CONTEXT: The will to live is an important factor to consider in the context of providing resource-oriented palliative care. Until now, there has been no major review of the existing research on this subject.
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study is to summarize the state of research concerning instruments that assess the will to live. The secondary objective is to explore the theoretical models and psychometric properties of these instruments, in studies where these instruments were initially presented. The tertiary objective is to identify, among all studies where these instruments have been used, the intensity of the will to live and factors associated with it.
METHODS: We conducted a scoping review, including studies that were designed to assess the will to live among participants in all settings. Records were systematically searched from seven bibliographic databases with no date limitations up to August 2020.
RESULTS: Of the 3078 records screened, 281 were examined in detail and 111 were included in the synthesis. A total of 25 different instruments quantitatively assessing the will to live are presented. Most are single-question tools and rate intensity. The underlying concepts and psychometric properties are incompletely explained. Lack of cross-referencing is apparent. The intensity of the will to live is high, even among people with significant health impairment, and is frequently associated with different factors, such as resilience and quality of life.
CONCLUSION: A considerable yet unconnected body of studies assesses the will to live. Its assessment in clinical routine could promote resource-oriented, patient-centered care.
The current study explores the end-of-life (EOL) preferences of a national representative sample of adults aged 55 and older in Switzerland and shows how these preferences vary by respondents' sociodemographic characteristics and the linguistic region in which they live. Many of the presented EOL attributes are considered as (very) important by a large majority of the older population in Switzerland with significant variations across sociodemographic groups. Specifically, gender is related to psychosocial aspects of EOL, age to the importance attached to avoiding being a burden on the society, and education levels to preferences regarding overtreatment and advance care planning. The results highlight the importance of a personalized, holistic and interdisciplinary approach to EOL and EOL care, since social, psychological, organizational and physical aspects of EOL are rated as (very) important with significant differences in EOL preferences across sociodemographic groups.
Switzerland has the longest history of the legal practice of non-physician assisted suicide of any country. Assisted suicide is not very tightly regulated in Switzerland, and almost all assisted suicides are supported by a right-to-die organisation. Our study investigates older adults' attitudes and behaviour towards assisted suicide, and the associations of these with the individuals' sociodemographic and cultural characteristics, as well as with their own health status and healthcare-related experiences in Switzerland. We performed weighted prevalence and multivariable logistic regression estimation on a nationally representative sample of adults aged 55 and over from wave 6 (2015) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) in Switzerland (n = 2168). Overall, 81.7% of respondents supported the legality of assisted suicide, as is currently the case in Switzerland, and 60.9% stated that they would potentially consider asking for assisted suicide under certain circumstances; 28.2% of respondents reported either that they are already or that they are likely to become a member of a right-to-die organisation, with 4.9% of respondents reporting to already be a member of such an organisation at the time of the survey. Higher levels of education and previous experience as a healthcare proxy were positively associated with more favourable attitudes and behaviour towards assisted suicide. Compared to individuals aged 55-64, adults aged 65-74 generally showed more favourable attitudes and behaviour towards assisted suicide. By contrast, religious persons displayed more negative attitudes and behaviour towards assisted suicide. Attitudes towards assisted suicide were also more negative in the oldest age group (75+) in comparison to adults aged 55-64, and among persons living in French- and Italian-speaking Switzerland compared to those living in German-speaking Switzerland. While approval for assisted suicide is high overall in Switzerland, more vulnerable population groups, such as older or less educated individuals, have less favourable attitudes towards assisted suicide. In addition, cultural sensitivities to and personal experiences with death and dying are likely to shape the approval or rejection of assisted suicide as it is currently implemented in Switzerland.
INTRODUCTION: The collaboration between palliative care and neurology has developed over the last 25 years and this study aimed to ascertain the collaboration between the specialties across Europe.
METHODS: This online survey aimed to look at collaboration across Europe, using the links of the European Association for Palliative Care and the European Academy of Neurology.
RESULTS: 298 people completed the survey-178 from palliative care and 120 from neurology from over 20 countries across Europe. They reported that there was good collaboration in the care for people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cerebral tumours but less for other progressive neurological diseases. The collaboration included joint meetings and clinics and telephone contacts. All felt that the collaboration was helpful, particularly for maintaining quality of life, physical symptom management, psychological support and complex decision making, including ethical issues.
DISCUSSION: The study shows evidence for collaboration between palliative care and neurology, but with the need to develop this for all neurological illness, and there is a need for increased education of both areas.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Meaning in life (MIL) represent a key topic in palliative care. The aims of this study were to explore (1) the differences in perceived MIL and in the meaning-relevant life areas between a representative sample of the Swiss population and palliative care patients, and (2) to what extent MIL can be considered as a significant predictor of quality of life (QOL).
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted separately for the patients (face-to-face interviews) and the general population (telephone survey). MIL was measured with the Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation (SMILE) and QOL with a single-item visual analogue scale (0-10). Sociodemographic variables were controlled for in the analyses.
RESULTS: 206 patients and 1015 participants from the Swiss population completed the protocol. Results indicated high MIL scores in both populations even if the difference was significant (patients 81.9 vs general population 87, p<0.001). Patients were more likely to cite 'family' (OR=1.78), 'social relations' (OR=1.9), 'spirituality and religion' (OR=3.93), 'social commitment' (OR=1.94) and 'growth' (OR=2.07), and less likely to cite 'finances' (OR=0.15) and 'health' (OR=0.21) as MIL-relevant areas. The SMILE scores and MIL areas explained 21.8% of the QOL variance for the patients and 15.1% for the representative sample.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data emphasise the importance of MIL as a contributor to QOL in both populations. It highlights the importance of the life areas contributing to MIL, especially social interactions for both populations, and spirituality and areas related to growth in palliative care patients.
The legality of euthanasia and assisted suicide (AS) and nature of regulations of these practices remain controversial and the subject of lively debate among experts and the general public. Our study investigates attitudes and behaviours towards AS among older adults in Switzerland where the practice of AS has a relatively long history and remains rather unregulated. We aim to explore how individuals' preferences regarding their end of life, as well as individuals' trust in institutions involved in the practice or control of AS are associated with attitudes and behaviours towards AS. We analyse nationally representative data of adults aged 55 and over from wave 6 (2015) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) in Switzerland (n = 2,145). While large majorities supported current legal arrangements around AS in Switzerland (81.7%) and stated that they could consider AS for themselves under certain circumstances (61.0%), only a minority either was a member of a right-to-die organisation already (4.9%) or stated they were likely to become a member of such an organisation (28.2%). Stated preferences for control over the end of life and for maintaining essential capabilities at the end of life showed a positive association with AS-related attitudes and behaviours, whereas preferences for feeling socially and spiritually connected, as well as for not being a burden displayed a negative association with our outcomes. Higher levels of trust in one's relative were positively associated with both support for the legality of AS and potential use of AS. A positive association was also found between trust in the Swiss legal system and support for the legality of AS. By contrast, trust in religious institutions displayed a negative association with all five AS-related attitudes and behaviours. Similarly, trust in healthcare insurance companies was negatively associated with potential use of AS. Taken together, older adults were generally supportive towards current practices regarding AS. This approval appears to be closely related to individuals' preferences and, at different extends, to trust in social and public institutions with regard to end-of-life issues, which is relatively high in Switzerland.
Due to the current development around the COVID-19 pandemic, palliative ch has created the Task Force Focus Corona with representatives from the specialist group of doctors, nursing and pastoral care. The aim of the Task Force is to provide recommendations for health professionals on the treatment of palliative care patients in the various settings inpatient and outpatient. In doing so, we benefit greatly from our regional roots throughout Switzerland. Our guidelines are based on the experience and recommendations of our colleagues from the canton of Ticino. You can find all our recommendations on our website.
BACKGROUND: Although international guidelines recommend discussions about goals of care and treatment options for children with severe and life-limiting conditions, there are still few structured models of paediatric advance care planning.
AIM: The study aimed at identifying key components of paediatric advance care planning through direct discussions with all involved parties.
DESIGN: The study had a qualitative design with a participatory approach. Participants constituted an advisory board and took part in two transdisciplinary workshops. Data were collected in discussion and dialogue groups and analysed using content analysis.
SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: We included bereaved parents, health care providers and stakeholders of care networks.
RESULTS: Key elements were discussions, documentation, implementation, timing and participation of children and adolescents. Parents engage in discussions with facilitators and persons of trust to reach a decision. Documentation constitutes the focus of professionals, who endorse brief recommendations for procedures in case of emergencies, supplemented by larger advance directives. Implementation hindrances include emotional barriers of stakeholders, disagreements between parents and professionals and difficulties with emergency services. Discussion timing should take into account parental readiness. The intervention should be repeated at regular intervals, considering emerging needs and increasing awareness of families over time. Involving children and adolescents in advance care planning remains a challenge.
CONCLUSION: A paediatric advance care planning intervention should take into account potential pitfalls and barriers including issues related to timing, potential conflicts between parents and professionals, ambiguity towards written advance directives, the role of non-medical carers for paediatric advance care planning implementation, the need to involve the child and the necessity of an iterative process.
BACKGROUND: Home care of children with life-limiting diseases is extremely challenging for parents/family caregivers and their social environment. In order to gain new insights into the perspective of family caregivers, we employed digital Network Maps for the first time in the field of pediatric palliative care.
AIM: To examine whether the use of Network Maps helps to identify and visualize significant members of the social support system and the quality of the relationship, as well as the main areas of life that are experienced as being supportive by each individual.
DESIGN: The design was an integrated mixed methods study. Creation of Network Maps was assessed in conjunction with qualitative interviews. In addition, participants gave an oral feedback on the Network Maps themselves.
SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Parents of patients supported by a Specialized Home Pediatric Palliative Care team were eligible for inclusion. Forty-five parents were enrolled in the study.
RESULTS: All mothers and fathers were able to generate their individual Network Map without problems. The composition of the support systems differed greatly, even between members of the same family. Parents named on average 11 supporting actors, mainly family members and health care professionals. Some relationships were perceived as helpful and stressful at the same time.
CONCLUSION: Network Maps appear to be an appropriate tool for the collection, reconstruction, and assessment of the current support situation of parents of dying children. Further studies should examine the usefulness of Network Maps for the understanding of the caregivers' support needs and for the development of psychosocial interventional strategies by pediatric palliative care teams.
CONTEXT: The Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale (IPOS) is a widely used tool for assessing patient needs in palliative care.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to provide a validated version of the patient and staff IPOS for French-speaking Switzerland (IPOS-Fr) and assess its psychometric properties.
METHODS: The validation took place in 12 palliative care units and mobile teams. At baseline (T1) and three days later (T2), patients' general health status, palliative care needs (IPOS-Fr) and quality of life (McGill Quality of Life scale Revised-MQOL-R) were assessed by patients and staff.
RESULTS: We included 173 patients (mean age: 68.8; 92 women; 85% oncologic disease). IPOS internal consistency was high for the total score (.69 and .71). Staff-patient inter-rater agreement was good to moderate for 13 items (intra-class correlations >.516). Results indicated strong correlations between IPOS-Fr and MQOL-R for the total score (-.623 at T1) and the psychological domain (item 11:-.601 at T1; item 13: -.633 at T2). Regarding sensitivity to change, there was a significant difference between T1 and T2 for patients with an improved health condition (z=-2.326; p=.020).
CONCLUSION: IPOS-Fr has fair to good validity, especially with regard to inter-rater agreement and construct validity, is sensitive to positive change, and has good interpretability and acceptability for patients and staff. IPOS-Fr is not optimal in terms of internal consistency and structure when using subscale scores, except for the emotional subscale.
BACKGROUND: A prenatal diagnosis of a life-limiting disease raises complex ethical, emotional, and medical issues. Studies suggest that 40%-85% of parents decide to continue the pregnancy if given the option of Perinatal Palliative Care. However, structured Perinatal Palliative Care programs are missing in many European countries. In Germany, parents have the right to free psychosocial support from pregnancy counseling services after the prenatal diagnosis of a life-limiting disease.
AIM: We aimed to investigate whether German professional pregnancy counselors perceive the need for structured Perinatal Palliative Care and if so, how it should be conceived.
DESIGN: This is a qualitative interview study with purposeful sampling. The interviews were analyzed with the coding method of Saldaña.
SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 10 professionals from three different pregnancy counseling services participated in the study.
RESULTS: The main topics raised by the professionals were as follows: (1) counseling and parental support during the decision-making process; (2) fragmented or missing support infrastructure for parents; and (3) challenges, hesitations, and barriers, particularly from the different stakeholders, regarding a Perinatal Palliative Care framework. They highlighted the importance of the integration of Perinatal Palliative Care in existing structures, a multi-professional approach, continuous coordination of care and education for all healthcare providers involved.
CONCLUSION: A structured Perinatal Palliative Care program is considered as necessary by the pregnancy counselors. Future research should focus on (1) needs reported by concerned parents; (2) attitude and role of all healthcare providers involved; (3) strategies to include stakeholders in the development of Perinatal Palliative Care networks; and (4) outcome parameters for evaluation of Perinatal Palliative Care frameworks.
OBJECTIVE: This study aims (1) to assess physicians' attitudes toward different palliative end-of-life (EOL) practices in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) care, including forgoing artificial nutrition and hydration (FANH), continuous sedation until death (CSD), and withdrawing invasive ventilation (WIV), and toward physician-assisted dying (PAD) including physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia and (2) to explore variables influencing these attitudes.
METHODS: We used two clinical vignettes depicting ALS patients in different stages of their disease progression to assess the influence of suffering (physical/psycho-existential) on attitudes toward WIV and the influence of suffering and prognosis (short-term/long-term) on attitudes toward FANH, CSD, and PAD.
RESULTS: 50 physicians from European ALS centers and neurological departments completed our survey. Short-term prognosis had a positive impact on attitudes toward offering FANH (p = 0.014) and CSD (p = 0.048) as well as on attitudes toward performing CSD (p = 0.036) and euthanasia (p = 0.023). Predominantly psycho-existential suffering was associated with a more favorable attitude toward WIV but influenced attitudes toward performing CSD negatively. Regression analysis showed that religiosity was associated with more reluctant attitudes toward palliative EOL practices and PAD, whereas training in palliative care was associated with more favorable attitudes toward palliative EOL practices only.
CONCLUSION: ALS physicians seem to acknowledge psycho-existential suffering as a highly acceptable motive for WIV but not CSD. Physicians appear to be comfortable with responding to the patient's requests, but more reluctant to assume a proactive role in the decision-making process. Palliative care training may support ALS physicians in these challenging situations.
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies, conducted largely with non-clinical populations, have shown a significant link between gratitude and psychological dimensions relevant for palliative care (e.g., psychological distress). However, the relevance of gratitude in the context of palliative care needs to be confirmed.
OBJECTIVES: We strived to evaluate the association between gratitude and quality of life (QoL), psychological distress, post-traumatic growth, and health status in palliative patients, and to develop an explanatory model for QoL. An ancillary purpose was to identify which life domains patients considered sources of gratitude.
DESIGN: We performed an exploratory and cross-sectional study with palliative patients of the Lausanne University Hospital.
MEASUREMENTS: We used the Gratitude Questionnaire, the McGill Quality of Life questionnaire revised, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory, and the health status items of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Spearman correlations and multivariate analyses were performed.
RESULTS: Sixty-four patients participated (34 women, mean age = 67). The results showed significant positive correlations between gratitude and QoL (r = 0.376), and the appreciation of life dimension of the post-traumatic growth (r = 0.426). Significant negative correlations were found between gratitude and psychological distress (r = -0.324), and health status (r = -0.266). The best model for QoL explained 47.6% of the variance (F = 26.906) and included psychological distress and gratitude. The relational dimension was the most frequently cited source of gratitude (61%).
CONCLUSION: Gratitude may act positively on QoL and may protect against psychological distress in the palliative situation. The next step will be the adaptation and implementation of a gratitude-based intervention.
BACKGROUND: Advance directives enable people to describe their preferences for medical treatment (living will) and/or to appoint a healthcare proxy who may decide on their behalf should they lose decision-making capacity. Advance directives are potentially important in determining the course of end-of-life care, as deaths are frequently preceded by end-of-life treatment decisions, which often require someone to make decisions on the patient's behalf. Switzerland introduced legally binding advance directives through its new child and adult protection law of 2013. But there is still no comprehensive evidence on older persons' awareness, attitudes and behaviours with regard to advance directives in Switzerland.
AIM AND METHOD: Our study aimed to assess levels of awareness, approval and completion of advance directives, as well as their respective associations with sociodemographic characteristics in the Swiss population aged 55 and older. Our study was cross-sectional and used data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), which included a special module on end-of-life issues in wave 6 (2015) in Switzerland (n = 2085).
RESULTS: Two years after the introduction of advance directives in Switzerland, 78.7% of adults aged 55 years and older had heard of them prior to the survey and 24% reported that they had completed one. Awareness of advance directives was higher in the German-speaking part of Switzerland (91%) than in the Italian- (57.1%) and French-speaking (43.3%) regions (p <0.001). Advance directive completion also differed significantly between the German- (28.7%), French- (10.3%) and Italian-speaking (17.9%) regions of Switzerland (p <0.001). Overall, 76.7% of Swiss adults aged 55 and older generally approved of advance directives, i.e., they either reported having already completed one or were planning to do so in the future. Of those who had not yet completed an advance directive, 32.9% believed that it was still "too early" for them to do so and 30.1% believed that they would not need one. Levels of awareness, approval and completion of advance directives also varied significantly by sex, age, education level and household composition.
DISCUSSION: Our results show some potential for improvement in levels of advance directive awareness and, especially, completion among older adults, notably in the French- and Italian-speaking Switzerland. In view of the generally high levels of approval of advance directives, our findings point to important barriers to their completion by older persons that should be addressed by policy makers in order to ensure an effective translation of individual intentions to complete an advance directive sometime in the future into concrete and timely actions toward this end.
Background: Neurological expertise in palliative care may be required not only for patients with primary neurological disorders but also for patients with non-neurological diseases suffering from burdensome neurological symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of neurological diagnoses and symptoms in palliative care patients, as well as the related burden and impact on everyday life.
Methods: We analyzed retrospectively the medical records of 255 consecutive patients from a tertiary medical center, at the time point of referral to an inpatient palliative care consultation service. In addition, 100 patients prospectively answered a questionnaire which included the assessment of neurological symptoms, as well as numeric rating scales for quality of life, symptom-specific burden, and restrictions in everyday life.
Results: Forty-one patients (16%) suffered from a primary neurological disease. Most decisions regarding the termination of life-sustaining measures concerned this group (20/22, 91%). Neurological symptoms (excluding pain) were documented in 122 patients (48%) with an underlying non-neurological disease. In the questionnaire study, 98/100 patients reported at least one neurological or neuropsychiatric symptom, most frequently sleeping problems (N = 63), difficulty concentrating (N = 55), and sensory symptoms (N = 50). Vertigo/dizziness (N = 19) had the greatest impact on everyday life (7.57/10 ± 2.17) and the highest symptom-specific burden (7.14 ± 2.51). Difficulty concentrating (restrictions in everyday life/burden) and pain intensity were the only symptoms significantly correlated with quality of life (r = -0.36, p = 0.009/r = -0.32; p = 0.04; r = -0.327, p = 0.003).
Conclusion: Neurological diseases and symptoms are frequent among palliative care patients and are often associated with a high symptom burden, which may severely affect the patients' lives. It is thus of paramount importance to implement neurological expertise in palliative care.
Background: Pediatric advance care planning is advocated by healthcare providers because it may increase the chance that patient and/or parent wishes are respected and thus improve end-of-life care. However, since end-of-life decisions for children are particularly difficult and charged with emotions, physicians are often afraid of addressing pediatric advance care planning.
Aim: We aimed to investigate parents’ views and needs regarding pediatric advance care planning.
Design: We performed a qualitative interview study with parents of children who had died from a severe illness. The interviews were analyzed by descriptive and evaluation coding according to Saldaña.
Setting/Participants: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 parents of 9 children. Maximum variation was sought regarding the child’s illness, age at death, care setting, and parent gender.
Results: Parents find it difficult to engage in pediatric advance care planning but consider it important. They argue for a sensitive, individualized, and gradual approach. Hope and quality of life issues are primary. Parents have many non-medical concerns that they want to discuss. Written advance directives are considered less important, but medical emergency plans are viewed as necessary in particular cases. Continuity of care and information should be improved through regular pediatric advance care planning meetings with the various care providers. Parents emphasize the importance of a continuous contact person to facilitate pediatric advance care planning.
Conclusion: Despite a need for pediatric advance care planning, it is perceived as challenging. Needs-adjusted content and process and continuity of communication should be a main focus in pediatric advance care planning. Future research should focus on strategies that facilitate parent engagement in pediatric advance care planning to increase the benefit for the families.
Dans une perspective de santé publique et dans le but d’améliorer la qualité des soins, le développement des soins palliatifs passe par l’identification précoce des patients nécessitant ce type d’accompagnement. Celle-ci reste pourtant encore suboptimale, avec comme conséquence une mise en œuvre trop tardive des soins palliatifs dans la trajectoire de maladie des personnes. Différents outils existent pour soutenir les professionnels dans cette pratique même si ceux-ci ont encore un niveau de validité incomplet et ne permettent pas de distinguer les patients nécessitant des soins palliatifs généraux versus spécialisés. Un outil qui répond mieux à ces critères est en phase de développement et de validation au CHUV.13
Le débat sur l'euthanasie est toujours passionné, et souvent simplificateur, voir idéologique. Il en va, dit-on, de ce bien inaliénable que représente l'autodétermination en fin de vie. Mais en réduisant le débat sur l'autonomie en fin de vie à la possibilité de pouvoir déterminer soi-même le moment de sa mort, ne passe-t-on pas à côté des véritables questions ? S'agit-il vraiment de savoir si l'on doit permettre qu'une personne puisse, dans des circonstances déterminées, mourir avec l'aide d'un tiers ? Ce livre montre que la question de l'euthanasie cache d'autres réalités, beaucoup plus importantes pour les personnes en fin de vie.
BACKGROUND: Physician-assisted dying has been the subject of extensive discussion and legislative activity both in Europe and North America. In this context, dying by voluntary stopping of eating and drinking (VSED) is often proposed, and practiced, as an alternative method of self-determined dying, with medical support for VSED being regarded as ethically and legally justified.
ARGUMENT: In our opinion, this view is flawed. First, we argue that VSED falls within the concept of suicide, albeit with certain unique features (non-invasiveness, initial reversibility, resemblance to the natural dying process). Second, we demonstrate, on the basis of paradigmatic clinical cases, that medically supported VSED is, at least in some instances, tantamount to assisted suicide. This is especially the case if a patient's choice of VSED depends on the physician's assurance to provide medical support.
CONCLUSION: Thus, for many jurisdictions worldwide, medically supported VSED may fall within the legal prohibitions on suicide assistance. Physicians, lawmakers, and societies should discuss specific ways of regulating medical support for VSED in order to provide clear guidance for both patients and healthcare professionals.
OBJECTIVES: Assisted suicide in Switzerland is mainly performed by right-to-die societies. Medical involvement is limited to the prescription of the drug and certification of eligibility. Palliative care has traditionally been perceived as generally opposed to assisted suicide, but little is known about palliative care physicians' involvement in assisted suicide practices. This paper aims to describe their perspectives and involvement in assisted suicide practices.
METHODS: A qualitative interview study was conducted with 23 palliative care physicians across Switzerland. Thematic analysis was used to interpret data.
RESULTS: Swiss palliative care physicians regularly receive assisted suicide requests while none reported having received specific training in managing these requests. Participants reported being involved in assisted suicide decision making most were not willing to prescribe the lethal drug. After advising patients of the limits on their involvement in assisted suicide, the majority explored the origins of the patient's request and offered alternatives. Many participants struggled to reconcile their understanding of palliative care principles with patients' wishes to exercise their autonomy. The majority of participants had no direct contact with right-to-die societies, many desired better collaboration. A desire was voiced for a more structured debate on assisted suicide availability in hospitals and clearer legal and institutional frameworks.
CONCLUSIONS: The Swiss model of assisted suicide gives palliative care physicians opportunities to develop roles which are compatible with each practitioner's values, but may not correspond to patients' expectations. Specific education for all palliative care professionals and more structured ways to manage communication about assisted suicide are warranted.