PURPOSE: Defining patients as 'terminally-ill' may be difficult. Therefore, determining when to shift the goal of care from curative to comfort care may be extremely challenging. The aim of this study was to merge when and how Registered Nurses (RNs) and Nurses' Assistants (NAs) adjust end-of-life care to pursue patient comfort at the end of their lives.
METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study based on multiple focus groups was performed in 2017 according to the COnsolidated criteria for REporting Qualitative research guidelines. In all, 25 RNs and 16 NAs across seven north-east Italian facilities that provide end-of-life care, voluntarily participated in the study. Each focus group was conducted following the same interview guide with open-ended questions, and was audiotaped. A thematic analysis was applied to interview transcripts.
RESULTS: The process of nursing care plan adjustment is based upon two main themes, around 'when' and 'how' to adjust it. Regarding when, 'Detecting the turning point', and 'Being ready to change continuously until the end' emerged as the main sub-themes. Regarding how, 'Weighing harms and benefits of nursing care interventions'; 'Advocating for patients' wishes', 'Sharing the adjustments inside the team at different levels', 'Involving family in the adjustments of nursing care'; and 'Allowing care to move away from evidence-based practice' were the sub-themes emerged.
CONCLUSIONS: Shedding light on the implicit decisional processes that inform care adjustments and the implementation of related strategies is essential to improve the quality of end-of-life care given that an early detection of the terminal phase has been reported to result in changes of care improving outcomes.
Along their professional career, nurses can find patients who require palliative care (PC). It is necessary to have at least a basic education in this area, that should be acquired during their university education. The objective of this descriptive online-survey set in five nursing Colleges was to analyze Spanish nursing students' knowledge in PC, offering an image of the status of education in PC. 619 students took an online questionnaire with the Spanish version of the Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses (PCQN-SV), which also collected information about their education in the field of PC. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed, and a predictive binary logistic regression model was developed. Students obtained an average 45.65% of right answers in PCQN-SV, with differences related to the college and academic year in which they were enrolled and to their education in PC. In the regression model having theoretical education in PC (OR = 1.70) and academic year (OR = 1.35) showed to be both predictors of getting a result in PCQN-SV over 45% of correct answers. This study showed that Spanish nursing students have a medium-low level of knowledge in PC, and it also supports the need to develop a common framework for nurses' education in PC.
Background: There are no data on the provision of palliative nursing care in Egyptian adult intensive care units (ICUs). The Palliative and End-Of-Life (PEOL) Care Index is reliable and content valid; however, its construct and criterion validities have not been examined.
Aims and objectives: First, to assess palliative care education, practice, and perceived competence among adult ICU nurses in Egypt. Second, to explore factors related to palliative care nursing practice and perceived competence. Third, to assess the construct and criterion validities of the PEOL Care Index.
Design: A cross-sectional survey.
Methods: Nurse managers and staff nurses in 33 adult ICUs completed self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaires assessed nurses' palliative care practice and perceived competence. A multilevel regression analysis was used to determine the best predictors of palliative care practice and perceived competence. Theory evidence construct validity and predictive criterion validity of the PEOL Care Index were examined.
Results: Thirty-three nurse managers and 403 staff nurses participated in the study—response rate = 100% and 72.5%, respectively. On a 0-100 scale, the mean scores of undergraduate education, practice, and perceived competence were 54.0 ± 18.7, 49.7 ± 18.1, and 54.5 ± 17.0, respectively. Palliative care practice was significantly related to receiving in-service training on palliative care or end-of-life care (regression coefficients: 3.39), higher job satisfaction (0.97), and higher organizational support (1.85). Palliative care perceived competence was significantly related to older nurses' age (0.20), higher job satisfaction (0.97), and higher palliative care undergraduate education (0.63).
Conclusions: Palliative care education, practice, and perceived competence among adult ICU nurses in Egypt are inadequate, especially in terms of spiritual and cultural care. The PEOL Care Index is construct and criterion valid.
Relevance to clinical practice: Palliative care education should begin in nursing schools and extend through clinical in-services. Guidelines should be developed to maximize staff collaboration and the utilization of chaplains in ICUs.
BACKGROUND: Advanced practice registered nursing students need primary palliative care education to care for the growing number of patients with serious illness and their families and to fill the serious resource gaps in specialty palliative care.
PROBLEM: There has been a lack of primary palliative care education in most graduate nursing programs and little direction as to competencies and essential content.
APPROACH: In an effort to support faculty to teach palliative care content, the End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium (ELNEC) has created an online curriculum that meets the new American Association of Colleges of Nursing Graduate-Competencies and Recommendations for Educating Nursing Students in primary palliative care for master's degree and doctor of nursing practice students.
OUTCOMES: During the first 9 months of its release, more than 170 nursing programs have accessed the ELNEC Graduate curriculum, and there have been more than 200 student completions.
CONCLUSION: Primary palliative care education is essential for all advanced practice nursing students. The new ELNEC Graduate curriculum offers the opportunity to provide quality education remotely.
BACKGROUND: Conversations about death are often associated with fear, anxiety, avoidance and misunderstandings. Many adults feel that these discussions are inappropriate and confusing for young people. In this project, two fourth-year nursing students partnered with a local palliative care team to examine death education for children. The nursing students focused on children's understandings of death and their coping abilities, the lack of appropriate discussions about death with children, and the implementation of death education in public schools. Three online death education resources were identified and evaluated for use in public schools. This project fueled preliminary local discussions and advocacy efforts in the provision of death education for children. In the future, death education will need to be incorporated into education plans at local schools, and could be done in collaboration with the local palliative care team.
Les infirmières prennent soin des patients au quotidien mais aussi lorsque la mort survient. Elles réalisent alors une toilette mortuaire qui marque la fin de la prise en charge et témoigne du respect de l'équipe soignante envers la personne défunte. Au-delà des aspects techniques, chaque infirmière se confronte à sa propre part d'humanité dans la réalisation de ce soin. La crise sanitaire liée à la Covid-19 a soumis les équipes à rude épreuve sur ce point.
Nursing students may feel unprepared to manage the care of dying individuals and may experience anxiety and fear related to death and dying. Preparing nursing students for this situation can help them provide quality care to dying patients. This study aimed to examine the end-of-life care values and behaviors and death attitudes of senior nursing students. In examining these variables, the Values and Behaviors of Intensive Care Nurses for End-of-Life Instrument and the Death Attitude Profile-Revised Scale were used. It was found that the students developed positive attitudes and behavior towards end-of-life care, and that they believed death to be a natural part of life and there is life after death. Students who felt that the information they received during their education was partially sufficient were more likely to have negative death attitudes. It can be recommended that teaching strategies in the education of the nursing students be developed.
Objectives: Positive attitudes towards end-of-life care are essential among nursing students to adequately support terminally ill patients and enable students to feel confident about providing end-of-life care. This study aimed to determine nursing students’ attitudes towards caring for terminally ill patients, as well as the associations between these attitudes and year of study, exposure to terminally ill people, self-perceived nursing skills and subjective impact of instruction.
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Setting: A health sciences school in Switzerland.
articipants: All preparatory students, first-year nursing students and third-year nursing students were invited to participate; 178 agreed to participate.
Primary outcome measure: Attitudes towards terminally ill patients were assessed using the Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying Scale, Form B (FATCOD, Form B), as the primary outcome. Secondary measures were gender, age, year of study, number of terminally ill persons encountered, self-perceived palliative care nursing skills and subjective impact of instruction.
Results: Mean FATCOD, Form B score was 117.7 (SD: 9.8, median: 118.0). Better attitudes towards terminally ill patients were significantly associated with being aged 24–26 years (ß=6.97, 95% CI 2.00 to 11.95, p=0.006), year of study (ß=3.47, 95% CI 1.69 to 5.25, p<0.001), professional encounters with terminally ill patients (ß=3.59, 95% CI 2.23 to 4.95, p<0.001) and self-perceived palliative care nursing competence (ß=1.23, 95% CI 0.41 to 2.04; p=0.003). In the multivariate analysis, professionally encountering terminally ill patients remained significant (ß=3.00; 95% CI 1.43 to 4.57; p<0.001).
Conclusions: Nursing students’ attitudes towards caring for terminally ill patients were positive and improved as their year of study progressed. Professional exposure to terminally ill patients was the strongest factor, followed by private encounters, self-perceived palliative care nursing skills, year of study and age.
This study aimed to investigate actual situations of nursing activities in supporting the transition to homecare settings for end-stage cancer patients and to determine factors related to executing such nursing activities from the perspectives of communication skills and interprofessional collaboration. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 513 nurses who worked at designated cancer care hospitals in Japan. A total of 318 valid responses were obtained (valid response rate: 62.0%). Scores for nursing activities were higher for the following items: sharing information regarding the transition to homecare settings, intentionally engaging with patients after their medical conditions were explained, providing care for families, and understanding a patient's will about the transition to homecare settings. On the other hand, scores were lower for items that were related to guiding juniors and self-improvement. A multiple regression analysis was performed with nursing activities as the dependent variable. 8 factors related to nursing activities were determined: experience in supporting the transition to homecare settings as a primary nurse, contribution to a team (Team Approach Assessment Scale [TAAS]), years of nursing experience, function of a team (TAAS), regulation of interpersonal relationship (ENDCOREs communication skills scale), experience of participation in homecare nursing education or seminars, verbal communication skills for good communication (End-of-life Care Nurses’ Communication Skills scale), and educational background. Future challenges include developing an educational program based on the results of the present study and promoting educational intervention studies.
BACKGROUND: Nurses are the largest regulated group of healthcare professionals involved in palliative care. In 2004, a taskforce of the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) launched the 'Guide for development of palliative nurse education in Europe' (hereinafter, the EAPC 2004 Guide). No systematic evaluation of its impact in the development of palliative care education was undertaken.
AIMS: To describe current undergraduate and postgraduate nursing education across Europe; to identify the roles that nurses with different palliative care educational levels have in palliative care; and to assess the uptake of the EAPC 2004 Guide in the development of palliative care nursing in Europe.
DESIGN: Descriptive research involving an online survey among nursing experts, and the consultation of national representatives.
SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 135 nurses (52% response rate) from 25 countries completed the online survey; representatives from 16 countries were consulted.
RESULTS: In 14 (56%) countries, palliative care was not identified as a mandatory subject within undergraduate nursing education. The EAPC 2004 Guide is widely known and was/is being used in many countries to promote palliative care nursing education. Large variations were found across and within country responses.
CONCLUSIONS: Palliative care nursing education varies largely in Europe. The wide awareness and use of the EAPC 2004 Guide show how policy measures can influence the development of palliative care education. Recommendations are built and focus on both fostering the use of this guide and implementing policy measures to ensure that palliative care nursing is recognised and certified as a specialty in all European countries.
The purpose of this integrative review was to appraise the qualitative and quantitative literature for community-level health behavior theory application to palliative care nursing to identify their use and future research implications. To date, there has not been an integrative review of the nursing studies that have used community-level health behavior theory to guide palliative care nursing research. Despite the availability of high-quality care, there continues to be underuse of resources. An integrative review on community-level theory application may provide a more holistic understanding of previous interventions to frame future interventions and research needs. The review was guided by the 5-step framework of Whittemore and Knafl. Relevant literature was searched and appraised. Seven different community-level health behavior theories were found with applications to palliative care nursing, and 16 studies using these theories were identified for discussion. Community-Based Participatory Research was the most used theory. Community-level health behavior theories such as Community-Based Participatory Research have helped build partnerships and activate community resources such as capacity, engagement, and diversity through culturally sensitive training interventions. Further research using these theories in palliative care nursing can realize positive outcomes, particularly in low-income rural areas.
Health Science students in Spain and Bolivia should be trained in the management of the processes of death and dying of patients. The aim of this study was to examine the degree of training, self-perceived safety and preferences in relation to the care of terminal and non-terminal patients. It was a descriptive, cross-sectional, multicenter study with students of Medicine, Nursing and Physiotherapy in Spain and Bolivia. The following variables were evaluated: care preparation and emotional preparation to caring for terminally ill and non-terminally ill patients, the Death Attitude Profile Revised (PAM-R) and the Bugen Scale for Facing Death. The self-perceived preparation of students for caring for terminally ill patients can be considered "fair" (mean 2.15, SD 0.756), and this was also the case for their perceived emotional preparation (mean 2.19, SD 0.827). In contrast, the score obtained for their preparedness for treating non-terminal patients was higher (mean 2.99 and 3.16, respectively). Working with terminally ill patients, including terminal or geriatric cancer patients, was the least preferred option among future health professionals. The results obtained show a limited preference for end-of-life care and treatment, highlighting a lack of preparation and motivation among health science students in Spain and Bolivia for working with these patients.
Background: One of the most difficult and stressful tasks faced by health science students is having to cope with death and dying due to the emotional burden of the same. Furthermore, the moral, ethical and professional values of future health professionals are influenced by the cultures where they live.
Purpose: This study sought to compare and analyze the perception on end of life among a sample of health science students in Spain and Bolivia.
Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional and multi-centric study. The total sample (548 students) was comprised of three groups: medical, nursing and physiotherapy students, of whom 245 were from Bolivia, and 303 were Spanish students. The measurement instruments used were the Bugen’s Coping with Death Scale and the Death Self-Efficacy Scale by Robbins.
Results: No statistically significant differences were observed between Spanish and Bolivian students (t (546) = - 0.248, p = 0.804) using the Bugen scale. This implies that there are no differences between the perception of both groups of students and that both groups use similar strategies to cope with death. Additionally, the beliefs and attitudes of both groups were similar, with Bolivian students presenting a trend towards improved scores. No differences were found between Spain and Bolivia in the results obtained on the Robbins scale, with students from both countries displaying similar skills and capabilities for facing death.
Conclusions: The beliefs on death of health science students from Spain and Bolivia were not affected by the respective cultures, type of degree studied, students’ age, or the country of origin, however, we found that students in Bolivia value death as something more natural than their Spanish counterparts.
To appropriately prepare students for this topic, education on coping with death and dying must be included within the university curriculum.
Background: High-fidelity simulation is being considered as a suitable environment for imparting the skills needed to deal with end-of-life (EOL) situations. The objective was to evaluate an EOL simulation project that introduced communication skills to nursing students who had not yet begun their training in real healthcare environments.
Methods: A sequential approach was used. The "questionnaire for the evaluation of the end-of-life project" was employed.
Results: A total of 130 students participated. Increasing the time spent in high-fidelity simulation significantly favored the exploration of feelings and fears regarding EOL (t = -2.37, p = 0.019), encouraged dialogue (t = -2.23, p = 0.028) and increased the acquisition of communication skills (t = -2.32, p = 0.022).
Conclusions: High-fidelity simulation promotes communication skills related to EOL in novice nursing students.
There are few formal training opportunities that exist for RNs interested in the rapidly growing field of hospice and palliative care. To address this, the curriculum for a nurse residency program was developed and delivered to 12 nurses over 1 year. The nurse residents, as well as their clinical supervisors and interprofessional colleagues, were surveyed to obtain feedback on the overall program. Skill acquisition of the nurses was also assessed. The results indicate that the nurse residents had increased levels of confidence in caring for dying patients, communication with other clinicians, and delegation and management of treatment teams and families. According to supervisors and colleagues, strengths of the program included support for new nurses, integration of the interprofessional team, and solid preparation for new hospice nurses. These findings provide nursing educators and administrators with needed insight into the development and evaluation of an RN residency program in hospice and palliative care.
AIMS: Develop and psychometrically assess the Palliative Nursing Care Quality Scale (PNCQS, escala de Calidad del Cuidado Enfermero Paliativo, CCEP, in Spanish). An interview-based qualitative study (1) was conducted to verify construct validity evidence, with psychometric properties of reliability and validity verified by two quantitative studies (2 & 3).
DESIGN: Quantitative instrumental, correlational, and cross-sectional study.
METHODS: Study 1 was carried out with 10 key informants. For Study 2, a sample of 103 nursing professionals was obtained and 176 nurses from palliative care resources in Spain participated in Study 3. Data were collected between May 2017 - May 2018.
RESULTS: Evidence of adequate reliability (internal consistency) and validity was found. The confirmatory factor model yielded a single latent factor for the 20 items, with adequate goodness-of-fit indices. The convergent validity data showed that the highest correlations were with the Dedication subscale of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Personal Growth subscale of Psychological Well-being, with values of 0.35 and 0.34, respectively (p < 0.01 in both cases).
CONCLUSION: The scale shows good psychometric properties, with high internal consistency and evidence of internal and convergent validity.
IMPACT: Proposing a valuable instrument which identifies good nursing in different areas of palliative care while also establishing quality indicators to guide nursing practice entails the recognition of autonomy in care. The resulting work tool can be used to systematize the assessment of nursing care in a process of open and continuous improvement.
OBJECTIVE: to analyze the strategies implemented by nurses to reconfigure palliative oncological care due to the hospital accreditation process in Hospital do Câncer IV (Hospital of Cancer IV).
METHOD: qualitative research of historical-social approach, whose direct sources in use were written documents and four spoken accounts.
RESULTS: implemented strategies were: creation of the Nursing Division; nursing staff management; consolidation of Continuing Education sector; creation of Internal Nursing Bylaws through development of norms and routines; meetings; discussion of clinical cases; training and classes; creation of Núcleo de Assistência de Enfermagem (Nursing Assistance Core); creation of a tumoral and ostomy wound-dressing ambulatory; and organization of the 5th Vital Sign Forum. Final considerations: nurses, supported by an alliance with the institution directors, implemented effective strategies and reached significant advancement. As they took part in this endeavor, they became legitimate spokespeople of an authorized discourse in the field of oncological nursing care in Brazil.
The aim of this study is to explore nursing students' experiences with death and terminal patients during clinical education. A secondary analysis of qualitative data that were collected through 11 focus group interviews with nursing students was performed. Data obtained from the interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. There were a total of 9 themes across 3 contexts. Data were grouped under the following themes: feelings experienced when encountering death for the first time, reactions to the first encounter with death, factors affecting the reactions to death, involvement in terminal patient care, being informed about the physical process that terminal patients are going through, students' approach toward terminal patients and their relatives, health professionals' approach toward terminal/dying patients/their relatives, changes in the ideas about death, and changes in the ideas about terminal/dying patients. The study shows a lack of guidance on the part of teachers who also avoid patients and families who are considered terminally ill.