Background: Adults with impaired performance status (PS) often receive immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) despite limited efficacy data and unknown effects on end-of-life care.
Methods: This was a retrospective, single-site study of 237 patients with advanced NSCLC who initiated ICI treatment from 2015 to 2017. Cox regression was used to compare the overall survival (OS) of patients who had impaired PS (=2) at the start of ICI treatment with those who had PS 0 or 1 using Cox regression. Logistic regression was conducted to analyze the association between ICI use in the last 30 days of life and the use of end-of-life health care.
Results: The patient mean age at ICI initiation was 67 years (range, 37-91 years), and 35.4% of patients had PS =2. Most patients (80.8%) received ICI as second-line or later therapy. The median OS was 4.5 months in patients with PS =2 and 14.3 months in those with PS 0 or 1 (hazard ratio, 2.5; P < .0001). Among the patients who died (n = 184), 28.8% who had PS =2 received ICIs in their last 30 days of life compared with 10.8% of those who had PS 0 or 1 (P = .002). Receipt of ICI in the last 30 days of life was associated with decreased hospice referral (odds ratio, 0.29; P = .008) and increased in-hospital deaths (odds ratio, 6.8; P = .001), independent of PS.
Conclusions: Adults with advanced NSCLC and impaired PS experience significantly shorter survival after ICI treatment and receive ICIs near death more often than those with better PS. Receipt of an ICI near death was associated with lower hospice use and an increased risk of death in the hospital. These results underscore the need for high-quality communication about potential tradeoffs of ICIs, particularly among adults receiving ICIs as second-line or later therapy.
CONTEXT: Death anxiety is common in patients with metastatic cancer, but its relationship to brain metastases and cognitive decline is unknown. Early identification of death anxiety and its determinants allows proactive interventions to be offered to those in need.
OBJECTIVE: To identify psychological, physical and disease-related (including brain metastases, cognitive impairment) factors associated with death anxiety in mNSCLC patients.
METHODS: A cross-sectional pilot study with mNSCLC outpatients completing standardized neuropsychological tests and validated questionnaires measuring death anxiety, cognitive concerns, illness intrusiveness, depression, demoralization, self-esteem, and common cancer symptoms. We constructed a composite for objective cognitive function (mean neuropsychological tests z-scores).
RESULTS: Study measures were completed by 78 patients (50% female, median age: 62 years (range:37-82)). Median time since mNSCLC diagnosis was 11 months (range:0-89); 53% had brain metastases. At least moderate death anxiety was reported by 43% (n=33). Objective cognitive impairment was present in 41% (n=32) and perceived cognitive impairment in 27% (n=21). Death anxiety, objective, and perceived cognitive impairment did not significantly differ between patients with and without brain metastases. In univariate analysis, death anxiety was associated with demoralization, depression, self-esteem, illness intrusiveness, common physical cancer symptoms, and perceived cognitive impairment. In multivariate analysis, demoralization (p<0.001) and illness intrusiveness (p=0.001) were associated with death anxiety.
CONCLUSION: Death anxiety and brain metastases are common in mNSCLC patients, but not necessarily linked. The association of death anxiety with both demoralization and illness intrusiveness highlights the importance of integrated psychological and symptom management. Further research is needed on the psychological impact of brain metastases.
BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer greatly care about where they will die. Most people in Japan preferred their location of death as their homes. But only 8.2% of patients with cancer spend their last days at home with palliative care in Japan. Many patients with cancer are still going to spend their last days at a hospital (81.7%).
OBJECTIVE: We examined the survival times of such patients according to their place of death; that is, whether they died at home, at a hospice, or at a hospital, and investigated patient characteristics.
RESULTS: Among the 313 patients recruited, 214 were analyzed in this study: 90, 49, and 75 received hospital-based, home-based, and hospice-based palliative care, respectively. The patients who died at a hospice exhibited significantly longer survival than those who died at hospital (estimated median survival time, 420 days [95% confidence interval [CI]: 325-612 days] versus 252 days [95% CI: 201-316 days]; P < .0001). The characteristics of patients did not differ significantly according to place of death.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients who died at a hospice or at home exhibited significantly longer survival than those who died at a hospital for advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Background: Despite improvements in diagnostics and therapy, the majority of lung tumours are diagnosed at advanced stage IV with a poor prognosis. Due to the nature of an incurable disease, patients need to engage in shared decision making on advance care planning. To implement this in clinical practice, effective communication between patients, caregivers and healthcare professionals is essential. The Heidelberg Milestones Communication Approach (MCA) is delivered by a specifically trained interprofessional tandem and consists of four milestone conversations (MCs) at pivotal times in the disease trajectory. MC 1 (Diagnosis): i.e. prognosis; MC 2 (Stable disease): i.e. prognostic awareness; MC 3 (Progression): i.e. reassessment; MC 4 (Best supportive care): i.e. end of treatment. In between MCs, follow-up calls are carried out to sustain communication. This study aimed to assess to what extent the MCA was implemented as planned and consolidated in specialized oncology practice.
Methods: A prospective observational process evaluation study was conducted, which focused on the implementation fidelity of the MCA. All MCs during two assessment periods were included. We analysed all written records of the conversations, which are part of the routine documentation during MCs and follow-up calls. Adherence to key aspects of the manual was documented on structured checklists at the beginning of the implementation of the MCA and after 6 months. The analysis was descriptive. Differences between the two assessment periods are analysed with chi-square tests.
Results: A total of 133 MCs and 54 follow-up-calls (t1) and of 172 MCs and 92 follow-up calls (t2) were analysed. MC 2 were the most frequently completed conversations (n = 51 and n = 47). Advance care planning was discussed in 26 and 13% of MC 2 in the respective assessment periods; in 31 and 47% of MC 2, prognostic awareness was recorded. The most frequently documented topic in the follow-up calls was the physical condition in patients (82 and 83%).
Conclusion: The implementation of a trajectory-specific communication concept was largely successful. Additional studies are needed to understand how fidelity could be further improved.
Trial registration: DRKS00013469 / Date of registration: 22.12.2017.
INTRODUCTION: Health care utilization of people with lung cancer (LC) the last year of life, their causes of death and place of death and the associated expenditure have been poorly described together. Then we conducted an observational study.
METHODS: People with LC covered by the French health Insurance general scheme (77% of the population) who died in 2015 were identified in the national health data system, together with their health care utilization and, in 95% of cases, their causes of death.
RESULTS: A total of 22,899 individuals were included (mean age: 68 years, SD±11.4), 72% of whom died in short-stay hospitals (SSH), 4% in hospital-at-home, 8% in Rehab hospital, 2% in skilled nursing homes and 14% at home. One-half of these people had also a chronic respiratory tract disease and 18% another cancer. Hospital palliative care (HPC) was identified for 65% of people, but for only 9% prior to their end-of-life stay. During the last month of life, 49% of people had two or more SSH stays, 15% were admitted to an intensive care unit, 23% received a chemotherapy session (13% during the last 14 days). The main cause of death was cancer for 92% of individuals (LC for 82%) The mean expenditure during the last year of life was €43,329 per individual.
DISCUSSION: This study indicates high rates of intensive care unit admissions and chemotherapy during the last month of life and a SSH hospital-centered management with intensive use of HPC mainly during the end-of-life stay.
Background: We conducted a multicenter, randomized trial of early integrated palliative and oncology care in patients with advanced cancer to confirm the benefits of early palliative care (PC) seen in prior single-center studies.
Methods: We randomly assigned patients with newly diagnosed incurable cancer to early integrated palliative and oncology care (n = 195) or usual oncology care (n = 196) at sites through the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology. Patients assigned to the intervention were expected to meet with a PC clinician at least monthly until death, whereas usual care patients consulted PC on request. The primary endpoint was the change in quality of life from baseline to week 12 per the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G). Secondary outcomes included anxiety, depression, and communication about prognosis and end-of-life care.
Results: Due to significant morbidity and a high proportion of measures that were not completed within the protocol window or for unknown reasons, the rate of missing data was high. We anticipated that 70% of patients (n = 280) would complete the FACT-G at baseline and week 12, but only 49.3% (n = 193/391) completed the measure. Delivery of the intervention was also suboptimal, as 14.9% (n = 29/195) of intervention patients had no PC visits by week 12. Intervention patients reported a mean 3.35 (standard deviation [SD] = 14.7) increase in FACT-G scores from baseline to week 12 compared with usual care patients who reported a 0.12 (SD = 12.7) increase from baseline (p = 0.10).
Conclusion: This study highlights the difficulties of conducting multicenter trials of supportive care interventions in patients with advanced cancer. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02349412.
Objective: Even when medical treatments are limited, supporting patients’ coping strategies could improve their quality of life. Greater understanding of patients’ coping strategies, and influencing factors, can aid developing such support. We examined the prevalence of coping strategies and associated variables.
Methods: We used sociodemographic and baseline data from the ACTION trial, including measures of Denial, Acceptance, and Problem-focused coping (COPE; Brief COPE inventory), of patients with advanced cancer from six European countries. Clinicians provided clinical information. Linear mixed models with clustering at hospital level were used.
Results: Data from 675 patients with stage III/IV lung (342, 51%) or stage IV colorectal (333, 49%) cancer were used; mean age 66 (10 SD) years. Overall, patients scored low on Denial and high on Acceptance and Problem-focused coping. Older age was associated with higher scores on Denial than younger age (ß = 0.05; CI[0.023; 0.074]), and patients from Italy (ß = 1.57 CI[0.760; 2.388]) and Denmark (ß = 1.82 CI[0.881; 2.750]) scored higher on Denial than patients in other countries.
Conclusions: Patients with advanced cancer predominantly used Acceptance and Problem-focused coping, and Denial to a lesser extent. Since the studied coping strategies of patients with advanced cancer vary between subpopulations, we recommend taking these factors into account when developing tailored interventions to support patients’ coping strategies.
We consider uncertainty in relation to clinical trials for terminal non-small cell lung cancer, which is an aggressive and difficult to treat form of cancer. Using grounded theory to analyse 85 clinical interactions between doctors, patients and family members, we argue that uncertainty is a major source of tension for terminally ill patients, with individuals confronting a choice between transitioning to palliative care or volunteering for an experimental/trial medication that might postpone death. Regardless of their efficacy, patients must also consider how such experimental treatments might impact their quality-of-life. We argue that clinical trials produce uncertainty through (i) discussions about the efficacy of clinical trials; (ii) the physiological consequences of clinical trial medications; and (iii) the impact clinical trials have on patient's prognostic understanding of their terminal cancer. Accordingly, while study participants encounter high prognostic certainty (i.e. they have a fatal cancer), they nonetheless experience considerable uncertainty in relation to their participation in clinical trials.
Background: End-of-life (EOL) communication is crucial, particularly for cancer patients. While advanced care planning is still uncommon, we sought to investigate its impact on care intensity in case of organ failure in lung cancer patients.
Methods: We prospectively included consecutive lung cancer patients hospitalised at the Grenoble University Hospital, France, between January 1, 2014 and March 31, 2016. Patients could be admitted several times and benefited from advanced care planning based on three care intensities: intensive care, maximal medical care, and exclusive palliative care. Patients’ wishes were addressed.
Results: Data of 739 hospitalisations concerning 482 patients were studied. During the three first admissions, 173 (25%) patients developed organ failure, with intensive care proposed to 56 (32%), maximal medical care to 104 (60%), and exclusive palliative care to 13 (8%). Median time to organ failure was 9 days [IQR 25%-75%: 3-13]. All patients benefited from care intensity that was either equal to or lower than the care proposed. Specific wishes were recorded for 158 (91%) patients, with a discussion about EOL conditions held in 116 (73%).
Conclusions: In case of organ failure, advanced care planning helps provide reasonable care intensity. The role of the patient’s wishes as to the proposed care must be further investigated.
Clinical Trial Registration: The study was registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov with the identifier NCT02852629.
OBJECTIVE: Chemotherapy in the last month of life for patients with metastatic lung cancer is often considered as aggressive end-of-life care. Targeted therapy with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) is a relatively new treatment of which not much is known yet about use in the last month of life. We examined what percentage of patients received chemotherapy or TKIs in the last month of life in the Netherlands.
METHODS: Patient files were drawn from 10 hospitals across the Netherlands. Patients had to meet the following eligibility criteria: metastatic lung cancer; died between June 1, 2013 and July 31, 2015.
RESULTS: From the included 1,322 patients, 39% received no treatment for metastatic lung cancer, 52% received chemotherapy and 9% received TKIs. A total of 232 patients (18%) received treatment in the last month of life (11% chemotherapy, 7% TKIs). From the patients who received chemotherapy, 145 (21%) received this in the last month of life and 79 (11%) started this treatment in the last month of life. TKIs were given and started more often in the last month of life: from the patients who received TKIs, 87 (72%) received this treatment in the last month of life and 15 (12%) started this treatment in the last month of life.
CONCLUSION: A substantial percentage of patient received and even started chemotherapy or TKIs in the last month of life. For chemotherapy, this might be seen as aggressive care. TKIs are said to have less side effects, do not lead to many hospital visits and due to the rapid response, are considered good palliation. However, it is not known, yet possible that, when patients still receiving treatment until shortly before death, this might influence preparing for death in a negative way.
Background: This study aimed to investigate lung cancer patients and attitudes of their caregivers toward advance directives (ADs) in China.
Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Oncology outpatient clinic in West China Hospital, Sichuan University. A questionnaire was used to survey the attitudes of lung cancer patients and caregivers toward ADs.
Results: A total of 148 lung cancer patients and 149 caregivers were enrolled into the study. Of these, 94.6% and 89.9% of patients and caregivers had not heard of AD and none of those in the study had ever signed an AD. A total of 79.7% patients and 75.2% caregivers were willing to sign ADs after they were provided with information. Patients who preferred the end of life period to sign ADs were 5.4 times more likely to have ADs than patients who chose to sign ADs when their disease was diagnosed (P < 0.05, 95%CI [1.27–22.93]). Caregivers who were reluctant to undergo chemotherapy when diagnosed with cancer were 2.16 times more likely to sign ADs than those willing to receive chemotherapy (P < 0.05, 95%CI [1.20–3.90]).
Conclusions: In China, lung cancer patients and their caregivers showed lack of knowledge about ADs, and the completion rate of ADs was extremely low. However, participants were positive about ADs and public education on ADs may help to increase the completion rate of ADs in China.
Importance: Palliative care is a patient-centered approach associated with improvements in quality of life; however, results regarding its association with a survival benefit have been mixed, which may be a factor in its underuse.
Objective: To assess whether early palliative care is associated with a survival benefit among patients with advanced lung cancer.
Design, setting, and participants: This retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted among patients with lung cancer who were diagnosed with cancer between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2013, with follow-up until January 23, 2017. Participants comprised 23 154 patients with advanced lung cancer (stage IIIB and stage IV) who received care in the Veterans Affairs health care system. Data were analyzed from February 15, 2019, to April 28, 2019.
Exposure: Palliative care defined as a specialist-delivered palliative care encounter received after lung cancer diagnosis.
Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcome was survival. The association between palliative care and place of death was also examined. Propensity score and time-varying covariate methods were used to calculate Cox proportional hazards and to perform regression modeling.
Results: Of the 23 154 patients enrolled in the study, 57% received palliative care. The mean (SD) age of participants was 68 (9.5) years, and 98% of participants were men. An examination of the timing of palliative care receipt relative to cancer diagnosis found that palliative care received 0 to 30 days after diagnosis was associated with decreases in survival (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.13; 95% CI, 1.97-2.30), palliative care received 31 to 365 days after diagnosis was associated with increases in survival (aHR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.45-0.49), and palliative care received more than 365 days after diagnosis was associated with no difference in survival (aHR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.94-1.07) compared with nonreceipt of palliative care. Receipt of palliative care was also associated with a reduced risk of death in an acute care setting (adjusted odds ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.52-0.64) compared with nonreceipt of palliative care.
Conclusions and relevance: The results suggest that palliative care was associated with a survival benefit among patients with advanced lung cancer. Palliative care should be considered a complementary approach to disease-modifying therapy in patients with advanced lung cancer.
Background: Surgery is seldom used for palliation in advanced lung cancer and the published data on this issue are very limited. We aimed to assess the results of palliative lung resections and identify criteria to guide surgical therapy in this situation.
Methods: This is a retrospective single-institution analysis of patients with palliative intended lung cancer resection. Survival analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression at a statistical significance level of P=0.05.
Results: Forty-eight patients received palliative intended lung resections (31 lobectomies, 4 bilobectomies, 13 pneumonectomies) with acceptable rates of severe complications (Clavien-Dindo >IIIa 29%) and 30-day mortality (4%). The most frequent indications were infection and hemoptysis. The median survival for the entire group was 12 months (95% CI: 6.9-17.1 months). Due to unexpectedly favorable histopathologic tumor stage, a switch to curative treatment in 17 completely resected patients resulted in a 2-year survival rate of 46%. In a subgroup of 20 patients with favorable prognostic factors as identified by uni- and multivariable analysis, a median survival of 26 months was observed.
Conclusions: In well selected patients with lung cancer, resection in palliative intent can offer symptom relief and even a survival benefit with acceptable morbidity and low mortality. Prognostic factors were identified and can be used to guide operative treatment. Due to the low specificity of CT and FDG-PET/CT in the presence of inflammation or centrally located lung tumors, a large proportion of patients with lung resection in palliative intent experience a down-staging and frequently also a switch from palliative to curative treatment with additional survival benefit. Factors like expected complete resection, a squamous cell type and the ability to receive adjuvant therapy are useful to support the decision to perform palliative tumor resection.
BACKGROUND: Advance care planning (ACP) is well recognised as an important component of palliative care. However, there is still a need to explore ways in which it can become a part of routine practice, ensuring a timely and person-centred discussion.
OBJECTIVES: To explore patients newly diagnosed with advanced lung cancer and their family members' experiences of engaging in a person-centred and structured ACP discussion facilitated by palliative care nurses in an outpatient oncology clinic at the University Hospital of Iceland.
METHODS: An exploratory qualitative design employing semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis. The intervention included a structured ACP discussion, aided by a booklet.
RESULTS: Key themes emerged describing families' and patients' experiences and highlighted that the timing and approach of the ACP discussion was appropriate and helpful, even though the discussion was sensitive and difficult. Using a routine approach with a flexible structure normalised the discussion and made it easier for the patients to take the lead in the discussion.
CONCLUSIONS: ACP discussion can be part of an integrated palliative care and oncology service if implemented in a systematic way.
Background: Demographic and contextual factors are associated with quality of life (QoL) in older adults and prediagnosis QoL among older adults has important implications for supportive care in older cancer patients.
Objective: To examine whether lower educational attainment is associated with poorer QoL among community dwelling older adults just before their diagnosis of lung cancer in a nationally representative sample.
Design: his study used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (MHOS) dataset, which provides cancer registry data linked with survey data for Medicare Advantage enrollees.
Subjects: Adults 65 years and older at time of diagnosis with first or only primary lung cancer and with at least one survey before their cancer diagnosis.
Measurements: Level of education attained was categorized as less than high school (
Results: higher education was positively associated with prediagnosis mental and physical QoL. Other factors associated with lower QoL were Medicaid status and number of comorbidities.
Conclusions: Particular attention should focus on identifying and addressing QoL needs among vulnerable older adults to bolster QoL to mitigate its potential impact on prognosis following a lung cancer diagnosis.
The first time I met Emma, she showed me a video of her piano performance downtown; it was named “Brightness after the Dark.”
Emma was a pianist. She and her husband, Yusuf, left their country at the age of 21, when the war started. As a migrant, she took pride in sharing her gift with the world, now America. She trained long hours to perfect her sonatas.
Then her life took an unexpected turn. A stage III lung cancer was diagnosed when she was 37. By then, she and Yusuf had 4 children, ages 5 to 15. A single lobectomy and course of chemotherapy followed. She went back to her piano full time, trying to put her cancer journey behind her.
On Emma’s 10th cancer anniversary, a computed tomography scan of her chest showed a new spot in the opposite lung. Her time as a cancer survivor had come to an abrupt end. A biopsy showed that a second lung cancer, of a different cell type, was present. Staging scans and lymph node sampling suggested that her new tumor was operable. And that is when I met her.
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Asbestos-related diseases (ARDs) are incurable but entirely preventable. Due to India's continuing use of asbestos, ARD patients will increase to a high number in the next three to four decades. This will increase the burden on palliative care system which is in nascent stage presently. Palliative care is the mainstay of the management of ARDs. Unfortunately, the burden on palliative care is likely to increase due to multiple factors contributed by India's demographic and economic changes. In the near future, there will be at least 12.5 million ARD patients and 1.25 million asbestos-related cancer patients worldwide, and half of these will be in India. It is high time to introspect about our ability to engage with this future problem. The paper also discusses the organization of this future problem of ARDs and possible action points toward future access to palliative care for ARD patients.
Radiotherapy (RT) is a cornerstone in the management of advanced stage III and stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Despite international guidelines, clinical practice remains heterogeneous. Additionally, the advent of stereotactic ablative RT (SABR) and new systemic treatments such as immunotherapy have shaken up dogmas in the approach of these patients. This review will focus on palliative thoracic RT for NSCLC but will also discuss the role of stereotactic radiotherapy, endobronchial brachytherapy (EBB), the interest of concomitant treatments (chemotherapy and immunotherapy), and the role of RT in lung cancer emergencies with palliative intent.
Background: End-of-life cancer care involves multidisciplinary teams working in various settings. Evaluating the quality of care and the feedback from such processes is an important aspect of health care quality improvement. Our retrospective cohort study reviewed health care use by lung cancer patients at end of life, their reasons for visiting the emergency department (ed), and feedback from regional health care professionals.
Methods: We assessed 162 Ontario patients with small-cell and relapsed or advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Demographics, disease characteristics, and resource use were collected, and the consenting caregivers for patients with ed visits were interviewed. Study results were disseminated, and feedback about barriers to care was sought.
Results: Median patient age was 69 years; 73% of the group had non-small-cell lung cancer; and 39% and 69% had received chemotherapy and radiation therapy respectively. Median overall survival was 5.6 months. In the last 3 months of life, 93% of the study patients had visited an oncologist, 67% had telephoned their oncology team, 86% had received homecare, and 73% had visited the ed. Death occurred for 55% of the patients in hospital; 23%, at home; and 22%, in hospice. Goals of care had been documented for 68% of the patients. Homecare for longer than 3 months was associated with fewer ed visits (80.3% vs. 62.1%, p = 0.022). Key themes from stakeholders included the need for more resources and for effective communication between care teams.
Conclusions: Use of acute-care services and rates of death in an acute-care facility are both high for lung cancer patients approaching end of life. In our study, interprofessional and patient-provider communication, earlier connection to homecare services, and improved access to community care were highlighted as having the potential to lower the need for acute-care resources.
Purpose: Among individuals with COPD and/or lung cancer, to describe end-of-life health service utilization, costs, and place of death; to identify predictors of home palliative care use, and to assess benefits associated with palliative care use.
Patients and methods: We conducted a retrospective population-based study using provincial linked health administrative data (Ontario, Canada) between 2010 and 2015. We examined health care use in the last 90 days of life in adults 35 years and older with physician-diagnosed COPD and/or lung cancer identified using a validated algorithm and the Ontario Cancer Registry, respectively. Four mutually exclusive groups were considered: (i) COPD only, (ii) lung cancer only, (iii) COPD and lung cancer, and (iv) neither COPD nor lung cancer. Multivariable generalized linear models were employed.
Results: Of 445,488 eligible deaths, 34% had COPD only, 4% had lung cancer only, 5% had both and 57% had neither. Individuals with COPD only received less palliative care (20% vs 57%) than those with lung cancer only. After adjustment, people with lung cancer only were far more likely to receive palliative care (OR=4.22, 4.08-4.37) compared to those with neither diagnosis, while individuals with COPD only were less likely to receive palliative care (OR=0.82, 0.81-0.84). Home palliative care use was associated with reduced death and fewer days in acute care, and less cost, regardless of the diagnosis.
Conclusion: Although individuals with lung cancer were much more likely to receive palliative care than those with COPD, both populations were underserviced. Results suggest greater involvement of palliative care may improve the dying experience of these populations and reduce costs.