OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the lived experiences of palliative care among critically unwell people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), caregivers and relatives of deceased patients. It also aimed to understand the broader palliative care context in Bihar.
DESIGN: This was an exploratory, qualitative study which used thematic analysis of semistructured, in-depth interviews as well as a focus group discussion.
SETTING: All interviews took place in a secondary care hospital in Patna, Bihar which provides holistic care to critically unwell PLHA.
PARTICIPANTS: We purposively selected 29 participants: 10 critically unwell PLHA, 5 caregivers of hospitalised patients, 7 relatives of deceased patients who were treated in the secondary care hospital and 7 key informants from community-based organisations.
RESULTS: Critically ill PLHA emphasised the need for psychosocial counselling and opportunities for social interaction in the ward, as well as a preference for components of home-based palliative care, even though they were unfamiliar with actual terms such as 'palliative care' and 'end-of-life care'. Critically unwell PLHA generally expressed preference for separate, private inpatient areas for end-of-life care. Relatives of deceased patients stated that witnessing patients' deaths caused trauma for other PLHA. Caregivers and relatives of deceased patients felt there was inadequate time and space for grieving in the hospital. While both critically ill PLHA and relatives wished that poor prognosis be transparently disclosed to family members, many felt it should not be disclosed to the dying patients themselves.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite expected high inpatient fatality rates, PLHA in Bihar lack access to palliative care services. PLHA receiving end-of-life care in hospitals should have a separate dedicated area, with adequate psychosocial counselling and activities to prevent social isolation. Healthcare providers should make concerted efforts to inquire, understand and adapt their messaging on prognosis and end-of-life care based on patients' preferences.
BACKGROUND: Palliative care is typically performed in-hospital. However, Emergency Medical Service (EMS) providers are uniquely positioned to deliver early palliative care as they are often the first point of medical contact. The aim of this study was to gather the perspectives of advanced life support (ALS) providers within the South African private EMS sector regarding pre-hospital palliative care in terms of its importance, feasibility and barriers to its practice.
METHODS: A qualitative study design employing semi-structured one-on-one interviews was used. Six interviews with experienced, higher education qualified, South African ALS providers were conducted. Content analysis, with an inductive-dominant approach, was performed to identify categories within verbatim transcripts of the interview audio-recordings.
RESULTS: Four categories arose from analysis of six interviews: 1) need for pre-hospital palliative care, 2) function of pre-hospital healthcare providers concerning palliative care, 3) challenges to pre-hospital palliative care and 4) ideas for implementing pre-hospital palliative care. According to the interviewees of this study, pre-hospital palliative care in South Africa is needed and EMS providers can play a valuable role, however, many challenges such as a lack of education and EMS system and mindset barriers exist.
CONCLUSION: Challenges to pre-hospital palliative care may be overcome by development of guidelines, training, and a multi-disciplinary approach to pre-hospital palliative care.
There is a disproportionate burden of illness and death among racial/ethnic minorities related to COVID-19. The importance of reaching groups suffering the most with resources such as advance directive guidance, telehealth, and culturally sensitive education materials is vital to providing quality, inclusive care. A crisis presents an opportunity to unite and problem-solve to help avoid the dire consequences facing inaction. In this way, inclusive responses by hospices, social workers, other community partners during the COVID-19 pandemic can help reach and alleviate the pain of those groups most afflicted. We offer hospice inclusion strategies that align with general pandemic response trends that may lead to greater hospice inclusion beyond this public health emergency.
Palliative care is a values-driven approach for providing holistic care for individuals and their families enduring serious life-limiting illness. Despite its proven benefits, access and acceptance is not uniform across society. The genesis of palliative care was developed through a traditional Western lens, which dictated models of interaction and communication. As the importance of palliative care is increasingly recognized, barriers to accessing services and perceptions of relevance and appropriateness are being given greater consideration. The COVID-19 pandemic and recent social justice movements in the United States, and around the world, have led to an important moment in time for the palliative care community to step back and consider opportunities for expansion and growth. This article reviews traditional models of palliative care delivery and outlines a modified conceptual framework to support researchers, clinicians, and staff in evaluating priorities for ensuring individualized patient needs are addressed from a position of equity, to create an actionable path forward.
BACKGROUND: Patient access to medicines at home during the last year of life is critical for symptom control, but is thought to be problematic. Little is known about healthcare professionals' practices in supporting timely medicines access and what influences their effectiveness. The purpose of the study was to evaluate health professionals' medicines access practices, perceived effectiveness and influencing factors.
METHODS: On-line questionnaire survey of health care professionals (General Practitioners, Community Pharmacists, community-based Clinical Nurse Specialists and Community Nurses) delivering end-of-life care in primary and community care settings in England. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics.
RESULTS: One thousand three hundred twenty-seven responses were received. All health professional groups are engaged in supporting access to prescriptions, using a number of different methods. GPs remain a predominant route for patients to access new prescriptions in working hours. However, nurses and, increasingly, primary care-based pharmacists are also actively contributing. However, only 42% (160) of Clinical Nurse Specialists and 27% (27) of Community Nurses were trained as prescribers. The majority (58% 142) of prescribing nurses and pharmacists did not have access to an electronic prescribing system. Satisfaction with access to shared patient records to facilitate medicines access was low: 39% (507) were either Not At All or only Slightly satisfied. Out-of-hours specialist cover was reported by less than half (49%; 656) and many General Practitioners and pharmacists lacked confidence advising about out-of-hours services. Respondents perceived there would be a significant improvement in pain control if access to medicines was greater. Those with shared records access reported significantly lower pain estimates for their caseload patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Action is required to support a greater number of nurses and pharmacists to prescribe end-of-life medicines. Solutions are also required to enable shared access to patient records across health professional groups. Coverage and awareness of out-of-hours services to access medicines needs to be improved.
BACKGROUND: Pain and symptom management is critical in ensuring quality of life for chronically ill older adults. However, while pain management and palliative care have steadily expanded in recent years, many underserved populations, such as rural older adults, experience barriers in accessing such specialty services, in part due to transportation issues. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine the specific types of transportation-related barriers experienced by rural older adults in accessing pain and palliative care.
METHODS: Studies were searched through the following 10 databases: Abstracts in Social Gerontology, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SocINDEX with Full Text, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Nursing & Allied Health Database, Sociological Abstracts, and PubMED. Studies were chosen for initial review if they were written in English, full text, included older adults in the sample, and examined pain/palliative care/hospice, rural areas, and transportation. A total of 174 abstracts were initially screened, 15 articles received full-text reviews and 8 met the inclusion criteria.
RESULTS: Findings of the 8 studies identified transportation-related issues as major access barrier to pain and palliative care among rural older adults: specifically, lack of public transportation; lack of wheelchair accessible vehicles; lack of reliable drivers; high cost of transportation services; poor road conditions; and remoteness to the closest pain and palliative care service providers.
CONCLUSION: Results suggest that rural older adults have unique transportation needs due to the urban-centric location of pain and palliative care services. Implications for practice, policy and research with older adults are discussed.
Objectives: National guidance recommends equality in access to bereavement services; despite this, awareness and availability appears inconsistent. The aim of this study was to explore availability and accessibility of bereavement services across the North-East of England and to highlight issues potentially applicable across the UK, at a time of unprecedented need due to the impact of COVID-19.
Methods: Phase 1: an eight item, web-based survey was produced. A survey link was cascaded to all GP practices (General Practitioners) in the region. Phase 2: an email was sent to all services identified in phase 1, requesting details such as referral criteria and waiting times.
Results: All 392 GP practices in the region were invited to participate. The response rate was 22% (85/392). Twenty-one per cent (18/85) of respondents reported that they do not refer patients, comments included ‘not aware of any services locally’. A total of 36 services were contacted with 72% responding with further information. Most bereavement specific support was reliant on charity-funded services including hospices, this sometimes required a pre-existing link with the hospice. Waiting times were up to 4 months.
Conclusions: Although multiple different, usually charity-funded services were identified, awareness and accessibility were variable. This survey was conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, where complex situations surrounding death is likely to impact on the usual grieving process and increase the need for bereavement support. Meanwhile, charities providing this support are under severe financial strain. There is an urgent need to bridge the gap between need and access to bereavement services.
Palliative care has been defined as specialized care for patients facing serious illnesses. Despite advancements in the field and studies documenting the effectiveness of early palliative care (PC) interventions in seriously ill patients, the fields of hematologic malignancies and bone marrow transplant still lag behind of a comprehensive framework for early and effective interventions. The aim of this literature review is to analyze and discuss the possible barriers to care and delayed referrals for hematologic malignancies and bone marrow transplant patients. Using the EBSCO and PubMed databases, articles regarding PC among patients with hematologic malignancies and bone marrow transplant were analyzed. There are three main domains with its respective barriers in PC: physicians, patients and caregivers, and the healthcare system. Issues that were identified included the lack of knowledge and misconceptions about PC among physicians, patients, and caregivers, delayed referral of patients with hematologic malignancies, unrealistic treatment expectations, lack of communication between specialties, difficulties with appointment availability, geographical distance between clinics, and lack of insurance coverage for PC services. We suggest possible alternatives including obligatory continuing medical education (CME) credits, loan forgiveness, rotations during residency and fellowship training, use of informational videos and pamphlets to educate patients and caregivers, obligatory early consults despite prognosis, an algorithm to evaluate patient's needs, creating a platform within electronic medical records (EMR) systems shared by specialties, and having PC service in every cancer center. Findings suggest a need for further studies aimed towards implementing solutions to increase the early referral of patients with hematologic malignancies and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) to palliative care.
CONTEXT: Cancer patients' comfort near the end of life is often undermined by unnecessary and burdensome treatments. There is a need for more research examining racial disparities in end-of-life care, especially in regions with a history of racial discrimination.
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether Black adults received more burdensome end-of-life care than White adults in a population-based data set of cancer decedents in Louisiana, a state with a history of slavery and long-standing racial disparities.
METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of end-of-life care from the Research Action for Health Network (REACHnet), a regional PCORI-funded database. The sample consisted of 875 White and 415 Black patients with metastatic cancer who died in Louisiana from 2011-2017. We used logistic regression to examine whether race was associated with five indicators of burdensome care in the last 30 days of life: chemotherapy use, inpatient hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, emergency department (ED) admission, and mechanical ventilation.
RESULTS: Most patients (85.0%) received at least one indicator of burdensome care: hospitalization (76.5 %), ICU admission (44.1%), chemotherapy (29.1%), mechanical ventilation (23.0%), ED admission (18.3%). Odds Ratios (ORs) indicated that Black individuals were more likely than White individuals to be hospitalized (OR=1.66, 95% CI: 1.21 to 2.28, p=.002) or admitted to the ED (OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.16 to 2.13, p=.004) during their last month of life.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings have implications for informing healthcare decision making near the end of life for patients, families, and clinicians, especially in regions with a history of racial discrimination and disparities.
OBJECTIVES: To report on direct experiences from advanced head and neck cancer patients, family carers and healthcare professionals, and the barriers to integrating specialist palliative care.
METHODS: Using a naturalistic, interpretative approach, within Northwest England, a purposive sample of adult head and neck cancer patients was selected. Their family carers were invited to participate. Healthcare professionals (representing head and neck surgery and specialist nursing; oncology; specialist palliative care; general practice and community nursing) were recruited. All participants underwent face-to-face or telephone interviews. A thematic approach, using a modified version of Colazzi's framework, was used to analyze the data.
RESULTS: Seventeen interviews were conducted (9 patients, 4 joint with family carers and 8 healthcare professionals). Two main barriers were identified by healthcare professionals: "lack of consensus about timing of Specialist Palliative Care engagement" and "high stake decisions with uncertainty about treatment outcome." The main barrier identified by patients and family carers was "lack of preparedness when transitioning from curable to incurable disease." There were 2 overlapping themes from both groups: "uncertainty about meeting psychological needs" and "misconceptions of palliative care."
CONCLUSIONS: Head and neck cancer has a less predictable disease trajectory, where complex decisions are made and treatment outcomes are less certain. Specific focus is needed to define the optimal way to initiate Specialist Palliative Care referrals which may differ from those used for the wider cancer population. Clearer ways to effectively communicate goals of care are required potentially involving collaboration between Specialist Palliative Care and the wider head and neck cancer team.
Background: A systematic understanding of socio-economic inequalities in end-of-life (EOL) suffering among advanced cancer patients is required to inform efforts to reduce these inequalities as part of Universal Health Coverage goals.
Aims: To assess inequalities in multiple domains of EOL suffering among advanced cancer patients – physical, functional, psychological, social, and spiritual –, using two socio-economic status (SES) indicators, education and perceived economic status of the household.
Methods: We used cross-sectional data from surveys of stage IV cancer patients (n = 1378) from seven hospitals across five countries (China, Sri Lanka, India, Vietnam and Myanmar). We conducted separate multivariable linear regression models for each EOL suffering domain. We also tested interactions between the two SES indicators and between each SES indicator and patient age.
Results: Patients living in low economic status households /with fewer years of education reported greater suffering in several domains. We also found significant interaction effects between economic status of the household and years of education for all EOL suffering outcomes. Age significantly moderated the association between economic status of the household and social suffering and between years of education and psychological, social, and spiritual suffering (p < 0.05 for all).
Conclusion: Results highlight that SES inequalities in EOL suffering vary depending on the suffering domain, the SES indicator assessed, and by patient age. Greater palliative care resources for patients with low SES may help reduce these inequalities.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore health professional, patient, family, and caregiver perceptions of palliative care, availability of palliative care services to patients across South Dakota, and consistency and quality of palliative care delivery.
METHODS: Six focus groups were conducted over two months. Participants included interprofessional healthcare team members, patients, family members of patients, and caregivers. Individuals with palliative care experiences or interest in palliative care were invited to participate. Recruitment strategies included emails, flyers, and direct contact by members of the Network. Snowball sampling was used to recruit participants.
RESULTS: Forty-six participants included patients, family members, caregivers and interprofessional health care team members. Most participants were Caucasian (93.3%) and female (80%). Six primary themes emerged: Need for guidance toward the development of a holistic statewide palliative care model; Poor conceptual understanding and awareness; Insufficient resources to implement complete care in all South Dakota communities; Disparities in the availability and provision of care services in rural SD communities; Need for relationship and connection with palliative care team; and Secondary effects of palliative care on patients/family/caregivers and interprofessional healthcare team members. Significance of Results: Disproportionate access is a principle problem identified for palliative care in rural South Dakota. Palliative care is poorly understood by providers and recipients of care. Service reach is also tempered by lack of resources and payer reimbursement constraints. A model for palliative care in these rural communities requires concerted attention to their unique needs and design of services suited for the rural residents.
BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has aggressively reached the most vulnerable, not only the elderly but also patients with chronic conditions such as cancer. In this study, we present the outlines of ethical thinking and the measures implemented to try to respect our basic values of care, in the specific environment of an oncology hospital.
METHODS: Our ethics committee created an ethical watch system based on 24/7 shifts to assist practitioners in their daily decisions. We discuss the challenges faced by patients with cancer during the pandemic, such as access to critical care and ethical dilemmas in the context of resource scarcity, as well as the issue of isolation of patients. We also debate the restrictions in access to oncology care in a health context strongly 'prioritised' against COVID-19.
RESULTS: In all areas of an ethical dilemma, either for sorting out access to critical care or for the dramatic consequences of prolonged isolation of patients, our common thread was our attempt to protect, whenever possible, the principles of deontological ethics by strictly resisting utilitarian pressure. Respecting democratic health decision-making processes is a cornerstone of ethically relevant decisions, including in the context of a sanitary crisis.
CONCLUSION: The role of an ethics committee related to real-life situations includes not only a reflexive perspective in respect of fundamental principles, but also the help to enlighten and resolve ethical dilemmas in complex clinical situations. This ethical watch team assists physicians in decision-making, promoting the supportive and palliative dimension of care with a holistic approach.
Palliative care has potential to improve quality of life and goal-concordant care for patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD). However, it is rarely employed prior to critical illness because the best methods for implementation are not well-defined. We qualitatively evaluated ACHD patients' understanding of and opinions regarding palliative care and advance care planning (ACP) to better define the needs of this population. We conducted a thematic analysis of 25 semi-structured interviews with patients with ACHD in which we assessed participants' perspectives on the need for, and barriers and facilitators to, the use of palliative care and ACP. In a group of participants with ACHD (mean age 38, 48% male) classified as simple (24%), moderate (32%), or complex (44%), we identified 4 major themes: 1) using knowledge to combat future uncertainties; 2) unfamiliarity with and limited exposure to palliative care and ACP; 3) facilitators and barriers to engaging in palliative care and ACP; and 4) importance of timing and presentation of ACP discussions. In conclusion, participants expressed a desire for knowledge about ACHD progression and treatment. They supported routine incorporation of palliative care and ACP and identified related facilitators and barriers to doing so. Importantly, timing and format of these discussions must be individualized using shared decision-making between clinicians, patients, and their families.
The Institute of Medicine reports lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals having the highest rates of tobacco, alcohol and drug use leading to elevated cancer risks. Due to fear of discrimination and lack of healthcare practitioner education, LGBT patients may be more likely to present with advanced stages of cancer resulting in suboptimal palliative care. The purpose of this scoping review is to explore what is known from the existing literature about the barriers to providing culturally competent cancer-related palliative care to LGBT patients. This review will use the five-stage framework for conducting a scoping review developed by Arksey and O'Malley. The PubMed, Scopus, PsychINFO and Cochrane electronic databases were searched resulting in 1,442 citations. Eligibility criteria consisted of all peer-reviewed journal articles in the English language between 2007 and 2020 resulting in 10 manuscripts. Barriers to palliative cancer care for the LGBT include discrimination, criminalisation, persecution, fear, distress, social isolation, disenfranchised grief, bereavement, tacit acknowledgment, homophobia and mistrust of healthcare providers. Limited healthcare-specific knowledge by both providers and patients, poor preparation of legal aspects of advanced care planning and end-of-life care were underprovided to LGBT persons. As a result of these barriers, palliative care is likely to be provided for LGBT patients with cancer in a deficient manner, perpetuating marginalisation and healthcare inequities. Minimal research investigates these barriers and healthcare curriculums do not provide practitioners skills for administering culturally sensitive palliative care to LGBT patients.
In this paper we document some of the practical aspects of implementing medical assistance in dying (MAiD) since it became legal in Canada in 2016. The percentage of annual deaths in Canada due to MAiD varies widely, ranging from less than 0.5% in some areas to over 5% in others. By the end of 2019, approximately 13,000 people had an assisted death in Canada (1.6% of all deaths). The average age is 73 years and the majority have cancer (64%), followed by end-stage organ failure (17%), and neurological disease (11%). The safeguards in Canadian law include having two witnesses sign the patient request form, having two independent clinicians agree that the patient is eligible, and requiring a 10-day waiting period after the request is made. Although the criminal law is federal and applies throughout the nation, health services managed provincially, and there are many different models of care being used. Some provinces have standardized prescriptions and procedures for assisted dying with centralized care coordinators supporting both patients and providers. Other provinces expect individual providers to manage all aspects of assisted dying. The procedure and medications are provided free of charge to patients, but it took years before many providers were remunerated for their services. Access for patients has been a problem because there are too few providers of care (especially in rural areas), and many people have difficulty getting accurate information about the process. Many faith-based health care facilities continue to refuse to allow assisted dying within their facilities, so patients requesting MAiD need to be transferred to other locations in their last hours of life. Solutions to these problems have included the development of more training and support for providers and the creation of coordinating centres that provide information and support for patients throughout the process. Telemedicine is used for assessment of eligibility when required, especially during the COVID pandemic. There are similarities in problems of access to all end of life care options, including palliative care and residential hospices. The relationships between providers of assisted dying and specialists in palliative care vary, and examples exist throughout the spectrum from collegial to hostile. This is slowly improving, as individual clinicians gain more experience with patients choosing assisted dying. Public culture is changing as there are more conversations occurring about death and dying.
Background: Providing equitable care to patients in need across the life course is a priority for many healthcare systems.
Aim: To estimate socioeconomic inequality trends in the proportions of decedents that died in the community and that received palliative care within 30 days of death (including home visits and specialist/generalist physician encounters).
Design: Cohort study based on health administrative data. Socioeconomic position was measured by area-level material deprivation. Inequality gaps were quantified annually and longitudinally using the slope index of inequality (absolute gap) and relative index of inequality (relative gap).
Setting/Participants: A total of 729,290 decedents aged >=18 years in Ontario, Canada from 2009 to 2016.
Results: In 2016, the modelled absolute gap (corresponding 95% confidence interval) between the most- and least-deprived neighbourhoods in community deaths was 4.0% (2.9–5.1%), which was 8.6% (6.2–10.9%) of the overall mean (46.6%). Relative to 2009, these inequalities declined modestly. Inequalities in 2016 were evident for palliative home visits (6.8% (5.8–7.8%) absolute gap, 26.3% (22.5–30.0%) relative gap) and for physician encounters (6.8% (5.7–7.9%) absolute gap, 13.2% (11.0–15.3%) relative gap), and widened from 2009 for physician encounters only on the absolute scale. Inequalities varied considerably across disease trajectories (organ failure, terminal illness, frailty, and sudden death).
Conclusion: Key measures of end-of-life care are not achieved equally across socioeconomic groups. These data can be used to inform policy strategies to improve delivery of palliative and end-of-life services.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review seeks to identify the current prevalence of potentially life-limiting respiratory conditions among those who have experienced homelessness, incarceration or had criminal justice involvement, and current developments in, and barriers to, delivery of supportive and palliative respiratory care to these populations. These structurally vulnerable populations are known to be growing, their health behaviours more risky, and their morbidity and mortality higher, with evidence of accelerated ageing.
RECENT FINDINGS: Most studies identified investigated prevalence of respiratory conditions, which were found to be high. In contrast, only one study directly explored supportive and palliative care (in a prison population) and none considered or addressed palliative and end-of-life needs of these populations, or mechanisms to address them. There was an absence of qualitative work and studies of the impact on, or role of, family, friends or informal networks.
SUMMARY: There is a need for evidence-based interventions to reduce the risk of communicable respiratory conditions and a greater understanding of disease trajectories and management for these vulnerable populations, including provision of accessible appropriate supportive, palliative and end-of-life care.
As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to impact the seriously ill and their families on a global scale, considerations given to marginalized groups amid the pandemic are essential to ensure the provision of high-quality and dignified care. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gender-nonconforming, and queer/questioning-identified (LGBTQ+) persons are particularly vulnerable to health inequities across settings, including palliative care and at the end of life. There is a crucial gap in the literature pertaining to palliative care for LGBTQ+ populations during COVID-19. We aim to fill this gap by providing essential health inequity and social support background pertaining to LGBTQ+ persons and practical recommendations for immediate implementation that support inclusive and respectful care for these populations. Using these recommendations is a pragmatic pathway to promote trust, transparency, patient and family engagement, and value concordant care amid the health system strain caused by COVID-19.
In late February and early March 2020, Italy became the European epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite increasingly stringent containment measures enforced by the government, the health system faced an enormous pressure, and extraordinary efforts were made in order to increase overall hospital beds' availability and especially ICU capacity. Nevertheless, the hardest-hit hospitals in Northern Italy experienced a shortage of ICU beds and resources that led to hard allocating choices. At the beginning of March 2020, the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation, and Intensive Care (SIAARTI) issued recommendations aimed at supporting physicians in prioritizing patients when the number of critically ill patients overwhelm the capacity of ICUs. One motivating concern for the SIAARTI guidance was that, if no balanced and consistent allocation procedures were applied to prioritize patients, there would be a concrete risk for unfair choices, and that the prevalent "first come, first served" principle would lead to many avoidable deaths. Among the drivers of decision for admission to ICUs, age, comorbidities, and preexisting functional status were included. The recommendations were criticized as ageist and potentially discriminatory against elderly patients. Looking forward to the next steps, the Italian experience can be relevant to other parts of the world that are yet to see a significant surge of COVID-19: the need for transparent triage criteria and commonly shared values give the Italian recommendations even greater legitimacy.