Quand quelqu'un meurt, cela ne s'arrête pas là. Car la mort suscite la question universelle de savoir s'il y a quelque chose après la mort. Pour ceux qui perdent un proche, il y a un au-delà du décès. Il ne suffit pas de dire que le lien avec le disparu ne se termine pas avec le décès, ni que le deuil consiste en une identification. Mais ce que j'aimerais aborder, c'est non seulement que les morts continuent à vivre avec nous, mais, plus encore, que le survivant continue à faire vivre le mort.
Je me propose d'explorer cette idée à travers un certain nombre de vignettes cliniques et d'oevures artistiques.Il ne sera pas question spécifiquement de la mort dans son rapport au handicap, dont les différents cas de figure sont déployés dans cet ouvrage : mort de l'enfant, mort des parents pour les personnes handicapées, approche de la mort pour la personne handicapée elle-même, effets sur les équipes, etc. J'évoquerai d'une manière plus générale notre rapport à la mort, ou plutôt aux morts.
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Ce chapitre montre que la question de la mort impliquant une personne en situation de handicap pose fondamentalement la question des représentations du handicap et interroge la manière dont on parvient, plus ou moins facilement, à penser le sujet en situation de handicap spécifiquement, et les enfants plus généralement, comme des êtres pensants et appréhendant, à leur manière, la réalité et/ou la perspective de la mort d'un proche et/ou celle de leur propre mort.
[Extrait de l'intro.]
This study aims to investigate the relationship between death anxiety of the Turkish nurses and their attitudes toward the dying patient. This study involved 203 nurses who were working at a university hospital. The data were collected using “Nurse Information Form” (which was prepared by the authors of this research), “Thorson-Powell Death Anxiety Scale,” and “Attitude Scale about Euthanasia, Death, and Dying Patient.” There was a positive correlation between death anxiety and dying patient avoidance behavior and euthanasia score (p < .05). The findings showed that nurses, death anxiety, and death scores were high in the loss of a close relatives (p < .05). Our findings suggest that the situation of the dying patients and their families and also nurses should be improved. Thus, special psychological education/training should be given to the nurses to deal with death anxiety and their attitude to the dying patient.
This study has been conducted with the purpose of identifying the perceptions of palliative nurses about death and determining palliative care practices. We conducted qualitative interviews with 23 palliative care nurses in Turkey. Content analysis was used in the evaluation of the data. Three themes have been identified about perception of death. Furthermore, three themes have been identified about palliative care practices. It was concluded that the palliative nurses perceive death as a natural and inevitable process and that as long as their working period increases, they become desensitized. It was identified that the participants generally perform the following procedures in palliative care practices.
This study examines the prevalence of religiosity, death anxiety, and hope in a sample of New Zealand community hospice patients in the last 6 months of life. It explores the factors triggering distress or hope and examines whether religiosity is protective against death anxiety for this population. Early studies showed religious faith helps relieve death anxiety, but later work suggests this may only be the case in societies which are generally religious. Very little research has been conducted on this topic in New Zealand, from which recent censuses indicate is an increasingly secular country. If religion is not an important source of hope for dying, it is important to explore what factors do help relieve existential anxiety and to consider their clinical relevance. This study confirmed that organized religion was not a major support factor. Yet several people who declared themselves nonreligious scored highly for intrinsic religiosity and were among the most hopeful participants. This could suggest that spirituality may be more relevant than organized religion in relieving existential distress. The main source of hope for most participants was joyful memories and meaningful relationships. Fear of being a burden and of causing family suffering were the most significant causes of distress. Systematic spiritual assessment for all patients, not just those with a declared religious faith, a biography service, and psychotherapy, may all have a role in managing death anxiety at the end of life. Further work with larger and more diverse populations would be needed to confirm these findings.
BACKGROUND: Physicians play a fundamental role in the care of patients at the end of life that includes knowing how to accompany patients, alleviate their suffering and inform them about their situation. However, in reality, doctors are part of this society that is reticent to face death and lack the proper education to manage it in their clinical practice. The objective of this study was to explore the residents' concepts of death and related aspects, their reactions and actions in situations pertaining to death in their practice, and their perceptions about existing and necessary training conditions.
METHODS: A qualitative approach was used to examine these points in depth based on interviews conducted with seven oncology residents.
RESULTS: Participants do not have a clear concept of death and, although it is seen as a common phenomenon, they consider it an enemy to beat. The situations to which respondents react more frequently with frustration and sadness after the death of patients were when they felt emotionally involved, if they identify with the patient, in cases of pediatric patients and with patients who refuse treatment. To deal with death, participants raise barriers and attempt to become insensitive. Although residents in this study recognize the importance of training to learn how to better deal with death, it seems they are not fully invested in reaching more of it.
CONCLUSIONS: Participants face death in a daily basis without the necessary training, which appears to impact them more than they are willing to accept. They do not achieve their goals managing situations regarding death as well as they assume they do. Despite recognizing the need of more training and support for better coping with death, they prefer to continue to learn from their experience.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.
This study investigates whether frequently witnessing death leads to desensitization in terms of death anxiety. A total of 163 individuals, comprising 71 doctors from branches with high death rates and 92 doctors from branches where mortality is rarely seen, participated in this study. An experiment was conducted employing a classical version of mortality salience manipulation, which is often used in terror management research, to test the study’s hypothesis. The results supported the hypothesis only with regard to altruism-egoism, providing partial support for the effect of desensitization. This subject needs to be studied further.
Despite the alarming suicide rate among South Korean emerging adults, relatively little is known about their unfettered perspectives on death and suicide. Therefore, an innovative data collection technique was developed to apprehend the meanings that emerging adults attribute to death and suicide in their explorations of the phenomena through a selection of short stories. A convenience sample (N = 114) responded to a survey in which participants transferred their feelings toward death and suicide to characters or events in the short stories. A qualitative content analysis revealed relatively permissive perspectives toward death and suicide. Negative perspectives on death are associated with societal victimization and positive perspectives with naturalistic fatalism. Positive perspectives on suicide are overwhelmingly rooted in existential, individual choices while negative perspectives focus on societal pressures. These perspectives contribute to illuminating tensions between traditionalist collectivism and contemporary individualism in Korean society that could inform suicide prevention initiatives for emerging adults.
The aim of this research is to investigate death anxiety of the people who live in Turkey and Denmark and have the same cultural background. Cross-cultural studies about death anxiety have been conducted within two different cultures. The goal is to fill the gap in the literature. In this context, participants’ self-esteem and personality traits were also investigated. Death Anxiety Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and The Big Five Inventory were used in this study. Seventy-four people from Turkey and 67 from Denmark participated in this research. According to the results, people who live in Turkey have more death anxiety. There is negative correlation between self-esteem and death anxiety. Neuroticism of the personality traits has positive correlation with death anxiety.
The way death is (not) dealt with is one of the main determinants of the current crisis of cancer care. The tendency to avoid discussions about terminal prognoses and to create unrealistic expectations of fighting death is seriously harming patients, families and healthcare professionals, and the delivery of high-quality and equitable care. Drawing on different literature sources, we explore key dimensions of the taboo of death: medical, policy, cultural. We suggest that the oncologist, from a certain moment, could take on the role of amicus mortis, a classical figure in the past times, and thus accompanying patients towards the end of their life through palliation and linking them to psychosocial and ethical/existential resources. This presupposes the implementation of Supportive Care in Cancer and the ethical idea of relational autonomy based on understanding patients' needs considering their sociocultural contexts. It is also key to encourage public conversations beyond the area of medicine to re-integrate death into life.
Many older adults have experienced the death of a significant other. Understanding their perspectives from this past experience may heighten nursing insights about the type of care they desire at the end of their lives. The aim of this secondary analysis was to describe how the death of a significant other influenced older adults’ perspectives about their end of life. Fifteen older adults residing in a continuing care retirement community participated in the primary study that explored the challenge of losing a loved one. Inductive content analysis was used to derive 4 themes to explain their perspectives about end of life: peacefully slip away—no heroics, familiarity—making plans that stick, tying up loose ends—what’s left to do, and accepting—my time is up. This study’s findings imply that nurses, with medical providers, should openly discuss with older adults their end-of-life concerns and care desired. Clinicians should receive education such as the COMFORT conversation and End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium courses. Further research should explore whether older adults may be more encouraged to formulate advance directives after the death of significant others and end-of-life issues in retirement communities. Increasing public awareness of palliative and hospice services is needed.
Although lay notions in normative ethics have previously been investigated within the framework of the dual-process interpretation of the terror management theory (TMT), meta-ethical beliefs (subjective vs. objective morality) have not been previously investigated within the same framework. In the present research, we primed mortality salience, shown to impair reasoning performance in previous studies, to see whether it inhibits subjectivist moral judgments in three separate experiments. In Experiment 3, we also investigated whether impaired reasoning performance indeed mediates the effect of mortality salience on subjectivism. The results of the three experiments consistently showed that people in the mortality salience group reported significantly less subjectivist responses than the control group, and impaired reasoning performance partially mediates it. Overall, the results are consistent with the dual-process interpretation of TMT and suggest that not only normative but also meta-ethical judgments can be explained by this model.
Purpose: Close relationships can be strained by losses related to independence, autonomy, and separation after diagnosis of severe illness. The perceived quality of their close relationships affects individuals’ psychological adaptation in this context. We explored the level of perceived relatedness and its impact on demoralization and death acceptance. We further examined a possible protective effect of perceived relatedness on the association between tumor stage and death acceptance.
Methods: For this observational study, we consecutively recruited gynecology outpatients and general surgery inpatients at the University Cancer Center Hamburg-Eppendorf and oncological inpatients at the LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Germany. At baseline, 307 patients (age M = 59.6, 69% female, 69% advanced cancer) participated. At 6- and 12-month (T3) follow-up, 213 and 153 patients responded, respectively. Patients completed self-report questionnaires including a modified version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory assessing perceived relatedness, the Life Attitude Profile-Revised assessing death acceptance, the Demoralization Scale, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale assessing symptom burden. We calculated multiple linear regression analyses controlling for demographic and disease-related factors.
Results: Participants reported a stronger perceived relatedness at baseline (M = 3.04, SE = 0.03, possible range 0–4) than at T3 (M = 2.93, SE = 0.04; p = 0.02). Perceived relatedness significantly predicted lower demoralization at T3 but did not moderate the relationship between tumor stage and demoralization. Apart from male gender, none of the predictor or moderator variables had a significant impact on death acceptance at T3.
Conclusions: The strong impact of perceived relatedness on existential distress emphasizes the importance of strengthening interpersonal relationships within psychosocial interventions.
Some end-of-life aspects have become a significant political and social issue such as elderly care and euthanasia. But hardly anything is known about how the general public in Germany thinks about death and dying more generally. Therefore, we conducted a representative online survey (N = 997) regarding 21 end-of-life aspects. Differences between subgroups were analyzed by conducting analyses of variance and Tukey honestly significance difference post hoc tests and by performing t tests. The findings revealed that the general public is open to engaging with topics of death, dying, and grief and that death education might even be promoted for children. Most participants appraised dealing with the finitude of life as part of a good life, but few have contemplated death and dying themselves so far. Attitudes and perceptions were related to age, subjective health, religious denomination, and gender. The survey provides useful implications for community palliative care, death education, and communication with dying people.
Stress is a commonly reported concern of individuals with chronical diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). This study sought to investigate the relationships between self-transcendence, death anxiety, and perceived stress among individuals with MS from Iran. A second aim of the study was to assess the buffering effect of self-transcendence in the relationship between death anxiety and perceived stress. Two hundred and fifteen participants with MS from four hospitals completed measures assessing self-transcendence, death anxiety, and perceived stress. Using structural equation modeling, death anxiety was found to be positively related to perceived stress. In addition, there was a negative relationship between self-transcendence and perceived stress. Results of the study suggest that self-transcendence is a buffer in the link between death anxiety and perceived stress for individuals with MS. The findings demonstrate the importance of self-transcendence in decreasing the effects of death anxiety on perceived stress and have clinical implications for health professionals.
The study examined the influence of training on first-year nursing department students’ attitudes on death and caring for dying patients. Utilizing the experimental model, the study sample consisted of 81 first-year students attending the nursing department of a university. Death Attitude Profile-Revised and Frommelt Attitude toward Care of the Dying Scale were used for data collection. Data analysis included means, standard deviation, and t test for related samples. Student attitudes toward death were measured as 146.43 (16.741) and 152.75 (15.132) for pre- and posttraining, respectively. Student attitudes toward caring for dying patients were established to be 103.02 (7.655) during pretraining period and 111.02 (10.359) at posttraining period. The difference between pre- and posttests for mean attitudes toward death and caring for the dying patient was statistically significant. Study results determined that training was effective in forming positive student attitudes toward death and caring for dying patients.
The study investigated the traumatic impact of the Dana 2012 plane crash in Lagos, Nigeria. Using a cross-sectional survey, the roles of quality of life (QoL) and impact of event were examined against death anxiety of the proximate inhabitants of the crash site. Result showed significant influence of QoL on death anxiety, with higher QoL participants manifesting higher levels of death anxiety. However, impact of the crash event and demographic indicators such as age, sex, pilot preference, and belief-in-life after death did not influence death anxiety of participants. It can be concluded from these results that the perception of higher QoL has a profound influence on death anxiety of people reminiscing mortality reminders no matter their age, sex, beliefs, and life preferences. It is recommended that anxious death-related experiences be prevented in all spheres of life in pursuit of safety and sound mental health of the people.
Le moment de la mort est symbolisé par le spectre squelettique de la MORT avec sa faux et son sablier. Le sablier dans la main de la MORT indique que l’heure ne sonne pas avant que la Destinée n’ait été complètement accomplie selon des lois invariables. Le squelette représente la partie du corps relativement durable. La faux rappelle que la partie permanente sur le point d’être moissonnée par l’ESPRIT est la récolte de la vie qui se termine et se traduit par l’expression :
"Ce qu’un homme sème, il le moissonnera."
C’est la loi de cause à effet qui régit toute chose dans tous les domaines de la Nature, physique, mentale, morale.
Un livre audacieux qui ose parler de la mort sans tabous.
La mort, on n’en veut rien savoir, ou le moins possible ! Tête dans le sable, oreilles bouchées, position de fuite immédiate dès que le sujet est levé. Or il faut bien, tout au long de notre vie, oser la regarder. Qu’on le veuille ou non, elle s’impose à nous à travers les pertes, les deuils, et en vieillissant avec la perspective de sa propre disparition.
Paule Giron relève le défi. Avec son regard aigu et sa plume acérée – sans se départir de son humour – elle nous entraîne dans une exploration de nos attitudes face à la mort : du déni à la peur de disparaître ; de l’espoir d’un au-delà au rationalisme « scientifique »…
Sans complaisance et avec lucidité, elle évoque le temps de la douleur, le temps du souvenir, le temps de l’attente avant la mort… Autant de moments où sont mobilisées en nous forces et faiblesses contradictoires, qu’il s’agisse de ceux que l’on aime ou de nous-même.
[Extrait résumé éditeur]
Le Catalogue de la mort est une exploration décomplexée de la dernière grande étape de notre existence : la mort. Dans cet ouvrage à la fois drôle et érudit, Bunpei Yorifuji aborde tous les aspects imaginables du « passage vers l’au-delà » : où meurt-on le plus ? De quelles causes ? Qui vit le plus longtemps ? Quelles sont les cultures où l’on craint le plus la mort et comment la représentent-ils ? Quelles sont les meilleures (et pires) façons de mourir ? Bref : qu’est-ce que la mort ?
À cette interrogation naïve, l’auteur répond comme à son habitude en texte et en image, mêlant dessins humoristiques, anecdotes et recherches approfondies. Fort d’une culture japonaise où ce sujet est appréhendé sans tabou, Bunpei Yorifuji s’adresse dans cet ouvrage autant aux adultes qu’aux plus jeunes. Un livre à mettre entre les mains de toutes celles et ceux qui cherchent à aborder avec finesse et humour le thème de la mort.