The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Advance Directive Attitude Survey in Korean (K-ADAS), a measure of attitudes toward advance directives (ADs). A total of 118 low-income, community-dwelling older adults (mean age, 75.09 years) participated. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to determine the factor structure of the K-ADAS. Validity was further assessed by known associations of the K-ADAS with perceived susceptibility and severity using part of the Advance Care Planning surveys. Its reliability was examined by calculating alpha coefficients. EFA determined a three-factor structure model with good model fit. Validity was further supported with significant correlations between the K-ADAS and susceptibility and severity. Reliability was supported by adequate level of Cronbach's alpha. The K-ADAS was a valid and reliable measure for assessment of AD attitudes with a sound model fit. Thus, the K-ADAS can be used to assess AD attitudes among community-dwelling elders.
Objective: The completion rates of advance treatment preferences in patients with hematologic malignancies are low. To improve these rates, the modifiable factors associated with completion need to be determined. This study aimed to examine the associations of patient attitudes toward, and knowledge about, advance directives (ADs) with the patient–caregiver dyadic completion of advance treatment directive surveys.
Methods: Using a nonexperimental correlational design, 44 patient–caregiver dyads completed the questionnaires, including a Korean-Advance Directive model. Cohen's kappa coefficient and multiple logistic regression analyses examined the extent of dyadic agreement and patient factors for the dyadic completion of the advance treatment directive survey, respectively.
Results: A minor group of patients (4.5%–11.4%) and caregivers (11.4%–18.2%) preferred aggressive end-of-life treatments, whereas more patients (47.7%) and caregivers (68.2%) supported hospice care. The only significant patient–caregiver dyadic concordance on treatment directives was for chemotherapy with a moderately high agreement (kappa = 0.60: 95% CI: 2.51–3.73). One score increase in AD knowledge and having a history of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) increased the likelihood of dyadic completion of the treatment directive survey by 43% (p = 0.039) and 917% (p = 0.047), respectively.
Conclusions: The patient–caregiver dyads in the setting of hematologic malignancy had a moderately high concordance with chemotherapy but were not associated with other treatment options. A higher level of AD knowledge and HSCT were associated with dyadic completion of the AD survey. Educational support is important to increase knowledge regarding ADs through ongoing palliative discussions among hematologic patients and their caregivers.
Background: Access to consultation or referral for decisions about advance care planning (ACP) is limited, particularly for nonmalignant models pertinent to palliative care in heart failure (HF).
Objectives: The aim of this study was to solicit professional opinions about the feasibility of using an exemplary context-oriented communication algorithm for ACP discussions.
Methods: Using a panel of expert physicians and nurses in cardiovascular care, a 3-round Delphi study was conducted to evaluate the proposed model.
Results: A consensus was determined based on a content validity ratio (CVR) of 0.318 or greater, a critical value for selection of an item scored as important (=4 on a 5-point Likert scale). A total of 50, 44, and 38 experts in Korea completed each round, respectively. Item evaluation did not differ across rounds (Friedman 2 > P = .05), except for timing of the ACP discussion. A lack of consensus was observed on the issue of after HF diagnosis for right timing of the ACP discussion across rounds (CVRs from -0.80 to -0.83); consensus was reached on the expectation of a terminal state (CVRs from 0.60 to 0.78). Content validity ratios were moderately high for Korean advance directive, ranging from 0.59 to 0.91. Experts also reached consensus about each of 5 steps of a communication model—patients’ determination of decisional capacity (CVR, 0.72–1.0), awareness (CVR, 0.95–1.0), willingness for advance care planning (CVR, 0.76–0.84), family dynamics (CVR, 0.92–1.0) and patient readiness for advance care planning (CVR, 0.76–0.95).
Conclusions: A context-oriented communication model could be used to facilitate the decision-making process for palliative care and continuity of care in HF.
The objective of this pilot study was to examine factors associated with the completion of advance directives (ADs) among patients with hematologic disorders in Korea. Using a descriptive design, patients with largely hematologic malignancies completed the questionnaires, including the Korean–Advance Directive (K-AD) model, which pertains to values, treatment wishes, and proxy appointment. Of 45 patients (aged 48.7 ± 10.7 years, 51.1% men), two-thirds had leukemia (40.0%) and lymphoma (26.7%). “Dying comfortably” was the most frequently selected value (n = 20). Regarding treatment wishes, hospice care was the most desired type (n = 22), whereas aggressive treatments, such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation, were less preferred (n = 3). The patient’s spouse was most frequently appointed as a proxy (n = 27). Patients who completed all the 3 components of the K-AD model (51.1%) were less depressed (t = -2.31; P = .028) and more likely to perceive the benefits of the K-AD model (t = 2.07; P = .045), compared with the noncompleters (48.9%). Further, being male (odds ratio [OR], 6.42; P = .031), having higher scores on depressive symptoms (OR, 1.28; P = .016), and perceived barriers (OR, 1.08; P = .040) were associated with lower tendency to complete the K-AD model. These findings support the need for earlier introduction of ADs in hematologic disorders, with consideration of modifiable factors such as depression or barriers to end-of-life care decisions.
Background: Patients with heart failure (HF) have not been considered as major beneficiaries of advance directives (ADs). We analyzed factors affecting the preferences for the adoption of ADs by patients with HF and their caregivers.
Methods and Results: Seventy-one patient (mean age: 68 years)–caregiver (mean age: 55 years) dyads were enrolled during clinic visits for routine care at a single institution and completed questionnaires during in-person visits. Cohen's kappa coefficients and generalized estimating equation models were used to analyze the data. The agreement on dyadic perspectives for aggressive treatments was poor or fair, whereas agreement relative to hospice care was moderate (k = 0.42, 95% confidence interval = 0.087–0.754). Both patients and caregivers demonstrated poor knowledge of ADs and similar levels of perceived benefits and barriers to advance care planning. However, the caregivers had more positive attitudes toward ADs than patients. Patients and caregivers who were older and/or males had greater odds of preferring aggressive treatments and/or hospice care. Further, those with depressive symptoms had lower odds of preferring hospice care.
Conclusion: The dyadic agreement was moderately high only for hospice care preferences. Both patients and caregivers demonstrated knowledge of shortfalls regarding ADs. Timely AD discussions could increase dyadic agreement and enhance informed and shared decision-making regarding medical care.
Purpose: Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) form is a legal document for terminally ill patients to make medical decisions with physicians near the end-of-life. A multicenter prospective study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of POLST administration in actual oncological practice.
Materials and Methods: Patients with terminal cancer, age ≥20, and capable of communicating were eligible. The primary endpoint was the completion rate of POLST. Data about physicians' or patients' barriers were also collected.
Results: From June to December 2017, 336 patients from seven hospitals were eligible. Median patient age was 66 years (range, 20 to 94 years); 52.7% were male; and 60.4% had poor performance status. Primay cancer sites were hepato-pancreato-biliary (26.2%), lung (23.2%), and gastrointestinal (19.9%). Expected survival duration was 10.6±7.3 weeks, with 41.2% receiving hospice care, 37.9% showing progression after cancer treatment, and the remaining patients were under active treatment (15.8%) or initially diagnosed with terminal cancer (5.1%). POLST forms were introduced to 60.1% of patients, and 31.3% signed the form. Physicians' barriers were reluctance of family (49.7%), lack of rapport (44.8%), patients' denial of prognosis (34.3%), lack of time (22.7%), guilty feelings (21.5%), and uncertainty about either prognosis (21.0%) or the right time to discuss POLST (16.6%). The patients' barriers were the lack of knowledge/understanding of POLST (65.1%), emotional discomfort (63.5%), difficulty in decision-making (66.7%), or denial of prognosis (14.3%).
Conclusion: One-third of patients completed POLST forms, and various barriers were identified. To overcome such barriers, social engagement, education, and systematic support might be necessary.
BACKGROUND: Concerns over the creation of advance directives (ADs) and the factors associated with treatment directive decisions among Korean community-dwelling older people with chronic diseases have rarely been addressed.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine knowledge, attitudes and barriers/benefits regarding ADs and their associations with AD treatment preferences among chronically ill, low-income, community-dwelling older people.
METHODS: Using a descriptive, correlational design, older people who were recipients of home visiting service for chronic disease management participated in this study. Home visiting nurses collected data on knowledge, attitudes and perceived barriers/benefits and treatment directives using questionnaires during home visits.
RESULTS: Older people (N = 112, mean age = 74.9 years, women = 83.9%) who had chronic diseases such as hypertension (56.3%), diabetes mellitus (40.2%) and cardiovascular disease/stroke (22.3%) participated. Approximately half of the participants preferred hospice care (54.5%), while a few of them preferred aggressive treatments: cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) (14.3%), ventilation support (9.8%) and haemodialysis (8.9%). Being married was associated with the likelihood of preferring CPR (odds ratio [OR] = 11.79) and ventilation support (OR = 9.99), higher education with CPR (OR = 1.23) and haemodialysis (OR = 1.16), and having a cardiovascular disease (CVD)/stroke with CPR (OR = 6.46) and hospice care (OR = 3.06). Among the modifiable factors, greater perceived barriers increased the likelihood of CPR preference (OR = 1.12) but decreased the likelihood of hospice care preference (OR = 0.96). Greater perceived benefits decreased the likelihood of CPR preference (OR = 0.81) and ventilation support (OR = 0.89), and AD knowledge decreased the likelihood of haemodialysis preference (OR = 0.23).
CONCLUSION: The multidimensional factors were differently associated with each of the AD treatment preferences. Modifiable factors, including perceived barriers and benefits and knowledge, should be improved to help low-income, community-dwelling older people select adequate AD treatment preferences.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Additional information regarding AD treatments and some modifiable and non-modifiable correlates can be integrated into primary and palliative/supportive care in public health. The current home visitation service may also benefit from incorporating AD discussions while extending the service to embrace AD issues in addition to disease management.
Background/Aims: Advance directives (ADs) in Korean patients with heart failure (HF) and the associations of attitude towards ADs and HF prognosis with ADs were initially assessed using the model of the Korean-Advance Directive (K-AD).
Methods: Twenty-four patients with HF (age, 67.1 years; men, 58.3%; ejection fraction, 35.9%) participated. A pilot test to evaluate the feasibility of ADs and the possible associations of attitudes towards ADs and prognosis with end-of-life treatment preferences among patients with HF was conducted.
Results: Fifteen patients (62.5%) completed the K-Ads. The major reason for incomplete K-AD was knowledge deficit. Patients valued "comfortable death" the most (45.4%), followed by "giving no burden to the family" (13.6%). Among treatment preferences, hospice care was preferred by the majority (66.7%), while cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was preferred by the minority (31.8%). Children (50.0%) were mostly appointed as a proxy, followed by the spouse (33.3%). More patients with moderately positive attitudes completed the K-ADs than their counterparts (70.0% vs. 57.1%). The 5-year survival rate was 69.2%; the patients who preferred CPR had a higher survival rate (70.6% vs. 68.5%) whereas those who preferred hospice care had a lower survival rate than their counterparts (70.7% vs. 75.2%).
Conclusions: The findings support the feasibility of the K-AD model, with a high acceptance rate in two-thirds of the sample. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether treatment preferences are associated with attitude towards ADs and/or HF prognosis using larger sample size.
INTRODUCTION: Data-based research has rarely addressed advance directives (ADs) in community-dwelling Korean cancer survivors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between AD treatment choices and decisional conflicts among low-income, home-based cancer management recipients.
METHOD: This study uses a cross-sectional, correlational design. The cancer survivors completed the questionnaires (Korean-Advance Directive model and Decisional Conflict Scale).
RESULTS: Among the 103 participants (average age 67.92 years), 56.3% had solid cancer. Hospice care was the most desired (68.9%), followed by hemodialysis (18.4%), cardiopulmonary resuscitation/ventilation support (15.5% for each), and chemotherapy (12.6%). Patients who were older, unmarried, unemployed, or underweight/obese; lived alone; or had lower education experienced greater decisional conflicts. In the multivariate analyses, no hospice preference was associated with greater decisional conflicts ( t = -2.63, p = .01).
DISCUSSION: Early integration of AD discussion with the nurse-led, home-based service for this vulnerable population could serve as a liaison for quality and continuity of cancer survivorship care.
Purpose: Decisional conflict is a significant and important barrier in end-of-life care planning, and it is often encountered in health professionals' discussions with patients and their families. Little is known about the measurement of decisional conflict, and existing measures are not suitable for all contexts. In this study, psychometric properties of the Decisional Conflict Scale, which was translated for the first time into Korean [Korean version of DCS (K-DCS)], were examined.
Methods: A sample of 273 community-dwelling elders was surveyed (mean age: 77.26 years; 80.2% women). Internal consistency reliability and stability reliability were tested by calculating Cronbach a and Pearson's correlation coefficients. Exploratory factor analysis and logistic regression analyses were performed to test validity.
Results: Reliability of the K-DCS was acceptable with Cronbach a =.87; test-retest correlation r = .76. Factor analysis showed a two-factor structure with nine items: informed/values clarity and uncertainty. Concordance between K-DCS and the four treatment directives was significant (kappa values =.78). Controlling for age and gender, those with decision implementation were more likely to implement their decisions on tube feeding (odds ratio = 5.15, p = .033) and hospice care (odds ratio = 2.83, p = .017).
Conclusion: The K-DCS appears to be a valid measure to evaluate decisional conflict about advance directives in community-dwelling Korean older adults. Further validation of the K-DCS is warranted, though caution should be exercised in using subscales because of differences in decisional contexts.
A newly developed Korean-Advance Directive (K-AD) consists of a value statement, treatment directives, and proxy appointment. It remains undetermined whether K-AD is applicable to community-dwelling persons (= aged 60 years). Using a descriptive study design, 275 elderly persons completed the K-AD (mean age = 77.28 ± 8.24 years). The most frequent value at the end of life was comfort dying, followed by no burden to family (23.6%). Among 4 K-AD treatment options, more than half had a preference for hospice care and had reluctance with aggressive treatment choices of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (76.4%), artificial ventilation (75.6%), and tube feeding (76.4%), with one-fifth having a desire for such options. All persons provided proxies, who were predominantly descendants (77.1%), followed by spouses (17.5%). For treatment preferences, men and those with no religion were more likely to receive life-sustaining treatments. These data support the K-AD as being applicable and acceptable among community-dwelling elderly persons; awareness of the K-AD in the community setting may facilitate future application when the need occurs.
Purpose: The aims of this study were to explore how oncologists and resident physicians practice end-of-life (EOL) discussions and to solicit their opinions on EOL discussions as a means to improve the quality of EOL care.
Materials and Methods: A survey questionnaire was developed to explore the experiences and opinions about EOL discussions among oncologists and residents. Descriptive statistics, the t-test, and the Chi-square test were performed for the analyses.
Results: A total of 147 oncologists and 229 residents participated in this study. The study respondents reported diverse definitions of "terminal state", and most respondents tried to disclose the patient's condition to the patient and/or family members. Both groups were involved in EOL care discussions, with a rather low satisfaction level (57.82/100). The best timing to initiate discussion was considered when metastasis or disease recurrence occurred or when withdrawal of chemotherapy was anticipated. Furthermore, the study respondents suggested that patients and their family members should be included in the EOL discussion. Medical, legal, and ethical knowledge and communication difficulties along with practical issues were revealed as barriers and facilitators for EOL discussion.
Conclusion: This study explored various perspectives of oncologists and resident physicians for EOL discussion. Since the Life-Sustaining-Treatment Decision-making Act will be implemented shortly in Korea, now is the time for oncologists and residents to prepare themselves by acquiring legal knowledge and communication skills. To achieve this, education, training, and clinical tools for healthcare professionals are required.
Parmi les options de traitements en fin de vie, la réanimation cardiopulmonaire, la ventilation artificielle, la nutrition artificielle et les soins palliatifs sont déterminés pour être inclus dans les directives anticipées coréennes.