Palliative care has been defined as specialized care for patients facing serious illnesses. Despite advancements in the field and studies documenting the effectiveness of early palliative care (PC) interventions in seriously ill patients, the fields of hematologic malignancies and bone marrow transplant still lag behind of a comprehensive framework for early and effective interventions. The aim of this literature review is to analyze and discuss the possible barriers to care and delayed referrals for hematologic malignancies and bone marrow transplant patients. Using the EBSCO and PubMed databases, articles regarding PC among patients with hematologic malignancies and bone marrow transplant were analyzed. There are three main domains with its respective barriers in PC: physicians, patients and caregivers, and the healthcare system. Issues that were identified included the lack of knowledge and misconceptions about PC among physicians, patients, and caregivers, delayed referral of patients with hematologic malignancies, unrealistic treatment expectations, lack of communication between specialties, difficulties with appointment availability, geographical distance between clinics, and lack of insurance coverage for PC services. We suggest possible alternatives including obligatory continuing medical education (CME) credits, loan forgiveness, rotations during residency and fellowship training, use of informational videos and pamphlets to educate patients and caregivers, obligatory early consults despite prognosis, an algorithm to evaluate patient's needs, creating a platform within electronic medical records (EMR) systems shared by specialties, and having PC service in every cancer center. Findings suggest a need for further studies aimed towards implementing solutions to increase the early referral of patients with hematologic malignancies and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) to palliative care.
Limited information is available describing advance care planning (ACP) within correctional facilities, despite its increasing relevance due to the ageing population in prisons and the high rates of complex medical comorbidities. In Western countries, self-determination with respect to making future medical decisions is a human right that prisoners do not lose when they are remanded into custody. ACP enables individuals to plan for their health and personal care so their values, beliefs and preferences are made known to inform future decision-making, for a time when they can no longer communicate their decisions. This paper examines the limited academic literature relating to ACP within prisons to identify barriers and facilitators that influence the uptake of ACP and advance care directive (ACD) documentation. Common themes related to ACP in a correctional setting were extracted and synthesised to produce a high-level analysis of barriers and facilitators influencing ACP uptake for prisoners within a correctional setting.
BACKGROUND: Patients receiving palliative care may benefit greatly when their existential or spiritual strengths are fostered. To date however, there has not been a comprehensive literature review of patient and care professional approaches that are available.
AIMS: To describe and synthesise existential or spiritual strength-based approaches within the context of palliative care.
METHODS: Literature search of 2436 articles between January 1999 and March 2019 in Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL and PsycINFO. Articles were included if they deal with a palliative care situation, focus on the patient, specific existential/spiritual strength, discernible strength approach and an analysis of the workings of that approach. The interpretative synthesis consisted of a thematic analysis of the included articles and an integration of themes.
RESULTS: In the 14 included articles, 5 different strengths were found to be fostered by 16 approaches: (1) Meaning was fostered by: maintaining normalcy, experiencing sanctuaries, reassessing importance and reconstructing positive self; (2) Connection by: opening up, giving/receiving care and envisioning continuation; (3) Agency by: maintaining control, refocusing goals and continuous adaptation; (4) Hope through: setting special targets, imagining alternate outcomes, building a collection and extending wishes; (5) Faith through: living the tradition and relating to a benevolent force. Strengths and approaches are visualised in an overarching analytical framework: 'the Propeller'.
CONCLUSIONS: The constructed Propeller framework can be used to become aware of, apply and further develop approaches to foster existential or spiritual strengths among patients receiving palliative care.
INTRODUCTION: Both solid organ transplant candidates and recipients and their family caregivers have complex care needs and may benefit from palliative care. But palliative care is not often considered as part of transplant care despite palliative care being promoted as an important component of transplant care both before and after solid organ transplantation. Further, the current state of the science of palliative care in solid organ transplantation has not been well-documented.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the state of the science of palliative care in solid organ transplant and identify gaps in the literature.
METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched using controlled vocabulary words and synonymous free text to find articles on palliative care and solid organ transplant. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and checklist were also used.
RESULTS: Twenty articles were included in the final review for synthesis, 18 of which involved transplants for adults only. Twelve articles described palliative care for patients before transplant, four articles examined palliative care for patients after transplant, primarily at the end-of-life, and four articles described transplant provider perspectives on palliative care. The reviewed evidence suggested that patients could be benefited by palliative care both pre and posttransplant, particularly for symptom management and advance care planning and that transplant providers faced many barriers to implementing palliative care in practice.
DISCUSSION: There is limited research on palliative care following solid organ transplantation, particularly outside of hospice care. Much of the prior research on this topic has described adult patients.
Ensuring burn patients get appropriate care without pursuing futile treatment has always constituted a challenging balance for burn surgeons. Patients with no prospect of cure who eventually die should potentially experience more comfortable and peaceful end-of-life (EoL) care. Recognizing that death for some patients is inevitable and can only be postponed but not avoided would open the way to a more humane comfort care for such patients. Though comfort EoL services are still not universal in burns intensive care units (ICU) and disparities still exist in access, and use of palliative care appears underutilized, its integration in the burns ICU has increased over the past decade with undeniable benefits. Palliative care consultations should be considered in select burn patients for whom survival is highly unlikely.
BACKGROUND: Given the increase in the number of deaths within long-term care facilities (LTCFs), the need for palliative and end-of-life (EOL) care education among such facilities has been increasing. As such, a systematic synthesis of global palliative and EOL care educational approaches and evaluation can aid further educational development.
OBJECTIVE: To synthesise the current literature on palliative and EOL care educational interventions for staff working in LTCFs and identify barriers to, and facilitators of, intervention implementation.
METHODS: The study used an integrative review framework wherein indexed databases, namely, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Japan Medical Abstract Society, were systematically searched for studies published in English and Japanese between 2007 and 2019. Search terms that are related to palliative care, LTCF, and education were combined to increase search sensitivity. The quality of the papers was assessed using Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools and the Mixed-Methods Appraisal Tool.
RESULTS: A total of 52 studies were included in the review. Our results suggested that although studies in this area and setting have been evolving, suboptimal developmental research and educational practices, global variability and unstandardised approaches to education and lacking viewpoints from service users have remained. Barriers to intervention implementation were also reported due to the specific characteristics of LTCFs, which include high staff turnover and considerable variation in professional skills and experience.
CONCLUSIONS: Given the different LTCF types, systems and policies across each country or region, further research on standardised educational interventions with contextual considerations using large-scale studies with robust methodology is needed to meet the increasing demand for palliative and EOL care among the global ageing population.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Palliative and EOL care educational intervention for LTCF staff need to include more consideration of context, organisational culture and the user involvement throughout the process of education and research to enhance the quality of care in this complex setting.
BACKGROUND: Local radiation therapy (RT) can provide pain relief and reduce bleeding resulting from pleural or peritoneal dissemination of primary tumors. However, the optimal RT exposure dose for such tumors is unclear and the response rate is unknown. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of palliative RT for pleural or peritoneal disseminated tumors to determine the optimal dose in these patients.
METHODS: The data of 22 patients with pleural- or peritoneal-disseminated tumors who were treated with local RT at our institution between 2011 and 2019 were retrospectively reviewed.
RESULTS: Among these patients, 9 (40.9%) had pleural tumors, 13 (59.1%) had peritoneal tumors and 2 had tumors in the peritoneum and umbilicus. The most common primary tumors were lung (22.8%) and pancreatic cancer (18.2%). RT was mainly administered for pain alleviation (72.7%). Three patients (13.6%) received RT for hemostasis. Thirteen patients (59.1%) received a regimen of 30 Gy/10 fractions (fr), with the total dosage for all patients ranging from 27 to 56 Gy. No grade 2 or higher RT-related adverse events occurred. Three and four patients obtained complete and partial responses, respectively. The timing of the measurement of response to pain relief ranged from 0 to 232 (median, 21) days upon completion of RT. Overall response to pain relief occurred in nine of 16 patients (56.3%) with pain before RT. Hemostasis was confirmed in 2 of the 3 patients (66.7%) with bleeding before RT. Twelve of 20 (60%) patients with symptoms before RT responded to RT. Disease-specific survival (DSS) time after RT ranged from 1 to 656 (median, 106) days.
CONCLUSIONS: Prompt palliative administration of RT to patients with advanced disease to alleviate pain from disseminated tumors may achieve therapeutic efficacy.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a public health burden worldwide for its increasing incidence and prevalence, high impact on the health related quality of life (HRQoL) and life expectancy, and high personal and social cost. Patients with advanced CKD, in dialysis or not, suffer a burden from symptoms very similar to other chronic diseases and have a life span not superior to many malignancies. Accordingly, in recent years, renal palliative care has been recommended to be integrated in the traditional care delivered to this population. This research provides an updated overview on renal palliative care from the relevant literature.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this scoping review is to examine and map interventions of palliative rehabilitation that are implemented and evaluated in palliative care.
INTRODUCTION: Palliative rehabilitation is defined as the process of helping an individual with a progressive, frequently advanced and/or incurable disease reach their physical, psychological, and social potential consistent with physiological and environmental limitations and life preferences. Therefore, it is essential to examine and map interventions of palliative rehabilitation that are implemented and evaluated in palliative care.
INCLUSION CRITERIA: This scoping review will consider all studies that focus on qualified health care professionals working in palliative care who are caring for patients 18 years of age or older, and studies that focus on the concepts of palliative rehabilitation interventions. This scoping review will consider all palliative rehabilitation interventions implemented and evaluated in the context of palliative care.
METHODS: The search strategy aims to find published and unpublished studies. The databases to be searched will include: CINAHL Complete, PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and PEDro. The search for unpublished studies will include: DART-Europe, OpenGrey, and RCAAP. Studies published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, and studies that were carried out between 2009 and 2019 will be considered for inclusion. Retrieved papers will be screened for inclusion by two reviewers. Data will be extracted and presented in tabular form and a narrative summary that aligns with the review's objective. Any disagreements that arise between the reviewers will be resolved through discussion or with a third reviewer.
Background/Objectives: Advance care planning (ACP) has shown benefit in some, but not all, studies. It is important to understand the utility of ACP. We conducted a scoping review to identify promising interventions and outcomes.
Design : Scoping review.
Measurements: We searched MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science for ACP randomized controlled trials from January 1, 2010, to March 3, 2020. We used standardized Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses methods to chart study characteristics, including a standardized ACP Outcome Framework: Process (e.g., readiness), Action (e.g., communication), Quality of Care (e.g., satisfaction), Health Status (e.g., anxiety), and Healthcare Utilization. Differences between arms of P < .05 were deemed positive.
Results : Of 1,464 articles, 69 met eligibility; 94% were rated high quality. There were variable definitions, age criteria (=18 to =80 years), diseases (e.g., dementia and cancer), and settings (e.g., outpatient and inpatient). Interventions included facilitated discussions (42%), video only (20%), interactive, multimedia (17%), written only (12%), and clinician training (9%). For written only, 75% of primary outcomes were positive, as were 69% for multimedia programs; 67% for facilitated discussions, 59% for video only, and 57% for clinician training. Overall, 72% of Process and 86% of Action outcomes were positive. For Quality of Care, 88% of outcomes were positive for patient-surrogate/clinician congruence, 100% for patients/surrogate/clinician satisfaction with communication, and 75% for surrogate satisfaction with patients' care, but not for goal concordance. For Health Status outcomes, 100% were positive for reducing surrogate/clinician distress, but not for patient quality of life. Healthcare Utilization data were mixed.
Conclusion : ACP is complex, and trial characteristics were heterogeneous. Outcomes for all ACP interventions were predominantly positive, as were Process and Action outcomes. Although some Quality of Care and Health Status outcomes were mixed, increased patient/surrogate satisfaction with communication and care and decreased surrogate/clinician distress were positive. Further research is needed to appropriately tailor interventions and outcomes for local contexts, set appropriate expectations of ACP outcomes, and standardize across studies.
BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) and general practice nurses (GPNs) face increasing demands to provide palliative care (PC) or end-of-life care (EoLC) as the population ages. In order to maximise the impact of GPs and GPNs, the impact of different models of care that have been developed to support their practice of EoLC needs to be understood.
OBJECTIVE: To examine published models of EoLC that incorporate or support GP and GPN practice, and their impact on patients, families and the health system.
METHOD: Systematic literature review. Data included papers (2000 to 2017) sought from Medline, Psychinfo, Embase, Joanna Briggs Institute and Cochrane databases.
RESULTS: From 6209 journal articles, 13 papers reported models of care supporting the GP and GPN's role in EoLC or PC practice. Services and guidelines for clinical issues have mixed impact on improving symptoms, but improved adherence to clinical guidelines. National Frameworks facilitated patients being able to die in their preferred place. A single specialist PC-GP case conference reduced hospitalisations, better maintained functional capacity and improved quality of life parameters in both patients with cancer and without cancer. No studies examined models of care aimed at supporting GPNs.
CONCLUSIONS: Primary care practitioners have a natural role to play in EoLC, and most patient and health system outcomes are substantially improved with their involvement. Successful integrative models need to be tested, particularly in non-malignant diseases. Such models need to be explored further. More work is required on the role of GPNs and how to support them in this role.
Background: Over the last two decades an increasing number of countries have legalized euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (EAS) leading to considerable debate over the inherent ethical dilemmas. Increasing numbers of people with personality disorders, faced with unbearable suffering, have requested and received assistance in terminating their lives. EAS in people with personality disorders has, however, received very sparse attention from clinicians and researchers. In this paper, we examine the literature on the practice and prevalence of EAS in people with personality disorders to date and discuss the associated challenges for research and practice.
Methods: Narrative review of the literature combined with the authors' collective experience and knowledge of personality disorders.
Results: In six of the eight countries where EAS is currently legal, mental disorders are accepted as disorders for which EAS may be granted. In four of these countries, EAS in minors with mental disorders is also accepted. Our literature search resulted in 9 papers on the subject of EAS in people with personality disorders. These studies suggest that most clinicians who grant EAS have indeed perceived their patients' suffering as chronic, unbearable and untreatable without prospect of improvement. The majority of patients with personality disorders had tried some form of psychotherapy, but very few had received any of the relevant evidence-based treatments. The decision to grant EAS based on a perception of the patient's illness as being untreatable with no prospect of improvement, could, thus, in many cases fail to meet the due care criteria listed in EAS laws. People with personality disorders more often wish for death for extended periods of time than people without these disorders. However, there is ample empirical data to show that suicidal tendencies and behaviour can be treated and that they fluctuate rapidly over time.
Conclusions: In light of our findings, we believe that the current legislation and practice of EAS for people with personality disorders is based on an inadequate understanding of underlying psychopathology and a lack of awareness about the contemporary treatment literature. Moreover, we assert that this practice neglects the individual's potential for having a life worth living.
BACKGROUND: The increased number of deaths in the community happening as a result of COVID-19 has caused primary healthcare services to change their traditional service delivery in a short timeframe. Services are quickly adapting to new challenges in the practical delivery of end-of-life care to patients in the community including through virtual consultations and in the provision of timely symptom control.
AIM: To synthesise existing evidence related to the delivery of palliative and end-of-life care by primary healthcare professionals in epidemics and pandemics.
DESIGN: Rapid systematic review using modified systematic review methods, with narrative synthesis of the evidence.
DATA SOURCES: Searches were carried out in Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL and Web of Science on 7th March 2020.
RESULTS: Only five studies met the inclusion criteria, highlighting a striking lack of evidence base for the response of primary healthcare services in palliative care during epidemics and pandemics. All were observational studies. Findings were synthesised using a pandemic response framework according to 'systems' (community providers feeling disadvantaged in terms of receiving timely information and protocols), 'space' (recognised need for more care in the community), 'staff' (training needs and resilience) and 'stuff' (other aspects of managing care in pandemics including personal protective equipment, cleaning care settings and access to investigations).
CONCLUSIONS: As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, there is an urgent need for research to provide increased understanding of the role of primary care and community nursing services in palliative care, alongside hospices and community specialist palliative care providers.
The Institute of Medicine reports lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals having the highest rates of tobacco, alcohol and drug use leading to elevated cancer risks. Due to fear of discrimination and lack of healthcare practitioner education, LGBT patients may be more likely to present with advanced stages of cancer resulting in suboptimal palliative care. The purpose of this scoping review is to explore what is known from the existing literature about the barriers to providing culturally competent cancer-related palliative care to LGBT patients. This review will use the five-stage framework for conducting a scoping review developed by Arksey and O'Malley. The PubMed, Scopus, PsychINFO and Cochrane electronic databases were searched resulting in 1,442 citations. Eligibility criteria consisted of all peer-reviewed journal articles in the English language between 2007 and 2020 resulting in 10 manuscripts. Barriers to palliative cancer care for the LGBT include discrimination, criminalisation, persecution, fear, distress, social isolation, disenfranchised grief, bereavement, tacit acknowledgment, homophobia and mistrust of healthcare providers. Limited healthcare-specific knowledge by both providers and patients, poor preparation of legal aspects of advanced care planning and end-of-life care were underprovided to LGBT persons. As a result of these barriers, palliative care is likely to be provided for LGBT patients with cancer in a deficient manner, perpetuating marginalisation and healthcare inequities. Minimal research investigates these barriers and healthcare curriculums do not provide practitioners skills for administering culturally sensitive palliative care to LGBT patients.
PURPOSE: Monitoring and improving the quality of palliative and end-of-life cancer care remain pressing needs in the United States. Among existing measures that assess the quality of palliative and end-of-life care, many operationalize similar concepts. We identified existing palliative care process measures and synthesized these measures to aid stakeholder prioritization that will facilitate health system implementation in patients with advanced cancer.
METHODS: We reviewed MEDLINE/PubMed-indexed articles for process quality measures related to palliative and end-of-life care for patients with advanced cancer, supplemented by expert input. Measures were inductively grouped into "measure concepts" and higher-level groups.
RESULTS: Literature review identified 226 unique measures from 23 measure sources, which we grouped into 64 measure concepts within 12 groups. Groups were advance care planning (11 measure concepts), pain (7), dyspnea (9), palliative care-specific issues (6), other specific symptoms (17), comprehensive assessment (2), symptom assessment (1), hospice/palliative care referral (1), spiritual care (2), mental health (5), information provision (2), and culturally appropriate care (1).
CONCLUSION: Measure concepts covered the spectrum of care from acute symptom management to advance care planning and psychosocial needs, with variability in the number of measure concepts per group. This taxonomy of process quality measure concepts can be used by health systems seeking stakeholder input to prioritize targets for improving palliative and end-of-life care quality in patients with advanced cancer.
Background: Understanding end-of-life (EOL) and palliative care continues to grow. However, little attention has been paid to the experiences, preferences, and needs of older lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) women. While some universal expectations or preferences at EOL exist, this population may not receive adequate or appropriate attention or reporting of unique EOL issues and experiences.
Objective: Systematically search for and narratively review existing evidence concerning the expectations, preferences, and needs for palliative and EOL care of LGBTQ older women.
Design: A comprehensive literature review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Articles reporting needs, experiences, and perspectives of palliative care and EOL care among LGBTQ older women were evaluated.
Measurements: Articles published between 1996 and 2019 were retrieved from PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Academic Search Complete, AgeLine, CINHAL, PubMed, LGBT Life, SocINDEX, Women's Studies International, Joanna Briggs Institute, and Open Grey.
Results: A total of 16 articles were included. Articles described several concerns for the overall LGBTQ population; however, additional issues and experiences specific to older LGBTQ women were also identified, including vulnerability associated with isolation and poverty, women's social needs and support networks, and preferences for complementary care.
Conclusion: There remains a need for further research with older LGBTQ women concerning palliative and EOL care, particularly around preparation for EOL and preferences for support. Inclusion of diverse populations in terms of sexual and gender identification are needed to fully understand how to provide appropriate and preferred support.
BACKGROUND: End-of-life care is high on policy and political agendas in the UK and internationally. Nurses are at the forefront of this, caring for dying patients, 'managing' the dead body, and dealing with the corporeal, emotional and relational dimensions of death. Little is known about nurses' prior or early professional experiences of and reactions to death, dying and the corpse and how these might influence practice.
AIMS: To appraise the international literature on nurses' early experiences of death, dying and the dead body, to better understand how these might influence subsequent practice, and how this might inform our teaching of death, dying and last offices.
METHODS: A scoping review was undertaken of peer-reviewed publications between, 2000 and 2019, which included nurses working in hospital, care homes and the community. Medline, PubMed, PsychINFO and CINAHL databases were searched and 23 papers meeting the inclusion criteria were read. Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) five-stage approach was adopted to scope the relevant international literature, using where relevant the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Selected papers were independently reviewed and subjected to thematic analysis, leading to the generation of five overarching themes.
RESULTS: The five themes were: different philosophies of care; relationships; knowledge; impact of death; and giving care. The studies came from diverse geographical locations across different settings and were primarily qualitative in design.
CONCLUSIONS: Students and registered nurses are impacted both positively and negatively by their early encounters with death and dying. Good communication with patients, families and between professionals, understanding of what constitutes a 'good' death, and high-quality mentorship and support were of particular importance.
INTRODUCTION: Caring for terminally ill children influences nurses' and allied health provider's quality of life, ability to provide personalized, dignified and empathetic care and even their concepts of personhood. In the absence of data this review utilizes the Ring Theory of Personhood (RToP) to evaluate how a physician's concept of personhood is affected caring for terminally ill children in order to better support them holistically.
METHODS: Using PRISMA Guidelines, 14 researchers carried out independent searches of PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library and gray literature databases for articles published between 2000 to 2019. Concurrent and independent employment of content and thematic analysis (Split Approach) was used to enhance the trustworthiness of the analysis.
RESULTS: 13,424 titles and abstracts were retrieved, 188 full texts were evaluated, and 39 articles were included and analyzed. Identical categories and themes identified using the Split Approach suggest that caring for dying children in PPC impacts the physician's professional identity, clinical decision making, personal well-being and relationships. The data also suggests that the magnitude of these effects depends on the presence of protective and risk factors.
CONCLUSION: Aside from providing a novel insight into the upon the physician, this review proffers a unique approach to accounting for the presence, magnitude and influence of incoming catalysts, resultant conflicts, and protective and risk factors upon the physician's personhood. Further studies into the changes in personhood are required. Design of a personalized assessment tool based on the RToP will help direct timely, appropriate and personalized support to these physicians.
BACKGROUND: Increasing age is accompanied by a greater need for medical decisions, due in part to age-related increases in chronic disease and disability. In later life, medical decisions about end-of-life care in particular are likely. However, a significant percentage of these decisions are made by surrogate decision-makers. "Surrogates" are most often instructed to use the substituted judgment standard and make decisions that patients would choose if they were able. Whether surrogates make decisions that adequately match patients' preferences is a concern. Surrogates are generally poor predictors of patient preferences (Shalowitz et al., 2006). However, no critical review of this literature has yet been published.
METHOD: A critical review was conducted to summarise and provide a methodological critique of 25 studies.
RESULTS: These studies generally concur that patient-surrogate agreement on medical decisions is poor. However, this conclusion is qualified by inconsistencies in methodological quality and the potentially limited generalisability of these findings.
CONCLUSIONS: Clinical research incorporating standardised hypothetical decision-making protocols, as well as triangulated data collection methods, would bolster confidence in future findings. Investigations prioritising the surrogate decision-making process, rather than solely the decisional outcome, could better identify ways to improve the decision-making process for incapacitated patients.
OBJECTIVE: This review will explore definitions of early palliative care and describe how it has been implemented for those diagnosed with a life-limiting chronic illness.
INTRODUCTION: People with life-limiting chronic illnesses who receive palliative care interventions have increased quality of life, better symptom management, and are more likely to have advance care plans than patients who do not. It is therefore best practice to encourage early identification of those in need of palliative care services. However, there is uncertainty over what is considered to be "early palliative care" and this presents a barrier to evaluating outcomes associated with it.
INCLUSION CRITERIA: All literature that defines an early palliative care approach in adults (aged 18+) with a life-limiting chronic illness will be included in this review.
METHODS: This scoping review will be completed using the JBI scoping review methodology. A comprehensive search of academic and gray literature using MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCO), Embase (Ovid), PsycINFO (Ovid), Web of Science Core Collection, Ovid Cochrane Library, and ProQuest (Health and Medicine and Sociology Collections) will be utilized. Once screened by two reviewers, results will be extracted using a customized tool and summarized into a final report using a narrative synthesis presented in table form.