
RESULTS: Fifty-two patients completed the study; 1 died. Baseline characteristics were compared. For 70% of the total cohort, physicians reported that they would not be surprised if their patient died within a year. There was no difference in baseline scores of the patients between the 2 physician groups. Severity ratings were compared between in-hospital and post discharge scores and between physicians who received the results versus those that did not. Total ESAS scores improved more in group 1 (12.9) than in group 2 (9.2; p = 0.04). Among individual symptoms, there was greater improvement in pain control (p = 0.02), and nominal improvement in itching (p = 0.03) in group 1 as compared to group 2. There were 3 palliative care consults.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reinforce the high symptom burden prevalent in older ESRD patients. The improvement in total scores, and individual symptoms of pain and itching in group 1 indicates better symptom control when physician awareness is increased. Residual symptoms post hospitalization and low utilization of palliative care resources are suggestive of a missed opportunity by nephrologists to address the high symptom burden at the inpatient encounter, which is selective for sick patients and/or indication of inadequacy of dialysis to control these symptoms.
PURPOSE: To develop and pilot the DD-14 scale, a 14-indicator scale based on the Nursing Outcome Classification "Dignified life closure" (1307).
METHODS: Sixteen experts selected 14 indicators for Spanish populations. Six care home nurses piloted the scale in 50 terminal patients without cognitive impairment. Factorial and reliability analyses were performed and correlations were determined with dependency, symptomatology, and palliative care quality.
FINDINGS: DD-14 demonstrated high reliability (α = 0.916) and a stable factorial structure. It was not influenced by sex, age, or disease and correlated positively with the Barthel index (r = .622; p = .00) and negatively with the Palliative Outcome Scale (r = -.542;p = .00).
CONCLUSIONS: DD-14 is a useful scale for evaluating end-of-life dignity.
IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: This instrument could be useful in planning nursing interventions.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to summarize current best evidence for advance care planning in older adults with dementia and their families.
INTRODUCTION: Contemporary end of life care cannot be fully achieved without high quality advance care planning practice, which facilitates the expression of patient preferences for treatment if they lose the capacity to decide or communicate their wishes. However, advance care planning for people experiencing dementia can be highly complex and requires additional knowledge and skills. Improving advance care planning for this vulnerable patient group is an urgent matter.
INCLUSION CRITERIA: The review will include systematic reviews of quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies examining advance care planning for older adults with dementia and their families, published from 2000.
METHODS: Published and unpublished reviews will be identified from searches of the major international databases and relevant databases for gray literature, respectively. Two independent reviewers will conduct screening, critical appraisal and data extraction for included studies. The extracted data will include specific details about the study characteristics (e.g. setting/context, participants, and the intervention/phenomena of interest), quantitative results (including heterogeneity) and qualitative findings relevant to the review. Results of systematic reviews will be presented in tabular format and accompanied by narrative synthesis. Qualitative results will include the overall synthesis of findings. Overlap of original research studies of any design across multiple systematic reviews will be clearly identified.
Parkinson's disease and frailty are both common conditions affecting older people. Little is known regarding the association of the Clinical Frailty Scale with hospital outcomes in idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients admitted to the acute hospital. We aimed to test whether frailty status was an independent predictor of short-term mortality and other hospital outcomes in older inpatients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease.
METHOD: We conducted an observational retrospective study in a large tertiary university hospital between October 2014 and October 2016. Routinely measured patient characteristics included demographics (age and sex), Clinical Frailty Scale, acute illness severity (Emergency Department Modified Early Warning Score), the Charlson Comorbidity Index, discharge specialty, history of dementia, history of depression and the presence of a new cognitive impairment. Outcomes studied were inpatient mortality, death within 30 days of discharge, new institutionalisation, length of stay >= 7 days and readmission within 30 days to the same hospital.
RESULTS: There were 393 first admission episodes of idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients aged 75 years or more; 166 (42.2%) were female. The mean age (standard deviation) was 82.8 (5.0) years. The mean Clinical Frailty Scale was 5.9 (1.4) and the mean Charlson Comorbidity Index was 1.3 (1.5). After adjustment for covariates, frailty and acute illness severity were independent predictors of inpatient mortality; odds ratio for severely/very severely frail or terminally ill = 8.1, 95% confidence interval 1.0-63.5, p = 0.045 and odds ratio for acute illness severity: 1.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1-1.6, p = 0.005). The Clinical Frailty Scale did not significantly predict other hospital outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: The Clinical Frailty Scale was a significant predictor of inpatient mortality in idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients admitted to the acute hospital and it may be useful as a marker of risk in this vulnerable population.
Most people die when they are old, but predicting exactly when this will occur is unavoidably uncertain. The health of older people is challenged by multimorbidity, disability and frailty. Frailty is the tendency to crises or episodes of rapid deterioration. These are often functional or non-specific in nature, such as falls or delirium, and recovery is usually expected. Health-related problems can be defined in terms of distress and disability. Distress is as often mental as physical, especially for people with delirium and dementia. Problems can be addressed using the principles of supportive and palliative care, but there is rarely a simple solution. Most problems do not have a palliative drug treatment, and the propensity to adverse effects means that drugs must be used with caution. Geriatricians use a model called comprehensive geriatric assessment, including medical, functional, mental health, social and environmental dimensions, but also use a variety of other models, such as the acute medical model, person-centred care, rehabilitation, alongside palliative care. Features such as communication, family engagement and advance planning are common to them all. These approaches are often consistent with each other, but their commonalities are not always recognised. The emphasis should be on making the right decision at a given point in time, taking account of what treatment is likely to deliver benefit, treatment burden and what is wanted. Choices are often limited by what is available and feasible. Palliative care should be integrated with all medical care for frail older people.
BACKGROUND: Life-limiting illness plagues Native Americans, yet access to palliative and end-of-life care, including hospice care, is severely limited.
AIM: This study aimed to explore palliative and hospice care with Native American elders and tribal health educators on a Northern Plains reservation in the US.
METHODS: Using a community-based participatory approach, participants discussed the cultural acceptability of palliative and hospice care in their tribal community. Monthly talking circles were held over a 5-month period.
RESULTS: Opportunities were present for improving cultural awareness and advance directive education to elders. Challenges raised were related to infrastructure, tribal government and the Indian Health Service. Needs identified included cultural awareness and language education for health-care providers and advance directive education.
CONCLUSION: Community-based participatory research is useful when working with indigenous populations. Health professionals providing services to Native American communities must embrace cultural differences, seeking to learn from the culture itself how to best meet its people's needs.
BACKGROUND: Many hospitalized older adults require family surrogates to make decisions, but surrogates may perceive that the quality of medical decisions is low and may have poor psychological outcomes after the patient's hospitalization.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between communication quality and high-quality medical decisions, psychological well-being, and satisfaction for surrogates of hospitalized older adults.
DESIGN: Observational study at three hospitals in a Midwest metropolitan area.
PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalized older adults (65+ years) admitted to medicine and medical intensive care units who were unable to make medical decisions, and their family surrogates. Among 799 eligible dyads, 364 (45.6%) completed the study.
MAIN MEASURES: Communication was assessed during hospitalization using the information and emotional support subscales of the Family Inpatient Communication Survey. Decision quality was assessed with the Decisional Conflict Scale. Outcomes assessed at baseline and 4-6 weeks post-discharge included anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale-Revised), and satisfaction (Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems).
KEY RESULTS: The mean patient age was 81.9 years (SD 8.32); 62% were women, and 28% African American. Among surrogates, 67% were adult children. Six to eight weeks post-discharge, 22.6% of surrogates reported anxiety (11.3% moderate–severe anxiety); 29% reported depression, (14.0% moderate–severe), and 14.6% had high levels of post-traumatic stress. Emotional support was associated with lower odds of anxiety (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.65, 95% CI 0.50, 0.85) and depression (AOR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.65, 0.99) at follow-up. In multivariable linear regression, emotional support was associated with lower post-traumatic stress (ß = -0.30, p = 0.003) and higher decision quality (ß = -0.44, p < 0.0001). Information was associated with higher post-traumatic stress (ß = 0.23, p = 0.022) but also higher satisfaction (ß = 0.61, p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Emotional support of hospital surrogates is consistently associated with better psychological outcomes and decision quality, suggesting an opportunity to improve decision making and well-being.
Despite the increasing prevalence, growing costs, and high mortality of dementia in older adults in the U.S., little is known about the course of these diseases and what care dementia patients receive in their final years of life. Using a large volume of clinical notes of dementia patients over the last two years of life, we conducted automatic topic modeling to capture the trends of various themes mentioned in care provider notes, including patients' physical function status, mental health, falls, nutrition and feeding, infections, hospital care, intensive care, end-of-life care, and family and social supports. Our research contributes to the adoption and evaluation of an unsupervised machine learning method using large amounts of retrospective free-text electronic health record data to discover and understand illness and health care trajectories.
Background: Multimorbidity and pain are both common among older adults, yet pain treatment strategies for older patients with multimorbidity have not been well characterized.
Objectives: To assess the prevalence and relationship between multimorbidity and opioid prescribing in hospitalized older medical patients with pain.
Methods: We collected demographic, morbidity, pain, and analgesic treatment data through structured review of the electronic medical records of a consecutive sample of 238 medical patients, aged =65 years admitted between November 2014 and May 2015 with moderate-to-severe pain by numerical pain rating scale (range 4–10). We used the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G) to assess multimorbidity and cumulative illness burden. We examined the relationship between morbidity measures and opioid prescribing at hospital discharge using multivariate regression analysis.
Results: The mean age was 75 ± 8 years, 57% were female and 50% were non-White. Mean CIRS-G total score was 17 ± 6, indicating high cumulative illness burden. Ninety-nine percent of patients had multimorbidity, defined as moderate-to-extremely severe morbidity in =2 organ systems. Sixty percent of patients received an opioid prescription at discharge. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, race, and gender, patients with a discharge opioid prescription were significantly more likely to have higher cumulative illness burden and chronic pain.
Conclusion: Among older medical inpatients, multimorbidity was nearly universal, and patients with higher cumulative illness burden were more likely to receive a discharge opioid prescription. More studies of benefits and harms of analgesic treatments in older adults with multimorbidity are needed to guide clinical practice.