BACKGROUND: Most French people (71%) would like to die at home, but only one out of four actually do. While the difficulties inherent in the practice of home-based palliative care are well described, few studies highlight the resources currently used by general practitioners (GPs) in real life. We have therefore sought to highlight the resources actually used by GPs providing home-based palliative care.
METHODS: Twenty-one GPs of different ages and practice patterns agreed to participate to this qualitative study based upon semi-structured interviews. They were recruited according to a purposive sampling. Transcripts analysis was based upon General Inductive Analysis.
RESULTS: The resources highlighted have been classified into two main categories according to whether they were internal or external to the GPs. The internal resources raised included the doctor's practical experience and continuous medical education, personal history, work time organization and a tacit moral contract related to the referring GP's position. External resources included resource personnel, regional assistance platforms and health facilities, legislation.
CONCLUSION: This study provides a simple list that is easy to share and pragmatic solutions for GPs and policymakers. Home-based palliative care practice can simultaneously be burdensome and yet a fulfilling, meaningful activity, depending on self-efficacy and professional exhaustion (burnout), perhaps to a greater extent than on medical knowledge. Home-based palliative care promotion is a matter of social responsibility. The availability of multidisciplinary teams such as regional assistance platforms and Hospitalization at Home is particularly important for the management of palliative care. Policymakers should consolidate these specific resources out of hospitals, in community settings where the patients wish to end their life.
Background: The predictive value of the prognostic tool for patients with advanced cancer is uncertain in mainland China, especially in the home-based palliative care (HPC) setting. This study aimed to compare the accuracy of the Palliative Prognostic Index (PPI), the Performance Status–Based Palliative Prognostic Index (PS-PPI), and the Chinese Prognosis Scale (ChPS) for patients with advanced cancer in the HPC setting in mainland China.
Methods: Patients with advanced cancer admitted to the hospice center of Yuebei People’s Hospital between January 2014 and December 2018 were retrospectively calculated the scores according to the three prognostic tools. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare survival times among different risk groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to assess the predictive value. The accuracy of 21-, 42- and 90-day survival was compared among the three prognostic tools.
Results: A total of 1863 patients were included. Survival time among the risk groups of all prognostic tools was significantly different from each other except for the PPI. The AUROC of the ChPS was significantly higher than that of the PPI and PS-PPI for 7-, 14, 21-, 42-, 90-, 120-, 150- and 180-day survival (P < 0.05). The AUROC of the PPI and PS-PPI were not significantly different from each other (P > 0.05).
Conclusions: The ChPS is more suitable than the PPI and PS-PPI for advanced cancer patients in the HPC setting. More researches are needed to verify the predictive value of the ChPS, PPI, and PS-PPI in the HPC setting in the future.
But de l’étude : La possibilité de passer sa fin de vie chez soi est un enjeu de santé publique qui répond à la demande de la population et aux contraintes du système de santé. L’organisation de l’offre de soins et des acteurs infirmiers est donc centrale dans le développement des soins palliatifs à domicile. L’objectif de cette étude était de décrire la place des différents acteurs de soins infirmiers dans la prise en charge des situations palliatives avancées et terminales à domicile.
Matériel et méthodes : Une enquête de pratique a été réalisée au moyen d’un questionnaire en ligne auprès des médecins généralistes installés en Gironde. Le repérage des situations palliatives était réalisé avec le "Supportive & Palliative Care Indicators Tool" en version française (SPICT-FR™).
Résultats : En tout 89 médecins ont décrit la prise en charge de 607 patients en situations palliatives avancées et terminales en cours de suivi, et celle de 260 patients décédés à domicile au cours des 12 derniers mois à l’issue d’une pathologie en situation palliative. Les infirmiers libéraux assuraient, seuls, 64 % de l’ensemble des prises en charge en cours, et 56 % de celles le mois précédant le décès. Ils intervenaient également dans la majorité des situations où les infirmiers des services d’hospitalisation à domicile et des services de soins infirmiers à domicile étaient présents.
Conclusion : Alors que la représentation commune tend à considérer l’infirmier du service d’hospitalisation à domicile comme l’acteur majoritaire des situations palliatives avancées et terminales à domicile, cette enquête montre que les infirmiers libéraux ont une place prépondérante dans ces situations. Le développement des soins palliatifs à domicile et de la culture palliative passera par une meilleure reconnaissance et le soutien de ces acteurs.
Introduction : La plupart des Français souhaitent mourir à domicile mais peu d’entre eux y décèdent réellement. L’expression par le patient de son souhait sur le lieu de son décès en favorise le respect, mais les médecins connaissent peu ces souhaits. L’objectif de l’étude est de recueillir la façon dont les personnes en situation palliative à domicile envisagent d’aborder le lieu de décès avec leur médecin généraliste.
Méthode : Une étude qualitative a été réalisée par entretiens individuels semi-dirigés au domicile des personnes atteintes d’une pathologie incurable avec un pronostic vital entre 4 semaines et 2 ans.
Résultats : 15 entretiens ont été menés. La plupart des personnes interrogées souhaitent mourir à la maison, proche des leurs, mais le besoin d’être accompagné et de préserver leur entourage semble être plus important pour elles. Elles attendent que le médecin traitant aborde la fin de vie et le lieu de décès avec disponibilité, écoute et bienveillance, et qu’il y montre de l’intérêt. L’émergence de trois profils (paternaliste, autonomiste et intermédiaire) illustre la façon dont elles envisagent ces discussions avec leur médecin traitant.
Discussion : Les personnes en situation palliative à domicile attendent que le médecin traitant aborde la fin de vie avec une attitude adaptée au profil de chacun. Une consultation dédiée permettrait au médecin généraliste de créer des conditions favorables afin de donner au malade une opportunité d’aborder ce sujet sensible et de respecter ses souhaits.
Conclusion : Les malades souhaitent une implication du médecin généraliste dans les discussions anticipées.
BACKGROUND: A growing number of informal caregivers (IFCs) manage hospice patients' anxiety by administering lorazepam (Ativan), yet little is known about prescribing practices in home care or the extent to which IFCs carry out regimens.
DESIGN AND METHODS: Data on hospice prescribed lorazepam was determined through a retrospective review of medication records from 216 deceased patients. The dose of lorazepam and type of regimen (i.e., scheduled, PRN, combination) as well as frequency with which it was administered by IFCs was calculated upon admission to a residential care home and on patients' day of death.
RESULTS: The majority (63.1%) of patients were prescribed lorazepam on admission to the home, and more (79.5%) were prescribed lorazepam on the day of death. While higher doses of lorazepam were prescribed and administered on the day of death, the percentage of medication consumed was low on admission (17%) and day of death (27%). Nearly all (92.8%) prescribed lorazepam on the day of death were allowed PRN medication. For PRN only regimens, less than a quarter (24.4%) of patients were given lorazepam on admission with less than half (40.4%) given it while dying. Highest lorazepam administration rates (91.2%) occurred on the day of death when lorazepam was prescribed under a combined regimen.
CONCLUSION: The high frequency of PRN regimens reveal that IFCs are frequently tasked with making decisions about if and when to administer lorazepam. Low overall lorazepam administration suggests a closer monitoring of lorazepam use and enhanced support of IFCs may be needed.
BACKGROUND: The main goal of pediatric palliative care (PPC) is to improve or maintain the best possible quality of life (QoL) for the child and their family. PPC can be provided in community health centres, within the specialist health care service and/or in the child's home. Home is often the preferred place for families, and recommendations state that, whenever possible, the family home should be the centre of care for the child. The aim of this study is to systematically review the experiences and needs of families with children receiving palliative care at home.
METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and searched the peer-reviewed databases CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo and MEDLINE for articles published between January 2000 and October 2019. We included 23 studies emphasising the experience of family members when their child (0-18 years) received palliative care at home. We used a thematic analysis to identify relevant themes in the literature, and synthesised the findings from the different studies.
RESULTS: The review represents the experiences of the families of almost 300 children with life-limiting (LL) and life-threatening (LT) conditions receiving palliative care at home. In general, the children's mothers are interviewed, and seldom the sick children themselves or their siblings. Most families preferred staying at home since it made it easier to maintain a normal family life, was less stressful for the sick child, and meant that siblings could still attend school and be with friends. Families experienced a range of challenges due to the coordination of care, including a lack of support and adequately skilled staff with appropriate experience. Respite care was needed in order to cope with everyday life. Some studies were not specific concerning the place of care, and some relevant papers may have been omitted.
CONCLUSIONS: Families receiving PPC need organised, individualised support from a skilled PPC team. Respite care is necessary in order to manage a demanding home-care situation and parents need support for siblings. Privacy to be a family is a need, and many families need financial support. Future studies should focus on PPC at home in the perspectives of sick children and their siblings.
Providing home care to children with complex physical health needs is an emotionally challenging role. Extant literature and documents such as the Cavendish Review (2013) have reported that a large proportion of care for this population is carried out by non-registered staff (support workers). Provision of clinical supervision for nurses working in palliative care is increasing, however, supervision needs of support workers are commonly neglected. This paper sought to synthesise what is known about clinical supervision practices for support workers in paediatric palliative care (PPC). A literature review was conducted in accordance with integrative review guidelines. 315 papers were identified initially, 15 studies were included in this review. Four commonalities were identified: importance of team cohesion, varying degrees of formality, self-awareness and practicalities. Support workers received varying forms of supervision and some facilitators faced organisational difficulties involving staff in supervision. Support workers who received staff support generally appreciated it in recognition that their work is complex and emotionally difficult. This paper highlighted that further research should investigate the efficacy of clinical supervision as a method of reducing stress and burnout for support workers. Any implementation of supervision should involve a considered approach to training and supervision to ensure fidelity.
BACKGROUND: Health systems need evidence about how best to deliver home-based palliative care (HBPC) to meet the growing needs of seriously ill patients. We hypothesised that a tech-supported model that aimed to promote timely inter-professional team coordination using video consultation with a remote physician while a nurse is in the patient's home would be non-inferior compared with a standard model that includes routine home visits by nurses and physicians.
METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, cluster randomised non-inferiority trial across 14 sites (HomePal Study). Registered nurses (n=111) were randomised to the two models so that approximately half of the patients with any serious illness admitted to HBPC and their caregivers were enrolled in each study arm. Process measures (video and home visits and satisfaction) were tracked. The primary outcomes for patients and caregivers were symptom burden and caregiving preparedness at 1-2 months.
RESULTS: The study was stopped early after 12 months of enrolment (patients=3533; caregivers=463) due to a combination of low video visit uptake (31%), limited substitution of video for home visits, and the health system's decision to expand telehealth use in response to changes in telehealth payment policies, the latter of which was incompatible with the randomised design. Implementation barriers included persistent workforce shortages and inadequate systems that contributed to scheduling and coordination challenges and unreliable technology and connectivity.
CONCLUSIONS: We encountered multiple challenges to feasibility, relevance and value of conducting large, multiyear pragmatic randomised trials with seriously ill patients in the real-world settings where care delivery, regulatory and payment policies are constantly shifting.
Background: Home-based palliative care (HBPC) is an important aspect of care for patients with moderate to advanced stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and their caregivers. HBPC provides symptom management, advanced care planning and goals of care conversations in the home, with the goal of maximizing quality of life and minimizing health care utilization. There is a gap in the knowledge of how the patients with COPD and their caregivers experience HBPC. The overall purpose of this study is to describe which aspects of HBPC were the most meaningful to patients with COPD, and their caregivers.
Methods: Through a descriptive design with narrative analysis methodology, we interviewed COPD patients and their caregivers to investigate their experience of HBPC received in the 30 days post hospitalization for a COPD exacerbation. A thematic analysis was conducted and the patient and caregiver interviews were analyzed in dyad using thematic analysis.
Results: A total of 10 dyads were interviewed. Patients and their caregivers perceived 3 times as many facilitators as barriers of receiving home-based palliative care in the 30 days post hospitalization for a COPD exacerbation. The outcomes of this study provide information that describes the aspects of HBPC that patients and their caregivers found most meaningful.
Conclusion: An understanding of the most meaningful aspects of HBPC from the perspectives of the patients with COPD and their caregivers can be used to inform the development of the best model for HBPC for this patient population.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To describe the use of home-based medical care (HBMC) among Medicaid beneficiaries.
DESIGN: A systematic review of the peer-reviewed and gray literature of home-based primary care and palliative care programs among Medicaid beneficiaries including dual eligibles.
SETTING: HBMC including home-based primary care and palliative care programs.
PARTICIPANTS Studies describing Medicaid beneficiaries receiving HBMC.
MEASUREMENTS: Three groups of studies were included: those focused on HBMC specifically for Medicaid beneficiaries, studies that described the proportion of Medicaid patients receiving HBMC, and those that used Medicaid status as a dependent variable in studying HBMC.
RESULTS: The peer-reviewed and gray literature searches revealed 574 unique studies of which only 16 met inclusion criteria. Few publications described HBMC as an integral care delivery model for Medicaid programs. Data from the programs described suggest the use of HBMC for Medicaid beneficiaries can reduce healthcare costs. The addition of social supports to HBMC appears to convey additional savings and benefits.
CONCLUSION: This systematic literature review highlights the relative dearth of literature regarding the use and impact of HBMC in the Medicaid population. HBMC has great potential to reduce Medicaid costs, and innovative programs combining HBMC with social support systems need to be tested.
Background: Family caregiving is common globally, but when a family member needs palliative and end-of-life care, this requires knowledge and expertise in dealing with symptoms, medication, and treatment side effects. Caring for a family member with advanced prostate cancer in the home presents practical and emotional challenges, especially in resource-poor contexts, where there are increasing palliative cases without adequate palliative care institutions.
Aim: The study explored palliative and end-of-life care experiences of family caregivers and patients living at home in a resource-poor context in Ghana.
Design: This is a qualitative study using thematic analysis of face-to-face interviews at two-time points.
Participants: Men living with advanced prostate cancer (n = 23), family caregivers (n = 23), healthcare professionals (n = 12).
Findings: Men with advanced prostate cancer face complex issues, including lack of access to professional care and a lack of resources for homecare. Family caregivers do not have easy access to professional support; they often have limited knowledge of disease progression. Patients have inadequate access to medication and other practical resources for homecare. Caregivers may be overburdened and perform the role of the patient’s ‘doctor’ at home-assessing patient’s symptoms, administering drugs, and providing hands-on care.
Conclusion: Home-based care is promoted as an ideal and cost-effective model of care, particularly in Westernised palliative care models. However, in resource-poor contexts, there are significant challenges associated with the implementation of this model. This study revealed the scale of challenges family caregivers, who lack basic training on aspects of caring, face in providing home care unsupported by healthcare professionals.
Introduction: Discussing the evolution of life-threatening diseases and end-of-life issues remains difficult for patients, relatives and professionals. Helping people discuss and formalise their preferences in end-of-life care, as planned in the Go Wish intervention, could reduce health-related anxiety in the advance care planning (ACP) and advance directive (AD) process. The aims of this study are (1) to test the effectiveness of the Go Wish intervention among outpatients in early-stage palliative care and (2) to understand the role of defence mechanisms in end-of-life discussions among nurses, patients and relatives.
Methods and analysis: A mixed-methods study will be performed. A cluster randomised controlled trials with three parallel arms will be conducted with 45 patients with chronic progressive diseases impacting life expectancy in each group: (1) Group A, Go Wish intervention for patients and their relatives; (2) Group A, Go Wish intervention for patients alone and (3) Group B, for patients (with a waiting list), who will receive the standardised information on ADs (usual care). Randomisation will be at the nurse level as each patient is referred to one of the 20 participating nurses (convenience sample of 20 nurses). A qualitative study will be conducted to understand the cognitive and emotional processes and experiences of nurses, patients and relatives confronted with end-of-life discussions. The outcome measurements include the completion of ADs (yes/no), anxiety, quality of communication about end-of-life care, empowerment, quality of life and attitudes towards ADs.
Ethics and dissemination: The study protocol has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland (no. 2019–00922). The findings will be disseminated to practice (nurses, patients and relatives), to national and international scientific conferences, and peer-reviewed journals covering nursing science, psychology and medicine.
CONTEXT: Caring for a child who will die from a life-limiting illness is one of the most difficult experiences a parent may face. Pediatric palliative care (PPC) has grown as a specialty service to address the unique needs of children and families with serious illness. However, gaps remain between the needs of families in PPC and the support received.
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore the concerns of parents who have a child in home-based PPC.
METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 mothers and 10 fathers from 25 families shortly after their child's referral to home-based PPC. Children (57% male, Mage = 10.5 years, SD = 3.95, range = 4-18 years) had a range of diagnoses. Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis.
RESULTS: Parents' concerns clustered into four main themes: (1) ensuring that their child's remaining days were spent living well physically, emotionally, and socially; (2) uncertainty regarding their child's diagnosis, prognosis, and treatments; (3) their child's death (e.g., the process of dying and when it will occur); and (4) the family, including the impact of the child's illness and death on siblings and wanting to cherish as much time together with family as possible.
CONCLUSION: Parents of children receiving home-based PPC expressed concerns across a range of domains, both about their seriously ill child and the broader family. These results highlight salient worries among parents of children in PPC, and point to critical areas for intervention for seriously ill children and the broader family.
While hospitals remain the most common place of death in many western countries, specialised palliative care (SPC) at home is an alternative to improve the quality of life for patients with incurable cancer. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a systematic fast-track transition process from oncological treatment to SPC enriched with a psychological intervention at home for patients with incurable cancer and their caregivers.
A qualitative case-series review was conducted in a nurse-led home-based hospice service to evaluate the impact of specialist psychiatric consultations on patients’ well-being and management. The impact on patients’ care was assessed via analysis of case notes and psychiatrist reports, and interviews with both hospice nurses and the psychiatrist. 18 visits were made by the psychiatrist for 16 patients over a period of 12 months. Nine patients were referred for mood disorders, four for severe agitation, one for review of schizophrenia, one for dementia assessment, and one for possible patient abuse. Three patients already had psychiatric conditions prior to admission; long-standing anxiety, depression on a background of dementia, and chronic schizophrenia. Analysis of medical documentation revealed nine (half) of those visits led to positive psychological outcomes while the remainder were equivocal. Six positive cases involved the management of mood disorders, two related to the treatment of behavioural issues, while the last was for titration of medication. Almost all nurses gave positive feedback, expressing greater confidence and comfort in managing difficult mental health symptoms or family issues. However, short patient prognoses and limited psychiatrist visits prevented optimisation of interventions suggested. Overall, psychiatric consultations can improve patient well-being and enhance existing care.
The need for comprehensive palliative care is inevitable with the aging population. Incorporating home-based palliative care is a new frontier within healthcare. The purpose of this study was to embed home-based palliative care services within the visiting nursing association (VNA) at a health system in Pennsylvania, examining effect on quality of life and symptom control, and average number of hospital admission days. A convenience sample of patients with one or more chronic conditions was selected from the existing VNA census (n = 22). A series of topics were outlined for discussion at each weekly visit for the pilot length of up to 6 months, scripted by evidence-based guidelines from the ENABLE II: Charting Your Course booklet (). A pretest/posttest survey method was conducted by utilizing results of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Distress Thermometer. The effectiveness of the program was assessed using Spearman correlation to compare the difference in scores to the number of weeks in the program. The average number of hospital admission days during the pilot period was compared with admission days 6 months before enrollment in the pilot using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A significant relationship was found between the number of weeks in the program and reduction in the total ESAS symptom scores (rho = -0.484, p = .022), indicating that a reduction in symptoms was significantly more likely the longer a patient was in the program. Percentage of patients hospitalized decreased from 86% during preintervention period to 32% while enrolled. There was a noted reduction in the average number of days patients spent in the hospital while enrolled in the pilot (z = -2.24, p = 0.025).
The Indian Society for Study of Pain (ISSP), Cancer Pain Special Interest Group guidelines on palliative care aspects in cancer pain in adults provide a structured, stepwise approach which will help to improve the management of cancer pain and to provide the patients with a minimally acceptable quality of life. The guidelines have been developed based on the available literature and evidence, to suit the needs, patient population, and situations in India. A questionnaire based on the key elements of each sub draft addressing certain inconclusive areas where evidence was lacking was made available on the ISSP website and circulated by E-mail to all the ISSP and Indian Association of Palliative Care (IAPC) members. In a cancer care setting, approaches toward managing pain vary between ambulatory setting, home care setting, acute inpatient setting, and end-of-life care in hospice setting. We aim to expound the cancer pain management approaches in these settings. In an ambulatory palliative care setting, the WHO analgesic step ladder is used for cancer pain management. The patients with cancer pain require admission for acute inpatient palliative care unit for poorly controlled pain in ambulatory and home care settings, rapid opioid titration, titration of difficult drugs such as methadone, acute pain crisis, pain neuromodulation, and pain interventions. In a palliative home care setting, the cancer pain is usually assessed and managed by nurses and primary physicians with a limited input from the specialist physicians. In patients with cancer at the end of life, the pain should be assessed at least once a day. Moreover, physicians should be trained in assessing patients with pain who are unable to verbalize or have cognitive impairment.
Background: A majority of hospice care is delivered at home, with significant caregiver involvement. Identifying factors associated with caregiver-reported quality measures could help improve hospice care in the United States.
Objectives: To identify correlates of caregiver-reported quality measures: burden, satisfaction, and quality of end-of-life (EoL) care in home hospice care.
Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2017 through February 2018.
Setting/Subjects: A nonprofit, urban hospice organization. We recruited caregivers whose patients were discharged from home hospice care. Eligible caregiver participants had to be 18 years or older, English-speaking, and listed as a primary caregiver at the time the patient was admitted to hospice.
Measures: The (1) short version of the Burden Scale for Family Caregivers; (2) Family Satisfaction with Care; and (3) Caregiver Evaluation of the Quality of End-Of-Life Care.
Results: Caregivers (n = 391) had a mean age of 59 years and most were female (n = 297, 76.0%), children of the patient (n = 233, 59.7%), and non-Hispanic White (n = 180, 46.0%). The mean age of home hospice patients was 83 years; a majority had a non-cancer diagnosis (n = 235, 60.1%), were female (n = 250, 63.9%), and were non-Hispanic White (n = 210, 53.7%). Higher symptom scores were significantly associated with greater caregiver burden and lower satisfaction with care; but not lower quality of EoL care. Caregivers who were less comfortable managing patient symptoms during the last week on hospice had higher caregiver burden, lower caregiver satisfaction, and lower ratings of quality of EoL care.
Conclusion: Potentially modifiable symptom-related variables were correlated with caregiver-reported quality measures. Our study reinforces the important relationship between the perceived suffering/symptoms of patients and caregivers' hospice experiences.
Young men of color who have sex with men (yMSM) living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in syndemic environments have been difficult-to-retain in care resulting in their being at-risk for poor health outcomes despite availability of effective once-daily antiretroviral treatment (ART). Multiple methods have been implemented to improve outcomes for this cohort; none with sustainable results. Outpatient HIV staff themselves may be a contributing factor. We introduced multidisciplinary staff to the concept of using a palliative approach early (ePA) in outpatient HIV care management to enable them to consider the patient-level complexity of these young men. Young MSM (18-35 years of age) enrolled in and cared for at the intervention site of the Care and Support Access Study (CASA), completed serial surveys over 18 months. Patients' Global and Summary quality of life (QoL) increased during the study at the intervention site (IS) where staff learned about ePA, compared with patients attending the control site (CS) (p=.021 and p=.018, respectively). Using serial surveys of staff members, we found that in the era of HIV disease control, outpatient staff are stressed more by environmental factors than by patients' disease status seen historically in the HIV epidemic. A Community Advisory Panel of HIV stakeholders contributed to all phases of this study and altered language used in educational activities with staff members to describe the patient cohort.
OBJECTIVE: One of the main goals of the Family Talk Intervention (FTI) is to increase communication within families with dependent children about illness-related consequences and to support parenting. FTI is family-centered and includes six manual-based meetings led by two interventionists. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of the FTI in terms of acceptability from the perspective of parents in families with dependent children where one parent receives specialized palliative home care.
METHOD: A descriptive design employing mixed methods was used to evaluate the FTI in specialized palliative home care. In total, 29 parents participated in interviews and responded to a questionnaire following FTI. Qualitative content analysis and descriptive statistics were used for analyses.
RESULTS: FTI responded to both the ill parent's and the healthy co-parent's expectations, and they recommended FTI to other families. Parents found the design of FTI to be well-structured and flexible according to their families' needs. Many parents reported a wish for additional meetings and would have wanted FTI to start earlier in the disease trajectory. Parents also would have wished for a more thorough briefing with the interventionists to prepare before the start. The importance of the interventionists was acknowledged by the parents; their professional competence, engagement, and support were vital for finding ways to open communication within the family. The FTI meetings provided them with a setting to share thoughts and views. Parents clearly expressed that they would never have shared thoughts and feelings in a similar way without the meetings.
SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: According to parents, FTI was found acceptable in a palliative home care context with the potential to add valuable support for families with minor children when a parent is suffering from a life-threatening illness.