Les décès sont potentiellement fréquents à l’hôpital et notamment en gériatrie. Les internes en médecine se déclarent en difficulté pour assurer un accompagnement médical de qualité dans les situations de fin de vie. Afin de les soutenir dans leur formation clinique nous rapportons l’expérience d’ateliers d’expression mensuels, neutres, confidentiels pour leur permettre d’adapter leur pratique et prévenir les risques psychosociaux inhérents à la confrontation avec la mort.
Cet ouvrage se compose d'une cinquantaine de fiches thématiques sur les soins palliatifs afin d'accompagner de façon expérimentée la fin de vie des patients : les principes éthiques, les acteurs, le temps, les moyens, l'expérience pour le patient et pour les équipes, les dispositifs singuliers, entre autres.
Cet ouvrage est à destination des étudiants qui passeront l'ECN de 2021 à 2023. il reprend le programme de l'UE 5 ainsi que les items concernés de des UE 3, 4, 9 et 10 avec, pour chaque thème, les notions importantes, des conseils, des références bibliographiques et les pièges à éviter.
INTRODUCTION: Patient demographics demand physicians who are competent in and embrace palliative care as part of their professional identity. Published literature describes ways that learners acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes for palliative care. These studies are, however, limited by their focus on the individual where learning is about acquisition. Viewing learning as a process of becoming through the interplay of individual, social relationships and cultures, offers a novel perspective from which to explore the affordances for professional identity development.
METHODS: Qualitative narrative methods were used to explore 45 narratives of memorable learning (NMLs) for palliative care recounted by 14 graduating family medicine residents in one family medicine residency program. Thematic and narrative analyses identified the affordances that support and constrain the dynamic emergence of professional identity.
RESULTS: Participants recounted affordances that supported and/or constrained their learning acting on personal (e.g. past experiences of death), interpersonal (e.g. professional support) and systemic (e.g. patient continuity) levels. Opportunities for developing professional identity were dynamic: factors acted in harmony, were misaligned, or colliding to support or constrain an emerging professional identity for palliative care practice.
CONCLUSION: Findings highlight how individual factors interplay with interpersonal and structural conditions in the workplace in dynamic and emergent ways that may support or constrain the emergence of professional identity. Viewing learning as a process of becoming allows teachers, curriculum developers and administrators to appreciate the complexity and importance of the interplay between the individual and the workplace affordances to create environments that nurture professional identity for palliative care practice.
Background: Traumatic events are sudden, unexpected, and often devastating. The delivery of difficult news to patients and families in the trauma setting has unique challenges that necessitate communication skills that may differ from those used in other clinical environments.
Objective: Design and implement a novel curriculum to teach, assess, and provide feedback to trauma residents on the communication skills necessary for delivering difficult news to patients and families in the trauma setting.
Methods: This communication curriculum was delivered in three separate phases: (1) didactics using a video education e-module, (2) simulated practice of trauma resuscitation with a high-fidelity mannequin followed by role play of delivering difficult news, (3) an observed skills assessment using standardized patients (SPs). Each phase focused on delivery of difficult news of death and of uncertain/poor prognosis after a resuscitation in the trauma bay. Learners were trauma residents that included postgraduate year (PGY) 1-2 general surgery residents and PGY 1-4 emergency medicine residents at a level 1 trauma center. Outcomes include resident comfort, knowledge, and confidence in delivering difficult news in the trauma setting.
Results: Thirty-nine trauma residents participated in the three-phase curriculum. There was an increase in the mean scores of resident-reported comfort, knowledge, and confidence in delivering difficult news for the seriously injured. SPs rated 78% of residents as competent to perform delivery of difficult news in the trauma bay independently.
Conclusions: A curriculum to teach and assess trauma residents in the skills necessary to deliver difficult news in the trauma setting is both feasible and effective.
Objectives: In an ageing society, community-based medical education in a home care setting needs to be developed. Drawing on Kolb's experiential learning theory, this study aimed to explore the learning processes in overnight home care by medical trainees in terms of their understanding of terminally ill patients and their conceptualization of themselves as future physicians.
Methods: An overnight home care program in which a trainee had to take care of terminally ill patients on his/her own under the supervision of a healthcare team was conducted. Nineteen trainees, including eight medical students and 11 residents, participated in this study. Text data of reflective reports written after the overnight care were collected and thematically analyzed.
Results: The trainees' learning experiences in the program were categorized into four stages: predeparture, concrete experience, reflective observation and abstract conceptualization. Although they had mixed feelings, including anxiety, fear and expectations, at the predeparture stage, they could be actively involved in providing medical care and daily life support and in taking care of dying patients at the patients' homes overnight. By reflecting on their experiences, they gained a sense of achievement and identified the aspects upon which they should improve as future physicians. Subsequently, based on their reflective observation, they conceptualized their approaches to home care and the roles/responsibilities of physicians as healers, which led to professional identity formation.
Conclusions: Overnight home care by medical trainees has the potential as an educational strategy to promote their realistic understanding of home care and facilitate professional identity formation.
BACKGROUND: End-of-life discussions are associated with improved quality of care for patients. In the UK, the General Medical Council outlines a requirement for medical graduates to involve patients and their families in discussions on their care at the end-of-life. However medical students feel ill-equipped to conduct these discussions.
METHODS: In 2018, Sheffield Medical School introduced a small group role-play session on end-of-life discussions for all final year medical students. Scenarios were devised to improve confidence in the following learning domains: communicating prognosis with patients and family; ascertaining patient's goals, values and preferred place of death; discussing escalation of treatment, discussing do not attempt resuscitation orders, care in the dying phase of illness and pre-emptive prescribing. Evaluation was conducted over 16 weeks with a before and after questionnaire. Students rated their confidence in the above learning domains on a Likert-style scale and explained their ratings in free-text boxes.
RESULTS: There was a 76% response rate to the questionnaire and analysis showed statistically significant improvements in confidence across all learning domains following the session. Qualitative analysis of free-text responses showed that prior to the sessions, students expressed low confidence due to lack of experience and fear of upsetting patients. After the session students felt they had gained skills but expressed persistent anxiety and a desire for further practice.
CONCLUSIONS: Our innovation suggests that the opportunity to experience end-of-life discussions through role-play can significantly improve students' confidence in conducting these conversations. However, repeated sessions are likely necessary for students to feel prepared upon graduation.
To augment learning about interprofessional palliative and end-of-life care, the University of New England College of Osteopathic Medicine immersed 2 second-year osteopathic medical students in an 18-bed acute care hospice home in Scarborough, Maine, for 48 hours. The students worked with an interprofessional staff and independently to provide patient care, family support, and postmortem care. For data collection, students wrote in journals before the immersion experience (prefieldwork), while living in the hospice home (fieldwork), and for 10 days following the immersion experience (postfieldwork). The students recorded their subjective and objective reporting of observations, experiences, feelings, and patient/family encounters. Data analyses included a review of the journals, identifying thematic categorizations, and coding through content analysis. Three themes identified in the students' journals reflected shared experiences: (1) shifting perspectives, (2) path to family acceptance, and (3) emotional journey. The students learned how to converse with patients and families about end-of-life care while ensuring attainment of patients' goals. They also learned about the importance of helping patients enjoy life's simple pleasures like taking them outside to enjoy the sunshine, and they learned to trust themselves when handling emotional and difficult situations. Each student gained confidence in her ability to help guide patients through this stage of life.
There are few formal training opportunities that exist for RNs interested in the rapidly growing field of hospice and palliative care. To address this, the curriculum for a nurse residency program was developed and delivered to 12 nurses over 1 year. The nurse residents, as well as their clinical supervisors and interprofessional colleagues, were surveyed to obtain feedback on the overall program. Skill acquisition of the nurses was also assessed. The results indicate that the nurse residents had increased levels of confidence in caring for dying patients, communication with other clinicians, and delegation and management of treatment teams and families. According to supervisors and colleagues, strengths of the program included support for new nurses, integration of the interprofessional team, and solid preparation for new hospice nurses. These findings provide nursing educators and administrators with needed insight into the development and evaluation of an RN residency program in hospice and palliative care.
OBJECTIVE: China is home to one-fifth of the world's population. In the setting of a growing and aging population as well as the designation of palliative care access as a human right in 2013, the implementation of palliative care in China gains special importance. Palliative care education is an important precondition to ensure a nationwide access to palliative care. This systematic review details the status of under- and postgraduate palliative care education in China, examining both the students' and physicians' perception, knowledge, and skills in palliative care, and the available educational interventions and programs.
METHOD: Four databases were searched in September 2018, using considered search terms. Titles, abstracts, and, if necessary, full texts were scanned to identify publications matching the inclusion criteria.
RESULTS: Nine publications were included. They revealed six findings: palliative care education is lacking in both under- and postgraduate medical education, only a few programs exist. Palliative care as a concept is well known, detailed knowledge, and practical skills are less developed. Chinese physicians consider palliative care an important field to be developed in cancer care, yet the majority of healthcare professionals are not willing to work in palliative care services. Communication should be a main emphasis in palliative care education, especially in undergraduate training. Finally, there is no highly qualified research on under- or postgraduate palliative care education in Mainland China.
SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: These findings suggest that palliative care education in China is in demand and should be systematically integrated into medical education. Further research on the topic is urgently needed.
This study aimed to analyze the schools that teach ethical and legal aspects within the subject of palliative care in the degrees of medicine and nursing in Spain.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive Analysis of the palliative care subject and their ethical and legal curricular competencies in the Spanish Nursing and Physicians undergraduate. The training received in legal ethical aspects related to palliative care was compared with the criteria established by the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC).
DATA SOURCES: The National Conference of Nursing Deans, The National Conference of Spanish Medical Faculty Deans and The Ministry of Science, Innovation, and Universities databases were searched.
RESULTS: Twenty-one universities have an undergraduate in medicine with palliative care in their curricular training explicitly. The degree in nursing is present in fifty-six universities, palliative care is present in 62.5% of the cases. The degrees of nursing and medicine receive approximately the same level of training in ethical and legal aspects of palliative care.
CONCLUSION: The specific training received in ethical and legal issues of palliative care must be improved in medical and nursing to meet the EAPC levels.
Les soins palliatifs demandent de plus en plus de compétences médicales, soignantes, humaines et éthiques, afin d’asseoir leur légitimité dans des domaines de plus en plus pointus de la médecine – réanimation, néonatalogie, cancérologie, gériatrie – ainsi que dans la diversité des prises en charge, y compris au domicile ou en EPHAD.
Dans ce contexte de développement des formations et d’élargissement des champs de compétences de la pratique palliative, cette 5e édition du manuel offre :
-les indispensables connaissances thérapeutiques ;
-les outils, à destination des professionnels en vue d’acquérir une compétence clinique pour la rencontre et l’accompagnement humain, psychique et relationnelle de la personne malade ;
-une contextualisation de la pratique des soins palliatifs dans leur dimension sociale, sanitaire et politique ;
-des jalons pédagogiques pour le développement des soins palliatifs dans leur dimension pédagogique et de recherche.
The World Health Organization recommends that "palliative care should be integrated as a routine element of all Undergraduate Medical Education." However, the provision of training for medical undergraduates is variable; only 18% of 51 European countries have mandatory training in palliative medicine. EDUPALL is an ERASMUS+ funded international collaborative project to develop and pilot an undergraduate program for training in palliative medicine. The objective of this study was to critically review and revise current European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) Recommendations for the Development of Undergraduate Curricula in Palliative Medicine and translating these into an updated curriculum document. Clinicians, academics, and researchers from Romania, Ireland, Germany, Austria, Spain, and the United Kingdom reviewed the EAPC recommendations using a variant of consensus methodology, Nominal Group Technique. From the updated document, four working-groups translated each recommendation into a specific learning objective, and developed associated learning outcomes, stratified by domain: attitude, cognition, and skills. The outcomes and objectives were organized into discrete teaching units and transferred into a curriculum template, identifying notional hours, teaching, and assessment strategies. To ensure quality control, the draft template was circulated to experts from 17 European countries, together with a brief survey instrument, for peer review purposes. All 17 reviewers returned overwhelmingly positive comments. There was large agreement that: the teaching units were logically organized; learning outcomes covered core training needs; learning objectives provided guidance for teaching sessions; learning modalities were appropriately aligned; and assessment strategies were fit for purpose. An updated and standardized curriculum was developed, which provides a platform for the sequential development of the next phases of the EDUPALL project.
INTRODUCTION: The collaboration between palliative care and neurology has developed over the last 25 years and this study aimed to ascertain the collaboration between the specialties across Europe.
METHODS: This online survey aimed to look at collaboration across Europe, using the links of the European Association for Palliative Care and the European Academy of Neurology.
RESULTS: 298 people completed the survey-178 from palliative care and 120 from neurology from over 20 countries across Europe. They reported that there was good collaboration in the care for people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cerebral tumours but less for other progressive neurological diseases. The collaboration included joint meetings and clinics and telephone contacts. All felt that the collaboration was helpful, particularly for maintaining quality of life, physical symptom management, psychological support and complex decision making, including ethical issues.
DISCUSSION: The study shows evidence for collaboration between palliative care and neurology, but with the need to develop this for all neurological illness, and there is a need for increased education of both areas.
OBJECTIVES: PACE Steps to Success is a 1-year train-the-trainer program aiming to integrate nonspecialist palliative care into nursing homes via staff education and organizational support. In this study, we aimed to explore whether this program resulted in changes in residents' hospital use and place of death.
DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the PACE cluster randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN14741671). Data were collected on deaths over the previous 4 months via questionnaires at baseline and postintervention.
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Questionnaires were completed by the nurse/care-assistant most involved from 78 nursing homes in 7 European Union countries.
MEASURES: We measured number of emergency department visits, hospital admissions, length of hospital stay, and place of death. Baseline and postintervention scores between intervention and control groups were compared, and we conducted exploratory mixed-model analyses. We collected 551 out of 610 questionnaires at baseline and 984 out of 1178 at postintervention in 37 intervention and 36 control homes.
RESULTS: We found no statistical significant effects of the program on emergency department visits [odds ratio (OR) = 1.38, P = .32], hospital admissions (OR = 0.98, P = .93), length of hospital stay (geometric mean difference = 0.85, P = .44), or place of death (OR = 1.08, P = .80).
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: We found no effect of the PACE program on either hospital use in the last month of life or place of death. Although this may be related to implementation problems in some homes, the program might also require a more specific focus on managing acute end-of-life situations and a closer involvement of general practitioners or specialist palliative care services to influence hospital use or place of death.
Objective: Patients with cancer face numerous problems at the end of their lives, which makes palliative care necessary for a peaceful death. Considering the important role nurses play in the provision of end-of-life care, the present study was conducted to study the effect of a traditional training method on nurses' perception of and clinical competency in providing end-of-life care to patients with cancer in a hospital in Southeastern Iran.
Methods: This was a pilot clinical trial in which the nurses in an oncology ward were allocated to two groups, experimental (n = 24) and control (n = 33), using a table of random numbers. The experiment group received three sessions of workshop training. The nurses' perception and clinical competency were measured before and 3 months postintervention.
Results: The results showed the perception scores in the experimental and control groups to be 171.75 ± 19.54 and 170.03 ± 17.03 before education and 176.16 ± 19.54 and 176.12 ± 16.12 postintervention, respectively. The scores of clinical competency were 98.71 ± 10.24 and 99.58 ± 12.17 before education and 101.5 ± 14.67 and 104.97 ± 12 postintervention in the experimental and control groups, respectively. According to the findings, neither of the groups showed a significant difference between pre- and post-intervention in terms of perception of or clinical competency in end-of-life care.
Conclusions: A traditional training method such as workshop training cannot cause long-term improvement in nurses' end-of-life care perception or clinical competency. It seems that nurses would benefit from acquiring cognitive and behavioral skills and knowledge through a more continuous form of instruction delivered through modern blended educational methods.
Background: The medical profession increasingly recognizes the growing need to educate nonpalliative physicians in palliative care.
Objective: This study aims to provide a scoping review of the primary palliative care (PPC) education currently available to graduate medical trainees in primary and specialty tracks.
Design: Studies of PPC interventions in U.S. residency or fellowship programs of all subspecialties published in English and listed on MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE through January 2020 were included. To meet admission criteria, studies had to describe the content, delivery methods, and evaluation instruments of a PPC educational intervention.
Results: Of 233 eligible full texts, 85 studies were included for assessment, of which 66 were novel PPC educational interventions and 19 were standard education. Total number of publications evaluating PPC education increased from 8 (2000-2004) to 36 (2015-2019), across 11 residency and 10 fellowship specialties. Residency specialties representing the majority of publications were emergency medicine, general surgery, internal medicine, and pediatric/medicine-pediatrics. PPC content domains most taught in residencies were communication and symptom management; the primary delivery method was didactics, and the outcome assessed was attitudes. Fellowship specialties representing the majority of publications were pediatric subspecialties, nephrology, and oncology. The PPC content domain most taught in fellowships was communication; the primary delivery method was didactics and the outcome evaluated was attitudes.
Conclusions: While PPC education has increased, it remains varied in content, delivery method, and intervention evaluations. Future studies should include more widespread evaluation of behavioral outcomes, longitudinal persistence of use, and clinical impact.
BACKGROUND: Approximately 460 000 people die annually in England. Three-quarters of these deaths are expected. Health Education England is prioritising upskilling of clinical staff in response to reports of poor care quality in the last days of life in acute hospitals, where almost half of all deaths occur. This study explores the impact of an end-of-life care (EoLC) educational intervention, Milestones, in acute hospital trusts in Greater London.
METHODS: This is a mixed methods study. Learners completed a questionnaire pre- (n=452), immediately post- (n=488) and 3 to 8 months post- (n=37) intervention. The questionnaire measured learner confidence in EoLC covering the National Health Service adopted 'Priorities for the Care of the Dying Person'. Paired t-tests were used to determine statistically significant difference in learner confidence pre- and post-intervention. A convenience sample of learners (n=7) and educators (n=5) were recruited to qualitative semi-structured interviews that sought to understand if, how and why Milestones worked. Data were analysed using a thematic approach.
RESULTS: A statistically significant increase in learner confidence across all five priorities of care' was sustained up to 8 months (p<0.001). Interviewees wanted to discuss wider challenges in EoLC related to the organisations and cultural contexts in which they worked. Concerns included balancing hope when decision-making, learning as a multidisciplinary team and emotional impact.
CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that Milestones is a flexible, beneficial resource for teaching EoLC that facilitates enhanced learner engagement. Understanding generated about wider concerns can inform future educational material development, organisational process and research study design.
BACKGROUND: Nationally, only one-third of children survive to hospital discharge after initial presentation with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Of those children who survive, less than 25% leave the hospital at their functional baseline. Given these poor outcomes, such patients could benefit from palliative care involvement.
AIMS: To characterize the existing use and identify barriers to seeking palliative care consults in children admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) with OHCA.
DESIGN: Mixed-methods quasi-experimental study.
PARTICIPANTS: Physicians (MD/DO), nurse practitioners, and registered nurses who provide care in the PICU.
RESULTS: Overall, nurses felt palliative care was consulted "not nearly enough" (43%), while the majority of physicians (53.9%) perceived palliative care services are requested either "just the right amount" (30.8%) or "too often" (23.1%). The top 3 desired palliative services were (1) patient and family psychosocial support, (2) assistance with determining goals of care, and (3) counseling and education. Barriers to consults were forgetting/not thinking about consulting, and family refusal of palliative care consult. No statistical differences among participant groups were found for likelihood to consult palliative care, unless the patient faced imminent death.
CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric Intensive Care Unit providers desire assistance from palliative care teams for help with identifying goals of care, providing psychosocial support, as well as education to the patients and their families. Unfortunately, there remains a large discrepancy between physicians and nurses when it comes to how often palliative care is, and should, be consulted.
OBJECTIVE: Hospice family caregivers are seeking additional information related to patient care, pain and symptom management, and self-care. This study interviewed hospice staff about the potential dissemination of bilingual telenovelas to address these caregiver needs.
METHODS: Qualitative structured phone interviews were conducted with 22 hospice professionals from 17 different hospice organizations in 3 different Midwest states. The interviews were conducted from October to December 2019. Hospice staff volunteers were recruited from conferences, then individual interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and thematic analysis was conducted to gain an in-depth understanding of how to best implement telenovela video education into hospice care.
RESULTS: Most participants were hospice nurses (36%) located primarily in Missouri (91%), with a mean of 9 years of experience. Three discrete themes emerged, the educational resources currently provided to patient/families, perceptions of the usefulness of telenovelas for education, and practical suggestions regarding the dissemination of telenovelas. The development of 4 telenovela videos covering different topics is described.
CONCLUSION: Hospice staff responded favorably to the concept of telenovelas and identified important keys for dissemination.