BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with an uncertain trajectory, which challenges prognostication and means that most patients are not involved in advance care planning and do not receive palliative and end-of-life care.
AIM: To understand the preferences of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for discussions about palliative and advance care planning with clinicians.
DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Data analysis was guided by principles of interpretative phenomenological analysis, of which symbolic interactionism and interpretation principles were employed throughout.
SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 33 British patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at different stages of their disease trajectory were recruited.
RESULTS: Patients preferred to discuss palliative care with clinicians they perceived had greater levels of competency and authority in care and with whom they had an established relationship, usually a specialist. Patients favoured large amounts of information about treatments and care, but reported a lack of illness-related information and problems accessing appointments with clinicians. Consequently, patients deferred discussions to the future, usually once their condition had deteriorated significantly or planned to wait for clinicians to initiate conversations. This was not rooted in patient preferences, but related to clinicians' lack of time, absence of an established relationship and belief that appointments were for managing current symptoms, exacerbations and disease factors rather than future care and preferences.
CONCLUSION: Different perceptions, competing priorities and service rationing inhibit patients from initiating early discussions with clinicians, so palliative care conversations should be initiated by respiratory-expert clinicians who know the patient well. After a sudden deterioration in the patient's condition may be a suitable time.
BACKGROUND: A previous study found that care provided by a nurse practitioner (NP) during oncological or palliative care was highly regarded. These patients, however, were considered a special population due to suffering from life-threatening illnesses. It remains unclear whether the results are transferable to patients with chronic conditions. Patient's perceptions of the quality of NP care have reflected that it equals or exceeds that of physicians, but the root causes of these remarks remain unclear.
PURPOSE: To describe the difference in perception of NP care by patients suffering from chronic heart failure (CHF) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in contrast with NP oncological or palliative care.
METHODOLOGICAL ORIENTATION: A qualitative study from a phenomenological perspective was conducted. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi's seven-step method and the Metaphor Identification Procedure.
SAMPLE: In 2018 and 2019, 16 outpatients receiving CHF or IBD care were interviewed.
CONCLUSIONS: Although chronic and life-threatening diseases may differentiate patients' perspectives, it can be generally stated that patients value NPs to be reliable, helpful, and empathic. Patients feel empowered, at peace and in control thanks to integrated care by dedicated experts.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Outpatients highly appreciate the "communicator role" and "skilled companionship" performed by NPs, to fulfill their needs for attention to the "complete picture." Therefore, further consideration of these competencies is recommended.
OBJECTIVES: Family carers (FCs) of nursing home (NH) residents are best placed to notice deteriorations that signal impending death in their relative, which can open a conversation with healthcare professionals (HCPs) about adjusting the care plan. We explored contributors to bereaved FCs' decision to transition towards palliative-oriented care for their relatives in NHs.
METHODS: This qualitative descriptive study used a phenomenological design. Thirty-two bereaved FCs across 13 Italian NHs completed semi-structured interviews. Additional data were collected on NH referrals to palliative care services (PCS) in the 6 months before study start and treatments provided in the last week of life. Content analysis with a combined inductive and deductive approach was applied to identify codes and fit them into an a priori framework. When codes did not fit, they were grouped into new categories, which were finally gathered into themes.
RESULTS: FCs reported four types of "trigger events" that made them doubt that their relative would recover: (1) physical deterioration (e.g., stopping eating/walking or swallowing problems); (2) social confirmation (e.g., confirming their relative's condition with friends); (3) multiple hospitalizations; and (4) external indicators (e.g., medical examinations by external consultants). A "resident-centered environment" helped FCs recognize trigger events and "raise awareness of the possibility of death"; however, the "need for reassurance" was pivotal to a "gradual transition towards palliative-oriented care". When participants did not recognize the trigger event, their relative continued to receive curative-oriented care. NHs that referred residents to PCS discussed palliative-oriented care more frequently with FCs, had a lower nurse-to-resident and nurse aide-to-resident ratio, and administered more palliative-oriented care.
SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: Trigger events represent an opportunity to discuss residents' prognosis and are the starting point for a gradual transition towards palliative-oriented care. Adequate staffing, teamwork, and communication between FCs and healthcare professionals contribute to a sensitive, timely shift in care goals.
BACKGROUND: Palliative care is increasingly becoming an accepted treatment choice for many individuals diagnosed with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Yet, its utilisation is non-existent in many lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study explored the perceptions of individuals with ESKD and their informal caregivers on palliative care as a treatment option for the disease in Ghana.
METHODS: This was a phenomenological study, with an in-depth analysis of data collected from nine individuals with ESKD and six informal caregivers through individual, face-to-face semi-structured interviews. The study was conducted in two renal centres within the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana among individuals with ESKD seeking care from both renal centres and their informal caregivers.
RESULTS: Three main themes were derived from this study - motivation for initiating haemodialysis, facing realities of haemodialysis, and considering palliative care. Participants felt that haemodialysis (HD) was not meeting their health expectations and demonstrated a general willingness to utilise palliative care if it would reduce suffering.
CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that individuals with ESKD or their informal caregivers would consider palliative care services, if available. It paves the way for discussions about palliative care for ESKD to begin across renal centres within Ghana and other similar settings. Exploring perspectives of clinicians in such settings could inform strategies on how to implement palliative care for ESKD management in such settings.
Background: While the impact of family caregiving has been well-documented, many of such studies center on investigating external factors such as socioeconomic status, accessibility to resources and availability of social support as the primary causation of caregiver wellbeing outcomes. This paper explores the motivations that drive family caregivers in supporting their family members at the end-of-life, and critically examines how internal appraisal processes of such motivations can both positively and negatively impact their wellbeing.
Methods: This study adopted an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) to investigate the motivations and internal appraisal processes of Asian family caregivers in Singapore who were tending to a dying family member. Qualitative dyadic interview data (N = 20) was drawn from a larger Randomized Controlled Trial for a novel Family Dignity Intervention (FDI) for palliative care patients and their families. The sampling population consisted of participants aged 21 and above who were identified to be the primary caregivers of older palliative care patients with a prognosis of less than 12 months. Data collection was conducted in the homes of patients and family caregivers.
Results: Findings revealed six themes that could either nurture or diminish caregiver wellbeing: 1) Honoring Fidelity (caregivers were motivated to commit to their caregiving roles in order to avoid regret), 2) Alleviating Suffering (caregivers were motivated to relieve their family member’s pain), 3) Enduring Attachment (caregivers were motivated to spend time together with their family member), 4) Preserving Gratitude (caregivers were motivated to express their appreciation to their family member by caregiving), 5) Navigating Change (caregivers were motivated to adapt accordingly to changes in the illness trajectory) and 6) Reconciling with Mortality (caregivers were motivated to respond accordingly to their family member’s prognosis). The final theme of the Wellbeing Determinant is posited as an indication of self-determination, and is conjectured to influence how caregiving motivations are appraised by the caregiver.
Conclusion: Fulfilling and enhancing one’s sense of self-determination appears central to infusing one’s caregiving motivations with positive meaning, and consequently nurturing one’s wellbeing in the end-of-life caregiving journey. These findings are discussed with recommendations for healthcare professionals working with family caregivers of palliative care patients.
Research results suggest that illness can undermine patients' dignity and that dignity can be understood as an experience formed in communion with others. The aim of this study was, therefore, to illuminate the meanings of lived experiences of dignity as an intersubjective phenomenon from the perspective of dyads in palliative care. The authors analyzed transcripts from interviews with nine dyads using a phenomenological-hermeneutical method. Within the contexts of the dyadic relationship and the dyadic-health care professional relationship, the authors' interpretation revealed two meanings based on the participants' lived experiences: "Being available," related to responding and being responded to in terms of answerability and we-ness, and "Upholding continuity," linked to feeling attached through the maintenance of emotional bonds and being connected through upholding valued activities and qualities in daily living. The authors further reflected on the meanings in relation to philosophically grounded concepts such as presence, objectification, dependence, and dyadic body.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the psychosocial well-being of the recently bereaved spouses who took care of their partners with cancer.
Method: A qualitative study was developed, taking a phenomenological approach. Eleven former caregivers and spouses of patients who died of cancer at, or after, the age of 64, participated in individual in-depth interviews. Only caregivers who were bereaved for a minimum of three months and maximum of one year were interviewed. The analysis of the data was based on the Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven.
Results: The first moments of bereavement included feelings of disbelief, regret and relief. A feeling of being overwhelmed during this time was reported by some, others sought distraction from their grief. Loneliness, emotional fluctuations and a sense of appreciation for the support of loved ones were dominant themes. Also, gratitude and the importance of consolation played a role in the participants' well-being. When participants addressed the matter of moving forward in life, most explained how they wanted to keep the memories of their partner alive while rebuilding their lives.
Conclusions: The present study offers insight into the experiences of the bereaved spousal caregiver and highlights the need of social support during the bereavement period. All participants expressed loss-oriented and restoration-oriented coping strategies. Also, loneliness is considered a dominant feeling throughout the bereavement period. Social contact can ease these feelings of loneliness through providing either distraction or possibilities to share the burden. This paper emphasized the importance of improving access to healthcare professionals during bereavement.
Introduction: Patients with cervical cancer in the early period of diagnosis (0–3 months) often show denial, thus leaving the patient less cooperative with the treatment plan.
Objective: This study aims to identity the acceptance response whose diagnosed cervical cancer.
Method: This study is qualitative research study with phenomenological approach. Sampling was conducted by purposive sampling with a sample size of 12 participants. Data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews. Thematic analysis was performed using Collaizi steps.
Result: The themes that emerged were formulated based on the participants’ answers to interview questions and field notes during the interview process. This research produces 7 (seven) themes: responsibility, efforts to seek treatment, support, source of information, commitment, obstacles, and hope.
Conclusion: The emotional stability of cervical cancer patients was fluctuated and the feelings of loss occurred repeatedly even after reaching the acceptance state. Good self-adjustment enhance respondent's acceptance of their disease and bringing new hope for their life, so cervical cancer patients will have a positive expectation in his life. The role of health workers is important in the adjustment of early-diagnosed patients with cervical cancer by providing health education and consultation services related to the condition of the illness.
Background: An essential component of palliative care (PC) is providing psychological and existential support to the family caregivers. However, there is scant research on the existential journeys of family caregivers throughout the disease trajectory and beyond.
Objective: This study aimed to obtain a deep understanding of the existential journeys of family caregivers from prognosis notification until after the death.
Setting/Participants: A purposive sample of 22 caregivers of terminally ill family members who had died was recruited at a PC bereavement program in Canada and participated to qualitative phenomenological interviews.
Data Collection: Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze the data derived from in-depth interviews.
Results: The participants' existential journeys can be described by three dynamic dimensions: (1) from avoidance to integration of death, (2) from meaninglessness to meaningfulness, and (3) from transformation to transmission. The findings highlight the importance to family caregivers of having opportunities to share their experiences as a way to progress on the existential journey.
Conclusions: PC should extend beyond the death of the loved one and expand to include existential aspects of the caregiving experience.
Background: Adolescents with brain stem dysfunction may undergo many invasive treatments, and parents are often faced with making the decision to withdraw treatment. However, in the face of their child's death, the spiritual practices of parents dealing with end-of-life decision-making remain under investigated.
Purpose: This study explores the spiritual practices in parents making end-of-life decisions for adolescents on life support with brain stem dysfunction.
Method: A descriptive phenomenological study was conducted through in-depth interviews with three parents of two adolescents in Taiwan. Data were analysed using Colaizzi's seven-step protocol.
Results: Three main themes emerged: (1) faith during decision-making, (2) struggles during decision-making, (3) transformation during decision-making. The findings indicate that "transforming the nature of hope" is the essence of the experience.
Conclusion: Family-centred care, gaining insight into parental spiritual practices, and developing culturally-appropriate care are recommended.
BACKGROUND: Despite a broad consensus and recommendations, numerous international reports or studies have shown the difficulties of implementing palliative care within healthcare services. The objective of this study was to understand the palliative approach of registered nurses in hospital medical and surgical care units and their use of mobile palliative care teams.
METHODS: Qualitative study using individual in depth semi-structured interviews and focus group of registered nurses. Data were analyzed using a semiopragmatic phenomenological analysis. Expert nurses of mobile palliative care team carried out this study. 20 registered nurses from three different hospitals in France agreed to participate.
RESULTS: Nurses recognize their role as being witnesses to the patient's experience through their constant presence. This is in line with their professional values and gives them an "alert role" that can anticipate a patient-centered palliative approach. The physician's positioning on palliative care plays a key role in its implementation. The lack of recognition of the individual role of the nurse leads to a questioning of her/his professional values, causing inappropriate behavior and distress. According to nurses, "rethinking care within a team environment" allows for the anticipation of a patient-centered palliative approach. Mobile Palliative Care Team highlights the major role of physicians-nurses "balance" while providing personal and professional support.
CONCLUSIONS: The Physician's positioning and attitude toward palliative approach sets the tone for its early implementation and determines the behavior of different staff members within healthcare service. "Recognition at work", specifically "recognition of the individual role of nurse" is an essential concept for understanding what causes the delay in the implementation of a palliative approach. Interprofessional training (physicians and nurses) could optimize sharing expertise. Registered nurses consider MPCT as a "facilitating intermediary" within the healthcare service improving communication. Restoring a balance in sharing care and decision between physicians and other caregivers lead care teams to an anticipated and patient-centered palliative approach according to guidelines.
Death in America is changing from hospital to home, which demands complex skills by family caregivers. However, information from family members about the challenges of providing home hospice care until death is scant. To understand the challenges a family caregiver confronts when he/she decides to deliver hospice care and during the actual delivery of the hospice care, we used descriptive phenomenology methods to document the experience of 18 family caregivers as they delivered home hospice care. We learned the decision to begin home hospice was made by a physician, followed frequently by family resistance and refusal to assist. Family caregiver burden is enormous, compounded by fatigue, sleeplessness, and confusion on issues such as morphine dosage and administration. The stages and process of dying, such as transition, baffled family caregivers. All family caregivers agree financial and emotion support, empathic advocacy, and affirmation of their worth are needed to sustain them to care for the dying. The peacefulness following offering a home death comes at a high price to family caregivers. Evidence is needed from a randomized controlled trial as to effectiveness of advocacy support for family caregivers to increase their resiliency and higher probability of a good death for the dying.
Introduction: Motor neuron disease (MND) is a progressive neuromuscular disorder that can have significant and debilitating impact on the affected patient and families. Spouses are the primary carers for persons with MND in India, and the life of the person with MND and their spouse is never the same after the diagnosis.
Aim: The objective was to explore the lived experience of spouses of persons diagnosed with MND.
Methods: A qualitative exploratory study with three-point interviews was conducted with spouse caregivers of two persons diagnosed with MND who were receiving treatment from a national tertiary referral care center for neurological disorders. All the patients were diagnosed as definite MND according to the modified El Escorial criteria. With the spouses, in-depth interviews were conducted at their home, lasting on an average of 1 hour using a semi-structured interview guide (prompts). Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to derive themes from the interviews.
Results: The major themes emerged from the analysis were meaning of MND which contained the subthemes of delay in diagnosis and deterioration, psychological response across illness trajectory, relationship with the subthemes of changing roles in being acarer, marital relationship, to be seen as doing "right," and communication; adaptation with the subthemes of coping strategies and support system and life without the loved one.
Conclusion: The changes in the lives of spouses and in strategies for caring the partner with deterioration of symptoms in the illness trajectory are explained in this study. The palliative approach in the management of MND has to take into account, the experiences and needs of carers since care happens at home.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study explores everyday life experience of relatives of people with ALS living at home with mechanical ventilation and formal caregivers.
BACKGROUND: ALS is a rapidly progressive disease affecting not only the patient but also close relatives. A burden is placed on relatives affecting their mental and physical health in settings where they provide care. Few studies have examined the everyday life challenges of close relatives with formal caregivers at home and home mechanical ventilation, which often prolongs survival.
DESIGN: We undertook a qualitative study with a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur. Eleven close relatives were interviewed and the three-level analysis method developed by Dreyer and Pedersen was conducted. The Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research checklist was used.
RESULTS: Four themes were derived from the data during analysis: Vulnerable relatives fighting to keep track of everything, Formal caregivers - a distressing relief, A prison without personal space, and We are in this together until the end.
CONCLUSIONS: Close relatives of persons with ALS are burdened with everyday life challenges despite having formal caregivers at home, and they feel imprisoned. Despite these challenges and concerns about the end of life of their relative, they stay until the end.
RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: There is clearly a need to investigate interventions in clinical practice supporting close relatives to prepare them for what to expect during a prolonged disease course.
Background: Palliative care is in its infancy in most of the developing world. We set out to explore the lived experiences of families and caregivers of recently deceased cancer patients in Trinidad and Tobago and to determine the unmet needs of the patients and what recommendations could be derived to improve the current services.
Methods: A phenomenological approach with purposeful sampling was used. Participants were referred by key health professionals. Face-to-face interviews were conducted. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, with analysis and data collection occurring concurrently. Thematic content analysis was used to determine common domains, themes and sub-themes.
Results: Interviews were completed with 15 caregivers. All were spouses or children of the deceased. Ages of the deceased ranged from 43 to 93, the average being 65.5 years. The deceased experienced a variety of cancers including lung, colorectal and oesophageal.
Unmet needs were identified under 4 domains of institutions, community, the family unit and the wider society. Institutional unmet needs were delayed diagnosis and treatment and poor inter-institution coordination. Medical and nursing care failed in the areas of health care providers’ attitudes, pain management and communication. The family unit lacked physical and psychosocial support for the caregiver and financial aid for the family unit. Societal needs were for public education to address myths and cultural beliefs around cancer.
Conclusion: There is need for systemic interventions to improve the care of those dying from cancer in Trinidad and Tobago. Stakeholders need to commit to palliative care as a public health priority, implementing education, planning services and mobilizing community resources.
Aim and objectives: The aim of this study was to explore family caregivers’ experiences with palliative care for a close family member with severe dementia in long-term care facilities.
Background: Dementia not only affects individuals but also affects and changes the lives of close family members. An increasing number of dementia-related deaths occur in long-term care facilities; therefore, it is critical to understand how healthcare professionals support and care for residents with dementia and their families at the end of life.
Design: A qualitative design with a phenomenological approach was adopted.
Methods: In-depth interviews were performed with 10 family caregivers of residents in 3 Norwegian long-term care facilities.
Results: The family caregivers’ experiences with palliative care for a close family member with severe dementia in long-term care facilities were characterized by responsibility and guilt. Admission to a long-term care facility became a painful relief for the family caregivers due to their experiences with the poor quality of palliative care provided. The lack of meaningful activities and unsatisfactory pain relief enhanced the feelings of responsibility and guilt among the family caregivers. Despite the feelings of insecurity regarding the treatment and care given during the early phase of the stay, the family caregivers observed that their close family member received high-quality palliative care during the terminal phase. The family caregivers wanted to be involved in the care and treatment, but some felt that it became a heavy responsibility to participate in ethical decision-making concerning life-prolonging treatment.
Conclusions: The family caregivers experienced ongoing responsibility for their close family members due to painful experiences with the poor quality of the palliative care provided. When their expectations regarding the quality of care were not met, the palliative care that was offered increased their feeling of guilt in an already high-pressure situation characterized by mistrust.
BACKGROUND: Compassion fatigue refers to the emotional and physical exhaustion felt by professionals in caring roles, whereas compassion satisfaction encompasses the positive aspects of helping others. Levels of compassion satisfaction and fatigue have been found to be inconsistent in palliative care professionals, which could have serious implications for patients, professionals and organisations.
OBJECTIVES: This study explored the experiences of clinical psychologists working in palliative care, all worked with adults with cancer, to gain an understanding of the impact this work has on their self and how they manage this.
METHODS: A qualitative approach was taken, using semi-structured interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis.
RESULTS: Three superordinate themes were identified: commitment, existential impact on the self and the oracle. The participants' experiences were characterised by the relationship between themselves and their patients, the influence of working in palliative services on their world view and the impact of organisational changes. Differences between working as a clinical psychologist in palliative care versus non-palliative settings were considered.
CONCLUSIONS: Professionals working in palliative care should be supported to reflect on their experiences of compassion and resilience, and services should provide resources that facilitate staff to practice positive self-care to maintain their well-being.
Background: Malnutrition is a problem in advanced cancer, particularly ovarian cancer where malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) is a frequent complication. Parenteral nutrition is the only way these patients can received adequate nutrition and is a principal indication for palliative home parenteral nutrition (HPN). Giving HPN is contentious as it may increase the burden on patients. This study investigates patients’ and family caregivers’ experiences of HPN, alongside nutritional status and survival in patients with ovarian cancer and MBO.
Methods: This mixed methods study collected data on participant characteristics, clinical details and body composition using computed tomography (CT) combined with longitudinal in-depth interviews underpinned by phenomenological principles. The cohort comprised 38 women with ovarian cancer and inoperable MBO admitted (10/2016 to 12/ 2017) to a tertiary referral hospital. Longitudinal interviews (n = 57) were carried out with 20 women considered for HPN and 13 of their family caregivers.
Results: Of the 38 women, 32 received parenteral nutrition (PN) in hospital and 17 were discharged on HPN. Nutritional status was poor with 31 of 33 women who had a CT scan having low muscle mass, although 10 were obese. Median overall survival from admission with MBO for all 38 women was 70 days (range 8–506) and for those 17 on HPN was 156 days (range 46–506).
Women experienced HPN as one facet of their illness, but viewed it as a “lifeline” that allowed them to live outside hospital. Nevertheless, HPN treatment came with losses including erosion of normality through an impact on activities of daily living and dealing with the bureaucracy surrounding the process. Family caregivers coped but were often left in an emotionally vulnerable state.
Conclusions: Women and family caregivers reported that the inconvenience and disruption caused by HPN was worth the extended time they had at home.
BACKGROUND: This study considers the specific context of the end of life, in particular the agony phase, and the experience of sharing the body observation competence with the relatives of dying patients, in order to consider the effect of such psychological intervention.
METHODS: The research was conducted in two phases: during the pre-exitus period (days or hours before the death of the patient) six relatives received some information .on the phenomenology of agony; during the post-exitus, they participated in semi-structured interviews, which were audio-recorded and transcribed with the purpose of extracting relevant aspects of their experience with their terminally-ill relative. The Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to cluster the emerged experiences by thematic analysis, which was performed using the Atlas.ti 7 software.
RESULTS: The relatives' verbatim representation is clustered in three areas of thematic prevalence: context and choice of the hospice, phenomenology of agony and psychological support. The first area shows how essential the choice of the hospice was for the patient. Even if the hospice is perceived as a place of death, it allows to manage the pain and simultaneously relieves the caregiver's burden. The second area describes the process of perception of body changes during agony. Finally, the third area outlines how giving elements to recognise the progression of the dying body and suggestions on the functional behaviour around the agonising patient may fill the cultural lack of practical experience regarding dying.
CONCLUSIONS: The results require further investigation, starting from the positive feedback on the efficacy of a specific support model called "human protocol".
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of the ageing population worldwide is at risk of becoming frail and incapacitated. This has the potential to impact not only on the well-being of individuals but also on the sustainability of healthcare systems.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the views and experiences of frailty from the perspective of primary care professionals, including nurses, who work directly with older people within the community.
METHODS: A qualitative approach with a descriptive phenomenological methodology was used, which focused on exploration of primary care professionals' current experiences of early detection and prevention of the onset of frailty. Four multi-professional focus groups were held with a total of thirty-three primary care professionals who worked with older people as part of their daily role. Participants included district nurses, general practitioners, home care workers, physiotherapists and social workers.
RESULTS: Professional views encompassed typical patterns of ageing, loneliness, presence of comorbidity, disability and end of life, with social conditions prevalent in most frailty they encountered. Three main themes emerged: the psychosocial nature of frailty, late detection of frailty and barriers to the feasibility of prevention. Physical frailty was considered a constituent part of ageing, which recognised the presence of a skills gap related to the detection of the early signs of frailty. Present health and social care systems are not designed to prevent frailty, and the competencies required by health and social care professionals are not usually included as part of their training curricula. This may hinder opportunities to intervene to prevent associated decline in ability of older adults.
CONCLUSIONS: To enhance the early assessment of frailty and the planning of preventive multi-factorial interventions in primary care and community settings, training and effective detection strategies should be incorporated into the role and daily care activities of primary care professionals.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Using a multidimensional assessment instrument can help primary care professionals to identify older people who are frail or may become frail. In order to be able to carry out this properly strong inter-professional collaboration is needed. In addition, interventions aimed at preventing frailty or adverse outcomes of frailty should be tailor-made and thus should meet the needs and wishes of an older person.