Background: Community transmission of coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) was detected in the state of Washington in February 2020.
Methods: We identified patients from nine Seattle-area hospitals who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with confirmed infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Clinical data were obtained through review of medical records. The data reported here are those available through March 23, 2020. Each patient had at least 14 days of follow-up.
Results: We identified 24 patients with confirmed Covid-19. The mean (±SD) age of the patients was 64±18 years, 63% were men, and symptoms began 7±4 days before admission. The most common symptoms were cough and shortness of breath; 50% of patients had fever on admission, and 58% had diabetes mellitus. All the patients were admitted for hypoxemic respiratory failure; 75% (18 patients) needed mechanical ventilation. Most of the patients (17) also had hypotension and needed vasopressors. No patient tested positive for influenza A, influenza B, or other respiratory viruses. Half the patients (12) died between ICU day 1 and day 18, including 4 patients who had a do-not-resuscitate order on admission. Of the 12 surviving patients, 5 were discharged home, 4 were discharged from the ICU but remained in the hospital, and 3 continued to receive mechanical ventilation in the ICU.
Conclusions: During the first 3 weeks of the Covid-19 outbreak in the Seattle area, the most common reasons for admission to the ICU were hypoxemic respiratory failure leading to mechanical ventilation, hypotension requiring vasopressor treatment, or both. Mortality among these critically ill patients was high. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.)
BACKGROUND: Single therapy with methylphenidate or American ginseng contributes to the reduction in cancer-related fatigue (CRF) with different pharmacologic mechanisms and is relatively safe. However, the safety and efficacy of treating CRF with methylphenidate and AG combination therapy is unknown.
AIM: The primary objective was to assess the clinical safety and the change in fatigue with numerical rating scale (NRS) on the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) after intervention with methylphenidate and AG combination therapy.
METHODS: We reviewed the electronic medical records of 857 patients seen in our Palliative Medicine outpatient clinic between February 1, 2015, and December 31, 2015. Fatigue was assessed by NRS on ESAS. Toxicity was reviewed on clinician's documents.
RESULTS: We identified 28 patients who were prescribed a combination of methylphenidate (10-40 mg/d) and AG (2000 mg/d). Ten patients did not comply with the combination therapy. Three patients had stage 2 adverse effects. Fifteen patients completed prescribed combination therapy per instructions. The mean time interval between pre- and postintervention follow-up was 30.5 days (standard deviation [SD]: 7.78). There was a significant reduction in the fatigue score (mean score 6.93-4.13) from the pre- to postscore records (mean: -2.8; SD: 1.61; P < .0002* [*refers to statistically significant]). Sixty percent of patients reported significant reduction in fatigue (cutoff value: =3; reduction in fatigue score from baseline: 80% =2, 60% =3, and 46.7% =4).
CONCLUSION: In our retrospective medical record review, the combination treatment of methylphenidate and AG had no discernible associated toxicities and showed potential clinical benefit in CRF.