Ce roman se présente comme une lettre d'adieu pour un chat aimé et disparu à travers laquelle l'auteur évoque les mystères de la vie, l'amour et la douleur de la perte. C'est une réflexion sur la fin inéluctable et la mort qui donne sens à la vie, doublée d'une invitation à jouir du présent.
The Core Bereavement Items (CBI) is a commonly used measure that assesses core grief and bereavement experiences. Although previous psychometric testing has been conducted, no studies have assessed its use specifically aimed at adults aged 50 and older or for those who lost a loved one who was hospice care. This is critical, as losses and additional obstacles in bereavement compound throughout the aging process. The present study investigated reliability, content validity, and internal structure of the CBI in bereaved adults aged 50 and older whose loved one died while in hospice care (N = 205). Associations based on age, marital status, and relationship with the died patients were consistent with preexisting research. Results of a Cronbach a reliability test found that the CBI has excellent reliability in this population. Further, content validity was established based on the judgment of subject matter experts. Exploratory factor analysis supported a 1-factor structure, with all items loading as General Grief Experiences. Based on this analysis, the CBI is a valid and reliable tool when used with adults aged 50 and older.
Huguette Le Gall, accompagnante JALMALV 35, évoque les demandes d'accompagnement de deuil lorsque la situation est atypique. Une fratrie qui n'a pas fait le deuil d'un frère qui s'est suicidé il y a 30 ans, une autre qui pleure un sportif qui n'est jamais revenu d'une expédition, autant de situations qu'il faut comprendre et accompagner avec des rites funéraires mémoriaux.
Les pompes funèbres ont une place prépondérante dans l'organisation des obsèques. Ce sont elles qui assurent la mise en scène des funérailles et leur organisation. Sur le fait d'accompagner les singularités, c'est relativement récent et puisque nous sommes dans une société d'individus, les rites funéraires contemporains célèbrent l'individu. Les pompes funèbres sont donc depuis longtemps des faiseurs de rites mais elles cherchent désormais aussi à proposer des rites à la carte, plus personnalisés en fonction des choix du défunt et des familles.
La mort va en se taisant, comme si nous pouvions la faire disparaître de nos vie en l'effaçant de notre langue, en l'institutionnalisant et en diffusant nos responsabilités en faveur d'un savoir-faire professionnel. Comment l'évolution de notre société, sur un versant individualiste, a-t-elle redéfini nos pratiques commémoratives, nos besoins émotionnels et affectifs, nos ritualités, nos compoprtements individuels et collectifs dans la mort, face au mort et dans la traversée du chagrin du deuil ?
Bereavement is associated with many negative behavioural, psychological and physiological consequences and leads to an increased risk of mortality and morbidity. However, studies specifically examining neuroendocrine mechanisms of grief and bereavement have yet to be reviewed. This systematic review is a synthesis of the latest evidence in this field and aims to draw conclusions about the implications of neurobiological findings on the development of new interventions. PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews were used to search for articles assessing neuroendocrine correlates of grief. Findings were qualitatively summarised. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Study Assessment Tool was used to assess the quality of the included studies. Out of 460 papers, 20 met the inclusion criteria. However, most were of fair quality only. As a neuroendocrine marker, the majority of the studies reported cortisol as the outcome measure and found elevated mean cortisol levels, flattened diurnal cortisol slopes and higher morning cortisol in bereaved subjects. Cortisol alterations were moderated by individual differences such as emotional reaction to grief, depressive symptoms, grief severity, closeness to the deceased and age or gender. Research on neuroendocrine mechanisms of grief is still in its early stages regarding grief measures and the use and timing of neuroendocrine assessments. Most of the studies focus on cortisol as outcome, and only limited data exist on other biomarkers such as oxytocin. Future research might consider assessing a broader range of neuroendocrine markers and use longitudinal designs with a focus on the psychobiological reactions to loss. Based on this, individually tailored psychosocial interventions, possibly in the palliative care context, might be developed to prevent prolonged grief disorder.
Dans ce livre III des Tusculanes, Cicéron, en deuil de sa fille, évoque en disciple des stoïciens la mort, la douleur, le chagrin, s’exhortant à surmonter sa peine par la réflexion et la maîtrise de soi.
BACKGROUND: Family caregivers provide the majority of care for people with Parkinson's disease (PD) in the palliative care phase. For many this is a demanding experience, affecting their quality of life.
OBJECTIVE: We set out to map the experiences of bereaved family caregivers during the period of informal care in the palliative care phase as well as after the death of their loved one with PD.
METHODS: Ten bereaved family caregivers participated in this qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and interpretative phenomenological analysis was used executed.
RESULTS: We identified four main themes. 1) Feeling like a professional caregiver: while caring for a person with PD, the family caregivers took over many roles and tasks of the person with PD.2) Healthcare professionals do not always know what PD really means. Most interviewees had negative experiences with knowledge and understanding of PD of, especially, (practice) nurses. 3) Being on your own: many respondents had felt highly responsible for their loved one's care and lacked time and space for themselves. Grief and feelings of guilt were present during the caregiving period and after death. 4) Being behind the times: to provide palliative care in line with patients' preferences and to feel prepared for the palliative care phase of PD, proactive palliative care planning was considered important. However, the interviewees told that this was most often not provided.
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that caring for a person with PD in the palliative care phase is a demanding experience for family caregivers. They experience psychological problems for many years before and after the death of the person with PD. Increasing healthcare professionals' awareness of family and bereaved caregivers' needs may mitigate these long-term detrimental effects.
Palliative care (PC) focuses on caring for the whole person, from birth to death, while managing symptoms and helping to navigate medical complexities. Care does not stop at the time of death, however, as assisting patients, families, and fellow clinicians through grief and bereavement is within PC's purview. Unfortunately, many clinicians feel unprepared to deal with these topics. In this article, PC and hospice clinicians define and explain bereavement, distinguish normative grief from pathological grief, offer psychometrically sound scales to screen and follow those suffering from grief, and discuss the interaction between grief and bereavement and the physical and mental health of those who are left behind after the death of a loved one.
Although there is an increased need for delivery of bereavement care, many health care providers in acute care hospital settings feel inadequately prepared to deliver quality grief support, have lack of time, and have inexperience in provision of bereavement care. As a result, although families would like health care providers to offer bereavement support, they are inadequately trained and susceptible to burnout, resulting in families not having their needs met. The purpose of this qualitative study was to uncover the social process occurring in a bereavement education workshop titled "How to Care, What to Say" offered to health care providers. The goal of the workshop was to improve delivery of care for the dying and their family by providing holistic care to the family before, during, and after the death of a loved one. Past grief workshop participants who cared for the bereaved were interviewed, and data were analyzed and synthesized using constructivist grounded theory. Individual interviews and focus group data revealed participants' perceptions, learnings, and potential integration of the workshop into practice. The overarching theory of providing bereavement care that emerged from the data is "a relational process of understanding knowledge, self-awareness, moral responsibilities, and advancing grief competencies of providing holistic grief support."
BACKGROUND: Bereavement support is a key component of palliative care, with different types of support recommended according to need. Previous reviews have typically focused on specialised interventions and have not considered more generic forms of support, drawing on different research methodologies.
AIM: To review the quantitative and qualitative evidence on the effectiveness and impact of interventions and services providing support for adults bereaved through advanced illness.
DESIGN: A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted, with narrative synthesis of quantitative results and thematic synthesis of qualitative results. The review protocol is published in PROSPERO ( www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero , CRD42016043530).
DATA SOURCES: The databases MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Social Policy and Practice were searched from 1990 to March 2019. Studies were included which reported evaluation results of bereavement interventions, following screening by two independent researchers. Study quality was assessed using GATE checklists.
RESULTS: A total of 31 studies were included, reporting on bereavement support groups, psychological and counselling interventions and a mix of other forms of support. Improvements in study outcomes were commonly reported, but the quality of the quantitative evidence was generally poor or mixed. Three main impacts were identified in the qualitative evidence, which also varied in quality: 'loss and grief resolution', 'sense of mastery and moving ahead' and 'social support'.
CONCLUSION: Conclusions on effectiveness are limited by small sample sizes and heterogeneity in study populations, models of care and outcomes. The qualitative evidence suggests several cross-cutting benefits and helps explain the impact mechanisms and contextual factors that are integral to the support.
A population survey finds that bereaved people draw upon diverse sources of support in their communities, from both formal services and informal networks of care. The formal service most frequently recognised by participants is provided by funeral directors. We outline some reasons for this, and explore one particular theme, memorialisation, in which funeral providers have traditionally been a lead discipline. Significant changes in memorialisation over recent decades challenge today’s funeral industry, but also draw our attention to underlying social changes reshaping our understanding not only of bereavement care but of care in general. Bereavement support is most effective when provided collaboratively by formal and informal care providers, but collaboration is challenged by policies that continue to privilege formal services over informal care. This challenge of developing constructive, respectful and complementary collaborations between formal and informal care is not peculiar to bereavement care, but is a social policy imperative for contemporary societies.
De nombreux parents prennent conscience qu'il n'est pas facile de parler en famille de l'expérience douloureuse de la perte d'un bébé avant la naissance. C'est ce qu'ont vécu les trois mamans, auteurs et illustratrice de ce petit livre. Elles l'ont conçu pour aider des parents à partager des moments d'échange et d'intimité avec leurs enfants, lorsqu'ils ont des questions exprimées ou implicites après une telle épreuve.
Leur ouvrage sera une aide précieuse pour parler de cette souffrance avec les enfants de six à dix ans.
La mort d’un d’enfant provoque chez les parents une douleur incommensurable. À travers le témoignage d’une mère endeuillée, nous suivrons le long travail de séparation permettant d’atténuer cette souffrance. Nous verrons comment la théorie classique sur le deuil, élaborée par Freud, ne peut éclairer de façon satisfaisante la spécificité du deuil d’enfant.
This paper explains the healing benefits, the “sweet unexpected” of the title, which results from using poetry to engage trauma, including traumatic grief. The benefits of poetry are presented alongside a discussion of a 22-year-old nonprofit called The Pongo Poetry Project. The sweet unexpected includes the ease with which trauma survivors engage their trauma narrative, the critical insights that emerge in poetry, the beneficial social context of sharing poetry, and the healing benefits of poetry for writers, care providers, and readers alike. The paper concludes by providing resources that can help people use poetry in their own work.
Parents who experience the death of a child are at high risk for psychopathology. Because a large percentage of pediatric deaths occur in the pediatric intensive care unit each year, a follow-up meeting between bereaved parents and intensivists could provide essential emotional support, although some parents may not attend. The aim of this study was to explore demographic and medical factors that may distinguish between bereaved parents who attend a follow-up meeting with their child’s pediatric intensivist and those who do not. Our analysis revealed that parents of children who died of trauma were less likely to attend a follow-up meeting with an intensivist. It is possible that symptoms of posttraumatic stress play a role in these findings. Enhanced efforts to identify other interventions for this specific subset of bereaved parents may be necessary.
The experience of same-sex-attracted people who have lost a partner is neglected in the existing literature on bereavement. Previous research on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, queer and questioning (LGBTIQ) populations tends to focus on the loss of a partner to HIV-related causes, and there is scant research concerning non-HIV-related bereavement. The purpose of this article is to investigate the non-HIV-related bereavement experiences of same-sex partners and to address the potential complications of disenfranchised grief. Coping with the loss of a same-sex partner and the impact of bereavement on subsequent relationships are also discussed. Implications for counseling of bereaved same-sex-attracted individuals are drawn, and recommendations for future psychological research on the experience of bereavement are made.
OBJECTIVE: Oncologists are exposed to suffering, loss, and death, which can potentially lead to grief reactions. Although grief over patients may be a natural consequence of the close and longstanding oncologist-patient relationship, the empathy that oncologists feel towards their patients may put them at risk for compassion fatigue (CF). This study examined the mediating role of the two components of CF - secondary traumatic stress (STS) and burnout - in the relation between empathy and grief among oncologists.
METHOD: Participants included 71 Israeli oncologists. Measures consisted of a demographic questionnaire, the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief-Present, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, and the Professional Quality of Life questionnaire.
RESULTS: Oncologists reported moderate levels of grief, and relatively high levels of both STS and burnout. In addition, they reported high levels of the three components of empathy: perspective-taking, empathic concern, and personal distress. The PROCESS SPSS macro revealed support for the mediation model. The mediators (STS and burnout) fully accounted for the relationship between the following two components of empathy - perspective-taking and personal distress - and grief.
CONCLUSIONS: Oncologists commonly experience grief over patients. We found that oncologists' grief was related to their empathy, and that this association was explained by their levels of CF. The current research may mark a step toward recognizing oncologists' grief as well as understanding the processes associated with it.
Objectives: In Australia, 15-20% of pregnancies result in miscarriage, and 0.69% in stillbirth. Pregnancy loss is a distressing experience for parents, with many turning to their own parents for support. Pregnancy loss has been identified as an ambiguous loss, leading to disenfranchised grief. However little research has been conducted regarding grandparents’ experiences following pregnancy loss. Much of what is known comes indirectly from family studies of grief and loss. This study aimed to explore grandparents’ experiences of loss and grief, following a child’s pregnancy loss.
Design: grounded theory approach using a qualitative inductive thematic analysis research design was employed. Individual participant interviews provided the data for analysis which was conducted using a six-step approach.
Methods: Interviews were conducted with 14 grandmothers. Interviews were semi-structured, with open-ended questions. Thematic Analysis was applied using Braun and Clarkes’ (2013) approach to analysis.
Results: Five themes were identified: Pregnancy loss is a grief like no other, Excited anticipation - then nothing, Ambiguity following pregnancy loss exacerbates grief, Grief is isolating, Multiple losses, changed family relationships, and Ceremonies and mementoes: Tangible, with lasting benefits for grandparents.
Conclusions: Early access to information and guidance, ongoing peer support with flexible delivery options, and involvement in memory making activities could reduce ambiguity and disenfranchisement. Increasing community education and participation in raising awareness was identified as a way for grandparents to honour their loss and support others. Further research could explore grandfathers’ experiences, the longer-term outcomes for grandparents and families, and the impact of support strategies.
Grounded in work on health narratives of public figures, an online survey (N = 305) explored amplification of Carrie Fisher's mental health advocacy following her death through sharing about mental health on SNSs. Parasocial relationship (PSR) to Fisher and grief in response to her death both predicted greater sharing about mental health on social network sites, but parasocial grief fully mediated the influence of PSR on social sharing. Prosocial motivations (pleasure, pressure) moderated the relationship between parasocial grief and social sharing. In a separate analysis, parasocial grief predicted greater exposure to both media about mental health and media that mourned/celebrated Fisher. Mental health-related media exposure mediated the influence of parasocial grief on social sharing, but this mediation occurred only among people who were not aware of Fisher's mental health advocacy prior to her death.