Purpose: Lack of appreciation of cultural differences may compromise care for seriously ill minority patients, yet culturally appropriate models of palliative care (PC) are not currently available in the United States. Rural patients with life-limiting illness are at high risk of not receiving PC. Developing a PC model that considers the cultural preferences of rural African Americans (AAs) and White (W) citizens is crucial. The goal of this study was to develop and determine the feasibility of implementing a culturally based PC tele-consult program for rural Southern AA and W elders with serious illness and their families, and assess its acceptability to patients, their family members, and clinicians.
Methods: This was a three-phase study conducted in rural Beaufort, South Carolina, from January 2013 to February 2016. We used Community-Based Participatory Research methods, including a Community Advisory Group (CAG) with equal numbers of AA and W members, to guide the study. Phase 1: Cultural values and preferences were determined through ethnic-based focus groups comprising family members (15 W and 16 AA) who had cared for a loved one who died within the past year. We conducted a thematic analysis of focus group transcripts, focused on cultural values and preferences, which was used as the basis for the study protocol. Phase 2: Protocol Development: We created a protocol team of eight CAG members, two researchers, two hospital staff members, and a PC physician. The PC physician explained the standard clinical guidelines for conducting PC consults, and CAG members proposed culturally appropriate programmatic recommendations for their ethnic group for each theme. All recommendations were incorporated into an ethnic-group specific protocol. Phase 3: The culturally based PC protocol was implemented by the PC physician via telehealth in the local hospital. We enrolled patients age =65 with a life-limiting illness who had a family caregiver referred by a hospitalist to receive the PC consult. To assess feasibility of program delivery, including its acceptability to patients, caregivers, and hospital staff, using Donebedian's Structure-Process-Outcome model, we measured patient/caregiver satisfaction with the culturally based consult by using an adaptation of FAMCARE-2.
Results: Phase 1: Themes between W and AA were (1) equivalent: for example, disrespectful treatment of patients and family by hospital physicians; (2) similar but with variation: for example, although religion and church were important to both groups, and pastors in both ethnic groups helped family face the reality of end of life, AA considered the church unreservedly central to every aspect of life; (3) divergent, for example, AAs strongly believed that hope and miracles were always a possibility and that God was the decider, a theme not present in the W group. Phase 2: We incorporated ethnic group-specific recommendations for the culturally based PC consult into the standard PC consult. Phase 3: We tested feasibility and acceptability of the ethnically specific PC consult on 18 of 32 eligible patients. The telehealth system worked well. PC MD implementation fidelity was 98%. Most patients were non-verbal and could not rate satisfaction with consult; however, caregivers were satisfied or very satisfied. Hospital leadership supported program implementation, but hospitalists only referred 18 out of 28 eligible patients.
Conclusions: The first culturally based PC consult program in the United States was developed in partnership with AA and W Southern rural community members. This program was feasible to implement in a small rural hospital but low referral by hospitalists was the major obstacle. Program effectiveness is currently being tested in a randomized clinical trial in three southern, rural states in partnership with hospitalists. This method can serve as a model that can be replicated and adapted to other settings and with other ethnic groups.
Mounting evidence supports oncology organizations' recommendations of early palliative care as a cancer care best practice for patients with advanced cancer and/or high symptom burden. However, few trials on which these best practices are based have included rural and remote community-based oncology care. Therefore, little is known about whether early palliative care models are applicable in these low-resource areas. This literature synthesis identifies some of the challenges of integrating palliative care in rural and remote cancer care. Prominent themes include being mindful of rural culture; adapting traditional geographically based specialty care delivery models to under-resourced rural practices; and using novel palliative care education delivery methods to increase community-based health professional, layperson, and family palliative expertise to account for limited local specialty palliative care resources. Although there are many limitations, many rural and remote communities also have strengths in their capacity to provide high-quality care by capitalizing on close-knit, committed community practitioners, especially if there are receptive local palliative and hospice care champions. Hence, adapting palliative care models, using culturally appropriate novel delivery methods, and providing remote education and support to existing community providers are promising advances to aid rural people to manage serious illness and to die in place. Reformulating health policy and nurturing academic-community partnerships that support best practices are critical components of providing early palliative care for everyone everywhere.
Background: To the authors' knowledge, end-of-life (EOL) care outcomes among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer who are living in poverty remain poorly understood. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the effect of poverty on EOL care for AYA patients with cancer.
Methods: The authors conducted a multisite, retrospective study of AYA patients with cancer aged 15 to 39 years who died between January 2013 and December 2016 at 3 academic sites. Medical record-based EOL care outcomes included hospice referral, palliative care (PC) consultation, cancer treatment within the last month of life, and location of death. Two measures of poverty were applied: 1) zip code with a median income =200% of the federal poverty level; and 2) public insurance or lack of insurance. Logistic regression analyses were conducted.
Results: A total of 252 AYA cancer decedents were identified. Approximately 41% lived in a high-poverty zip code and 48% had public insurance or lacked insurance; approximately 70% had at least 1 poverty indicator. Nearly 40% had a hospice referral, 60% had a PC consultation (76% on an inpatient basis), 38% received EOL cancer treatment, and 39% died in the hospital. In bivariable analyses, AYA patients living in low-income zip codes were found to be less likely to enroll in hospice (P = .01), have an early PC referral (P = .01), or receive EOL cancer treatment (P = .03), although only EOL cancer treatment met statistical significance in multivariable models. No differences with regard to location of death (P = .99) were observed.
Conclusions: AYA patients with cancer experience low rates of hospice referral and high rates of in-hospital death regardless of socioeconomic status. Future studies should evaluate early inpatient PC referrals as a possible method for improving EOL care.
Introduction: Patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) suffer from myriad symptoms due to the systemic effects of the disease and unpredictable acute episodes, which contribute to progressive deterioration in quality of life (QOL). Despite clear evidence that palliative care (PC) improves QOL in other serious illnesses, PC is underutilized and delayed for ESLD patients. Through a comparative effectiveness trial of specialist led consultative PC (Model 1) versus trained hepatologist led PC (Model 2), we aim to build evidence on introducing PC into the routine outpatient care of ESLD patients.
Objective: We hypothesize that trained hepatologist led PC model will have a better improvement in QOL compared to consultative PC model.
Methods: This two-arm, multicenter cluster-randomized trial assesses the effectiveness of two PC models for patients with ESLD. Fourteen clinical centers will recruit 1260 patient-caregiver dyads. Each center is the unit of randomization. Hepatologists at sites randomized to the Model 2 have undergone web-based training in the principles of PC as pertained to ESLD. PC intervention is delivered over four visits (initial, one, two, and three months). Follow-up assessments occur at 6, 9, and 12 months. Eligible patients are those with new onset or ongoing complications of ESLD with a caregiver willing to participate.
Outcomes: The primary outcome is change in patients' QOL from baseline to three months. Secondary outcomes include symptom burden, depression, distress, satisfaction with care, caregiver burden and QOL, goal concordant care, and health care utilization.
Challenges and Contributions Engagement: research advisory board has been developed with representatives from the participating centers, who have provided active feedback on the protocol, outcomes, study methods, and training program.
Intervention Fidelity: Intervention fidelity will be maintained by adherence to a visit agenda and providers in both models completing a PC checklist after each study visit.
Advance care planning (ACP) improves end-of-life care for patients and their caregivers. However, only one-third of adults have participated in ACP and rates are substantially lower among African Americans than among whites. Importantly, ACP improves many domains of care where there are racial disparities in outcomes, including receipt of goal-concordant care, hospice use, and provider communication. Yet, few studies have examined the effectiveness of ACP interventions among African Americans. The objectives of reducing disparities in the quality of palliative care for older African Americans through improved advance care planning (EQUAL ACP) are as follows: to compare the effectiveness of two interventions in (1) increasing ACP among African Americans and whites and (2) reducing racial disparities in both ACP and end-of-life care; and to examine whether racial concordance of the interventionist and patient is associated with ACP. EQUAL ACP is a longitudinal, multisite, cluster randomized trial and a qualitative study describing the ACP experience of participants. The study will include 800 adults =65 years of age (half African American and half white) from 10 primary care clinics in the South. Eligible patients have a serious illness (advanced cancer, heart failure, lung disease, etc.), disability in activities of daily living, or recent hospitalization. Patients are followed for one year and participate in either a patient-guided, self-management ACP approach, including a Five Wishes form or structured ACP with Respecting Choices First Steps. The primary outcome is formal or informal ACP—completion of advance directives, documented discussions with clinicians, and other written or verbal communication with surrogate decision makers about care preferences. Secondary outcomes assessed through after-death interviews with surrogates of patients who die during the study include receipt of goal-concordant care, health services use in the last year of life, and satisfaction with care. EQUAL ACP is the first large study to assess which strategies are most effective at both increasing rates of ACP and promoting equitable palliative care outcomes for seriously ill African Americans.
Building on the strong work of previous research agendas (2009-2012, 2012-2015, 2015-2018), the Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association Research Advisory Council developed the 2019-2022 Research Agenda in consultation with Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association (HPNA) membership and assessment of major trends in palliative nursing. The HPNA Research Advisory Council identified 5 priority areas and asked subject experts in each area to summarize the state of the science, identify critical gaps, and provide recommendations for future research. This document expands the executive summary published on the HPNA website (www.advancingexpertcare.org/hpna/) and provides supporting evidence for the 2019-2022 recommendations. The 5 priority areas are as follows: (1) pediatric hospice and palliative nursing research; (2) family caregiving; (3) interprofessional education and collaborative practice; (4) big data science, precision health, and nursing informatics; and (5) implementation science.
BACKGROUND: Intervention trials confirm that patients with advanced cancer receiving early palliative care experience a better quality of life and show improved knowledge about and use of palliative care services. To involve patients in future health-care decisions, health professionals should understand patients' perspectives. However, little is known about how patients' experience such interventions.
AIM: To explore advanced cancer patients' experiences with a structured early palliative care intervention, its acceptability and impact on the patients' life including influencing factors.
DESIGN: Qualitative content analysis of in-depth, semi-structured interviews.
SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Patients with various advanced cancer diagnoses were enrolled in a multicenter randomized controlled trial (NCT01983956), which investigated the impact of "Symptoms, End-of-life decisions, Network, Support," a structured early palliative care intervention, on distress. Of these, 20 patients who underwent the intervention participated in this study.
RESULTS: Participants received the intervention well and gained a better understanding of their personal situation. Patients reported that the intervention can feel "confronting" but with the right timing it can be confirming and facilitate family conversations. Patients' personal background and the intervention timing within their personal disease trajectory influenced their emotional and cognitive experiences; it also impacted their understanding of palliative care and triggered actions toward future care planning.
CONCLUSION: Early palliative care interventions like "Symptoms, End-of-life decisions, Network, Support" may provoke emotions and feel "confrontational" often because this is the first time when issues about one's end of life are openly discussed; yet, advanced cancer patients found it beneficial and felt it should be incorporated into routine care.
OBJECTIVE: To examine a rural-serving HBPC program's 12-year experience and historical trends to inform future program direction and expansion.
BACKGROUND: There is limited information about longitudinal trends in mature hospital-based palliative care (HBPC) programs serving racially diverse rural populations.
METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of operational and patient-reported outcomes from the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Center for Palliative and Supportive Care (CPSC) inpatient (n=11,786) and outpatient (n=315) databases from October 2004 to March 2016.
RESULTS: Inpatients were a mean age of 63.7 years, male (50.1%), white (62.3%), general medicine referred (19.5%), primarily for goals of care (84.4%); 47.1% had "do not resuscitate/do not intubate" status and 46.9% were transferred to the Palliative Care and Comfort Unit (PCCU) after consultation. Median time from admission to consultation was three days, median PCCU length of stay (LOS) was four days, and median hospital LOS was nine days. Increased emergency department and cardiology referrals were notable in later years. Outpatients' mean age was 53.02 years, 63.5% were female, 76.8% were white, and 75.6% had a cancer diagnosis. Fatigue, pain, and disturbed sleep were the most common symptoms at the time of the visit; 34.6% reported mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms. Of patients reporting pain (64.8%), one-third had 50% or less relief from pain treatment.
DISCUSSION: The CPSC, which serves a racially diverse rural population, has demonstrated robust growth. We are poised to scale and spread our lessons learned to underserved communities.
The death of an infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is a profound and unexpected loss for parents that results in a complex process of coping with bereavement. A descriptive qualitative approach was used to explore parent bereavement and coping experiences after infant death in the NICU. The dual process model of coping with bereavement was used as a conceptual framework to help understand how parents cope with grief after infant death. Living with infant death was a process that resulted in major life changes and a process of oscillating among various coping strategies.
BACKGROUND: Palliative care is specialized medical care for people with serious illness that is focused on providing relief from symptoms and stress and improving the quality of life (QOL) for patients and their families. To help the 6.5 million U.S. adults and families affected by heart failure manage the high symptom burden, complex decision-making, and risk of exacerbation and death, the early integration of palliative care is critical and has been recommended by numerous professional organizations. However, few trials have tested early outpatient community-based models of palliative care for patients diagnosed with advanced heart failure and their caregivers. To address this gap, through a series of formative evaluation trials, we translated an oncology early palliative care telehealth intervention for heart failure to create ENABLE CHF-PC (Educate, Nurture, Advise, Before Life Ends, Comprehensive Heartcare for Patients and Caregivers).
METHODS/DESIGN: The primary objective of this multisite pragmatic randomized controlled trial is to test the efficacy of ENABLE CHF-PC plus usual heart failure care compared to usual care alone. Community-dwelling persons who are =50 years of age with New York Heart Association class III/IV or American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology stage C/D heart failure and their primary caregiver (if present) are being randomized to one of two study arms. The ENABLE CHF-PC intervention group receives usual heart failure care plus an in-person palliative care assessment by a board-certified palliative care provider (caregivers are invited to attend), a series of nurse coach-led, weekly psychoeducational 20 to 60 min phone sessions using a guidebook called Charting Your Course (patients: 6 sessions and caregivers: 4 sessions), and monthly check-in calls. Charting Your Course topical content includes problem-solving, coping, self-care and symptom management, communication, decision-making, advance care planning, and life review (patients only). Primary outcomes include patient QOL and mood (depressive symptoms/anxiety) and caregiver QOL, mood, and burden at 8 and 16 weeks after baseline. Outcomes will be examined using an intention-to-treat approach and mixed effects modeling for repeated measures.
DISCUSSION: This trial will determine whether the ENABLE CHF-PC model of concurrent heart failure palliative care is superior to usual heart failure care alone in achieving higher patient and caregiver QOL, improving mood, and lowering burden.
BACKGROUND: Little has been reported about protocol-driven outpatient palliative care consultation (OPCC) for advanced heart failure (HF).
OBJECTIVES: To describe evaluation practices and treatment recommendations made during protocol-driven OPCCs for advanced HF.
METHODS: We performed content analysis of OPCCs completed as part of ENABLE CHF-PC, an early palliative care HF intervention, conducted at sites in the Northeast and Southeast. T-tests, Fisher's exact, and Chi-square tests were used to evaluate sociodemographic, outcome measures, and site content differences.
RESULTS: Of 61 ENABLE CHF-PC participants, 39 (64%) had an OPCC (Northeast, n=27; Southeast, n=12). Social and medical history assessed most were close relationships (n=35, 90%), family support (n=33, 85%), advance directive status (n=33, 85%), functional status (n=30, 77%); and symptoms were mood (n= 35, 90%), breathlessness (n=28, 72%), and chest pain (n=24, 62%). Treatment recommendations focused on care coordination (n=13, 33%) and specialty referrals (n=12, 31%). Between-site OPCC differences included assessment of family support (Northeast vs. Southeast: 100% vs. 50%), code status (96% vs. 58%), goals of care discussions (89% vs. 41.7%), and prognosis understanding (85% vs. 33%).
CONCLUSION: OPCCs for HF focused on evaluating medical and social history, along with goals of care and code status discussions. Symptom evaluation commonly included mood disorders, pain, dyspnea, and fatigue. Notable regional differences were found in topics evaluated and OPCC completion rates.
Context: Intervention fidelity is a critical component of behavioral research that has received inadequate attention in palliative care studies. With increasing focus on the need for palliative care models that can be widely disseminated and delivered by non-specialists, rigorous yet pragmatic strategies for training interventionists and maintaining intervention fidelity are needed.
Objectives: (1) Describe components of a plan for interventionist training and monitoring and maintaining intervention fidelity as part of a primary palliative care trial (CONNECT) and (2) present data about perceived training effectiveness and delivery of key intervention content.
Methods: Post-training evaluations, visit checklists, and visit audio-recordings.
Results: Data were collected from June, 2016 through April, 2017. We include procedures for (1) identification, training and certification of oncology nurses as CONNECT interventionists; (2) monitoring intervention delivery; and (3) maintaining intervention quality. All nurses (N = 14) felt prepared to deliver key competencies after a 3-day in-person training. As assessed via visit checklists, interventionists delivered an average of 94% (SD 13%) of key content for first intervention visits and 85% (SD 14%) for subsequent visits. As assessed via audio-recordings, interventionists delivered an average of 85% (SD 8%) of key content for initial visits and 85% (SD 12%) for subsequent visits.
Conclusion: We present a 3-part strategy for training interventionists and monitoring and maintaining intervention delivery in a primary palliative care trial. Training was effective in having nurses feel prepared to deliver primary palliative care skills. As assessed via nursing checklists and visit audio-recordings, intervention fidelity was high.
Informal caregivers play a vital role in supporting seriously ill patients. However, informal caregiving is burdensome and can lead to negative health outcomes for the caregiver and the care recipient. The study's aim was to evaluate relationships among caregiver burden, care recipient depressive symptomology, and race. Guided by the social exchange perspective, we examined cross-sectional dyadic data from the National Long-Term Care Survey (N = 1279). Using ordinal logistic regression, we found that higher caregiver-reported objective burden was associated with higher care recipient depressive symptoms ( P < .05), an association that was stronger for blacks. Interestingly, despite significant levels of objective burden, there was an association between lower depressive symptoms in black care recipients when there was an exchange of the social good "helpful company" with a caregiver. These findings illustrate the importance of supporting reciprocal exchange as a promising component of maintaining balanced caregiver-care recipient relationships among black older adults and their informal caregivers.
OBJECTIVE: To describe distressed and underprepared family caregiver's use of and interest in formal support services (e.g., professional counseling, education, organizational assistance).
METHODS: Cross-sectional mail survey conducted in communities of eight cancer centers in Tennessee, Alabama, and Florida (response rate: 42%). Family caregivers of Medicare beneficiaries with pancreatic, lung, brain, ovarian, head and neck, hematologic, and stage IV cancers reported support service use and completed validated measures of depression, anxiety, burden, preparedness, and health.
RESULTS: Caregivers (n=294) were on average age 65 years and mostly female (73%), white (91%), and care recipients' spouse/partner (60%); patients averaged 75 years, were majority male (54%) with lung cancer (39%). Thirty-two percent of caregivers reported accessing services while 28% were "mostly or "extremely" interested. Thirty-five percent of caregivers with high depressive symptoms (n=122), 33% with high anxiety symptoms (n=100) and 25% of those in the lowest quartile of preparedness (n=77) accessed services. Thirty-eight percent of those with high depressive symptoms, 47% with high anxiety symptoms, and 36% in the lowest quartile of preparedness were "mostly or "extremely" interested in receiving services. Being interested in support services was significantly associated with being a minority, shorter durations of caregiving, and with higher stress burden.
CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of family caregivers, including those experiencing depression and anxiety symptoms and who were underprepared, are not using formal support services but have a strong interest in services. Strategies to increase service use may include targeting distressed caregivers early in their caregiving experience.
BACKGROUND: Early outpatient palliative care consultations are recommended by clinical oncology guidelines globally. Despite these recommendations, it is unclear which components should be included in these encounters.
AIM: Describe the evaluation and treatment recommendations made in early outpatient palliative care consultations.
DESIGN: Outpatient palliative care consultation chart notes were qualitatively coded and frequencies tabulated.
SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Outpatient palliative care consultations were automatically triggered as part of an early versus delayed randomized controlled trial (November 2010 to April 2013) for patients newly diagnosed with advanced cancer living in the rural Northeastern US.
RESULTS: In all, 142 patients (early = 70; delayed = 72) had outpatient palliative care consultations. The top areas addressed in these consultations were general evaluations—marital/partner status (81.7%), spirituality/emotional well-being (80.3%), and caregiver/family support (79.6%); symptoms—mood (81.7%), pain (73.9%), and cognitive/mental status (68.3%); general treatment recommendations—counseling (39.4%), maintaining current medications (34.5%), and initiating new medication (23.9%); and symptom-specific treatment recommendations—pain (22.5%), constipation (12.7%), depression (12.0%), advanced directive completion (43.0%), identifying a surrogate (21.8%), and discussing illness trajectory (21.1%). Compared to the early group, providers were more likely to evaluate general pain (p = 0.035) and hospice awareness (p = 0.005) and discuss/recommend hospice (p = 0.002) in delayed group participants.
CONCLUSION: Outpatient palliative care consultations for newly diagnosed advanced cancer patients can address patients' needs and provide recommendations on issues that might not otherwise be addressed early in the disease course. Future prospective studies should ascertain the value of early outpatient palliative care consultations that are automatically triggered based on diagnosis or documented symptom indicators versus reliance on oncologist referral.
BACKGROUND: Early palliative care (EPC) is recommended but rarely integrated with advanced heart failure (HF) care. We engaged patients and family caregivers to study the feasibility and site differences in a two-site EPC trial, ENABLE CHF-PC (Educate, Nurture, Advise, Before Life Ends Comprehensive Heartcare for Patients and Caregivers).
METHODS: We conducted an EPC feasibility study (4/1/14-8/31/15) for patients with NYHA Class III/IV HF and their caregivers in academic medical centers in the northeast and southeast U.S. The EPC intervention comprised: 1) an in-person outpatient palliative care consultation; and 2) telephonic nurse coach sessions and monthly calls. We collected patient- and caregiver-reported outcomes of quality of life (QOL), symptom, health, anxiety, and depression at baseline, 12- and 24-weeks. We used linear mixed-models to assess baseline to week 24 longitudinal changes.
RESULTS: We enrolled 61 patients and 48 caregivers; between-site demographic differences included age, race, religion, marital, and work status. Most patients (69%) and caregivers (79%) completed all intervention sessions; however, we noted large between-site differences in measurement completion (38% southeast vs. 72% northeast). Patients experienced moderate effect size improvements in QOL, symptoms, physical, and mental health; caregivers experienced moderate effect size improvements in QOL, depression, mental health, and burden. Small-to-moderate effect size improvements were noted in patients' hospital and ICU days and emergency visits.
CONCLUSIONS: Between-site demographic, attrition, and participant-reported outcomes highlight the importance of intervention pilot-testing in culturally diverse populations. Observations from this pilot feasibility trial allowed us to refine the methodology of an in-progress, full-scale randomized clinical efficacy trial.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03177447 (retrospectively registered, June 2017).
Palliative medicine is an interdisciplinary specialty focusing on improving quality of life (QOL) for patients with serious illness and their families. Palliative care programs are available or under development at over 80% of large US hospitals (300+ beds). Palliative care clinical trials present unique analytic challenges relative to evaluating the palliative care treatment efficacy which is to improve patients' diminishing QOL as disease progresses towards end of life (EOL). A unique feature of palliative care clinical trials is that patients will experience decreasing QOL during the trial despite potentially beneficial treatment. Often longitudinal QOL and survival data are highly correlated which, in the face of censoring, makes it challenging to properly analyze and interpret terminal QOL trend. To address these issues, we propose a novel semiparametric statistical approach to jointly model the terminal trend of QOL and survival data. There are two sub-models in our approach: a semiparametric mixed effects model for longitudinal QOL and a Cox model for survival. We use regression splines method to estimate the nonparametric curves and AIC to select knots. We assess the model performance through simulation to establish a novel modeling approach that could be used in future palliative care research trials. Application of our approach in a recently completed palliative care clinical trial is also presented.
Dans cet article, les auteurs examinent cinq hypothèses concernant les personnes de confiance qui sont implicites dans une hiérarchie à trois standards. Ils usent des théories de la psychologie morale pour offrir des explications sur la manière dont les personnes de confiance prennent les décisions qui engendrent des conflits avec l'équipe soignante. Des implications dans la pratique et la recherche sont suggérées pour aider le personnel soignant et les chercheurs à développer des interventions appropriées pour soutenir les personnes de confiance dans leur tâche.