BACKGROUND: Compared to Whites, racial/ethnic minorities are less likely to enroll in hospice and if they enroll, more likely to experience poor quality care. Building cultural competence (CC) among hospice staff is a strategy that may reduce disparities.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the state of CC training across hospices.
DESIGN: National survey of hospices' practices to promote CC.
RESULTS: A total of 197 hospices participated; most were not-for-profit (80%) with an average daily census less than 100 (47%); 73% offered staff cultural competence training (CCT). There were no differences in characteristics of hospices who offered CCT and those that did not. Of hospices offering CCT, 61% held it annually. Most trainings were 1 hour (60%); content was delivered via web (58%) and/or lecture (58%). While over 90% of staff (i.e., nurses, social workers, chaplains) completed CCT, a smaller proportion of medical directors (64%), senior leaders (71%) and board members (26%) did so. Most common topics were: cross-cultural communication, death/illness beliefs, spirituality's role, and healthcare disparities. The majority focused on African-Americans (83%), Hispanics (76%), and Asians (62%)-the most common U.S. minority groups. Almost 30% reported no effectiveness assessment of CCT, while 51% reported a quiz at the end of training. Most hospices offered some CCT.
CONCLUSIONS: CCT has been shown to improve healthcare providers' knowledge and skills in caring for diverse patients and it is associated with increased patient satisfaction. Future research should evaluate effectiveness of CCT in improving the ability of hospices to deliver high quality end-of-life care to diverse groups of older adults.
OBJECTIVE: In Belgium, people with an incurable psychiatric disorder can file a request for euthanasia claiming unbearable psychic suffering. For the request to be accepted, it has to meet stringent legal criteria. One of the requirements is that the patient possesses decision-making capacity. The patient's decision-making capacity is assessed by physicians.The objective of our study is to provide insight in the assessment of decision-making capacity in the context of euthanasia for patients with psychic suffering caused by a psychiatric disorder.
METHOD: Twenty-two semistructured interviews with psychiatrists and neurologists were analysed with NVivo, a qualitative analysis software to code and organise transcribed data.
RESULTS: Different views and approaches regarding decision-making capacity in the context of euthanasia emerged from the data. Most of the physicians have some knowledge of the cognitive ability approach on decision-making capacity. According to this approach, four abilities constitute decision-making capacity: communication, understanding, appreciation and reasoning. We observed differences in the way these abilities are valued in relation to competence. Some physicians take additional elements into consideration when assessing decision-making capacity. Physicians acquired their knowledge on the subject in many different ways. Most of the physicians reported that decision-making capacity was not part of their training.
CONCLUSION: We conclude that physicians assess decision-making capacity in different ways and that personal values and beliefs influence their approach. As such, a common approach in assessing the decision-making capacity of a patient among the interviewed physicians is lacking. Less arbitrariness could be obtained by consistently implementing the cognitive ability approach.
Background: There is little concrete guidance on how to train current and future healthcare providers (HCPs) in the core competency of compassion. This study was undertaken using Straussian grounded theory to address the question: “What are healthcare providers’ perspectives on training current and future HCPs in compassion?”
Methods: Fifty-seven HCPs working in palliative care participated in this study, beginning with focus groups with frontline HCPs (n = 35), followed by one-on-one interviews with HCPs who were considered by their peers to be skilled in providing compassion (n = 15, three of whom also participated in the initial focus groups), and end of study focus groups with study participants (n = 5) and knowledge users (n = 10).
Results: Study participants largely agreed that compassionate behaviours can be taught, and these behaviours are distinct from the emotional response of compassion. They noted that while learners can develop greater compassion through training, their ability to do so varies depending on the innate qualities they possess prior to training. Participants identified three facets of an effective compassion training program: self-awareness, experiential learning and effective and affective communication skills. Participants also noted that healthcare faculties, facilities and organizations play an important role in creating compassionate practice settings and sustaining HCPs in their delivery of compassion.
Conclusions: Providing compassion has become a core expectation of healthcare and a hallmark of quality palliative care. This study provides guidance on the importance, core components and teaching methods of compassion training from the perspectives of those who aim to provide it—Healthcare Providers—serving as a foundation for future evidence based educational interventions.
BACKGROUND: To date, a comprehensive, psychometrically robust instrument to assess palliative and end-of-life (PEOL) care education, practice, and perceived competence among intensive care unit (ICU) nurses does not exist.
OBJECTIVE: To examine content validity and reliability of a proposed instrument to assess the PEOL care education-practice- competence triad among ICU nurses.
METHODS: An international modified e-Delphi and a cross-sectional pilot questionnaire survey. The Delphi involved 23 panelists from 11 countries. The pilot study involved 40 staff nurses and 3 nurse managers from 3 adult ICUs in a randomly selected hospital in Egypt. An instrument was developed and judged for content validity by international panelists, and then pretested in a pilot study, where data were collected at 2 time points using self-administered questionnaires, followed by cognitive interviews. Test-retest reliability was examined using intraclass correlation (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and repeatability coefficient (RC).
RESULTS: The panelists confirmed content validity of the proposed instrument, and staff nurses confirmed its comprehensibility. At the level of the instrument's total scores, the lowest ICC was .9 (95% confidence interval: .8-.9); and the highest SEM and RC were 4.8 and 13.3, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The PEOL Care Index is a comprehensive, comprehensible, content valid, and reliable instrument to assess the PEOL care education-practice-competence triad among ICU nurses. Construct and criterion validities need to be confirmed in future studies. Applicability of the PEOL Care Index in different settings and cultures needs to be examined.
Objective: This study aimed to develop an assessment tool measuring comprehensive interdisciplinary competence in end-of-life care (EoLC) and investigate its content, construct validity, reliability, and their correlates.
Method: Items of the Comprehensive End-of-Life Care Competence Scale (CECCS) were developed according to a comprehensive core competence framework in EoLC and refined by a multi-disciplinary panel of experts. The psychometric properties were further tested through region-wide surveys of self-administered questionnaires completed by health and social care professionals in Hong Kong.
Results: Participants comprised social workers, nurses, physicians, and allied health care professionals (445 participants in 2016, 410 in 2017, and 523 in 2018). Factor analysis validated the construct of the questionnaire which encompassed 26 items describing EoLC core competences in seven domains with satisfactory internal reliability (confirmatory factor analysis: 2/df = 3.12, GFI = 0.85, TLI = 0.93, CFI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.07; Cronbach's alphas ranged from 0.89 to 0.97): overarching value & knowledge, communication skills, symptom management, psychosocial and community care, end-of-life decision-making, bereavement care, and self-care. Higher perceived levels in these competences were correlated with a higher level of job meaningfulness and satisfaction (r ranged from 0.17 to 0.39, p < 0.01) and correlated with lower perceived stress (r ranged from –0.11 to –0.28, p < 0.05). Regression analysis found that age and work involvement in EoLC were positively associated with the perceived competences in all domains; professionals working in hospices reported higher levels of competence than workers in other settings; social workers showed lower perceived competences in symptom management, but higher levels in bereavement care than other health care professionals.
Significance of results: The validity and internal reliability of CECCS were demonstrated. The levels of perceived competences working in EoLC were significantly associated with professionals’ job-related well-being. Practically, there is still room for improvement in comprehensive competences among health and social care workers in Hong Kong.
Objective: Patients with cancer face numerous problems at the end of their lives, which makes palliative care necessary for a peaceful death. Considering the important role nurses play in the provision of end-of-life care, the present study was conducted to study the effect of a traditional training method on nurses' perception of and clinical competency in providing end-of-life care to patients with cancer in a hospital in Southeastern Iran.
Methods: This was a pilot clinical trial in which the nurses in an oncology ward were allocated to two groups, experimental (n = 24) and control (n = 33), using a table of random numbers. The experiment group received three sessions of workshop training. The nurses' perception and clinical competency were measured before and 3 months postintervention.
Results: The results showed the perception scores in the experimental and control groups to be 171.75 ± 19.54 and 170.03 ± 17.03 before education and 176.16 ± 19.54 and 176.12 ± 16.12 postintervention, respectively. The scores of clinical competency were 98.71 ± 10.24 and 99.58 ± 12.17 before education and 101.5 ± 14.67 and 104.97 ± 12 postintervention in the experimental and control groups, respectively. According to the findings, neither of the groups showed a significant difference between pre- and post-intervention in terms of perception of or clinical competency in end-of-life care.
Conclusions: A traditional training method such as workshop training cannot cause long-term improvement in nurses' end-of-life care perception or clinical competency. It seems that nurses would benefit from acquiring cognitive and behavioral skills and knowledge through a more continuous form of instruction delivered through modern blended educational methods.
Conflict is an important consideration in the intensive care unit (ICU). In this setting, conflict most commonly occurs over the 'best interests' of the incapacitated adult patient; for instance, when families seek aggressive life-sustaining treatments, which are thought by the medical team to be potentially inappropriate. Indeed, indecision on futility of treatment and the initiation of end-of-life discussions are recognised to be among the greatest challenges of working in the ICU, leading to emotional and psychological 'burnout' in ICU teams. When these disagreements occur, they may be within the clinical team or among those close to the patient, or between the clinical team and those close to the patient. It is, therefore, crucial to have a theoretical understanding of decision-making itself, as unpicking misalignments in the family's and clinical team's decision-making processes may offer strategies to resolve conflict. Here, we relate Kahneman and Tversky's work on cognitive biases and behavioural economics to the ICU environment, arguing that these biases could partly explain disparities in the decision-making processes for the two conflicting parties. We suggest that through the establishment of common ground, challenging of cognitive biases and formulation of mutually agreeable solutions, mediation may offer a pragmatic and cost-effective solution to conflict resolution. The litigation process is intrinsically adversarial and strains the doctor-patient-relative relationship. Thus an alternative external party should be considered, however mediation is not frequently used and more research is needed into its effectiveness in resolving conflicts in the ICU.
The purpose of this pilot was to identify the effects of a 4-credit interdisciplinary undergraduate course focused on communication strategies to enhance spiritual care at the end of life. The course provided students with opportunities to enhance their ability to communicate empathically with individuals facing the end of life. Evidence-based content focused on ways to live each day with hope and gratitude, strengthen relationships, create a legacy, and find meaning and purpose in life and death. Narayanasamy's (1999) Actioning Spirituality and Spiritual Care Education and Training in Nursing model guided project development. The study used a prospective, pretest/posttest design. Participants included undergraduate students (n = 34) from nursing, premedicine, athletic training, business, economics, and religious studies at a Midwest liberal arts college. Statistically significant differences were found in students' attitudes toward and knowledge of spirituality/spiritual care (P < .0001, Cohen's d = 0.59), spiritual care competence (P < .0001, Cohen's d = 0.79), and level of response empathy through role play (P < .0001, Cohen's d = 0.92). Many students referred to this course as “life changing” and “healing.” As our students go out into the community, they may intimately touch the lives and hearts of future patients, family, and friends who face the end of life with their compassionate words.
AIM/OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the project was to provide information to inform the choice of educational resources available in British Columbia to support palliative care competency development for 4 disciplines: nurses, physicians, health care assistants, and social workers/counsellors. This article will describe the process of resource review. Results of the review are available at https://www.bc-cpc.ca/cpc/education-resource-review/ . The objectives were to (1) identify gaps common to all educational resources, (2) provide information on content addressing competencies as well as logistics such as time required, cost, delivery method, and training requirements for instructors, and (3) develop a reproducible process for assessment of educational resources which is unbiased, transparent, and competency based.
METHOD: Sixteen educational resources were assessed for the percentage of competencies that were addressed. Gaps common to all resources were identified.
RESULTS: The review process is described and can be replicated when assessing future versions of these and other palliative continuing education courses. This is a reproducible methodology for review of competency-based educational resources which could be applied for any practice-related subject.
CONCLUSION: This review process provided information which can inform a provincial interprofessional palliative education plan. The methodology may be used by others to assess and choose between competency-based education resources with a palliative population focus and other patient population foci.
Retaining registered nurses (RNs) in post during their first year of employment is a problem for the Marie Curie Home Nursing Service. This article describes an initiative undertaken by Marie Curie Northern Ireland's (NI) Regional Nursing Service's manager in conjunction with clinical management and RNs to develop a peer-mentoring programme that would support newly appointed RNs during their first 3 months and strengthen the possibility that they would remain in post. A scoping exercise of key stakeholders clarified that peer mentoring could address the sense of remoteness and isolation that newly appointed nurses expressed as lone workers. RNs taking on a peer-mentoring role received additional remuneration during the 3-month period. Through the initiative, the stakeholders recognised that the peer-mentoring programme should be simple, responsive to the needs of the newly appointed nurses and provide the necessary support and guidance when required.
Background: To effectively care for dying patients, nurses need to possess death self-efficacy—the state of having both a range of skills and capabilities to provide care to dying patients and confidence in one’s ability to do so. A paucity of death self-efficacy may lead to burnout.
Objectives: The aims of this study are to clarify oncology nurses’ death self-efficacy and to explore its relationships with attitudes toward death and burnout.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 7 cancer hospitals across mainland China between June and July 2019. Oncology nurses completed an online survey consisting of the Death Self-efficacy Scale, Death Attitude Profile–Revised Scale, and Maslach Burnout Inventory.
Results: The 755 oncology nurses completing the survey reported low death self-efficacy and high levels of burnout. Those who had more years of clinical experience, had the highest professional rank, talked death quite often, and have received palliative care trainings, doing no shift work, scored higher on death self-efficacy. Death self-efficacy was positively correlated with positive attitudes toward death and negatively correlated with levels of burnout. The multiple regression analysis showed that death self-efficacy and attitudes toward death were independent, significant predictors of oncology nurses’ burnout.
Conclusions: Chinese oncology nurses are not well prepared to care for dying cancer patients and cope with death-related issues.
Background: Palliative care exists in diverse healthcare settings. Nurses play a crucial role in its provision. Different levels of palliative care provision and education have been recognized in the literature. Therefore, nurses need a set of various competencies to provide high-quality palliative care.
Aims: To systematically synthesize the empirical evidence of (1) nursing competencies needed in palliative care and (2) whether these competencies differ across the level of palliative care.
Design: Systematic integrative review with thematic synthesis. Prospero: CRD42018114869.
Data sources: CINAHL, PubMed, Academic Search Premier, Scopus and Medic databases. Studies on nursing competencies linked to palliative care reported in English, Swedish, Finnish, Spanish, Portuguese or German were considered. Search terms: ‘palliative care or hospice care or end-of-life care’, ‘competency or professional competence or skills’ and ‘nursing’. Articles were independently screened and reviewed by two researchers. Quality appraisal was conducted following Hawker’s criteria.
Results: A total of 7454 articles were retrieved, 21 articles were included in the analysis. Six diverse nursing competencies dimensions, namely leadership, communication, collaboration, clinical, ethico-legal and psycho-social and spiritual were identified. The reports rarely defined the level of palliative care and covered a wide array of healthcare settings.
Conclusion: Nurses need a wide range of competencies to provide quality palliative care. Few studies focused on which competencies are relevant to a specific level of palliative care. Further research is needed to systematize the nursing competencies and define which nursing competencies are central for different levels of palliative care to enhance palliative care development, education and practice.
Background: The provision of end-of-life care is receiving attention locally, provincially, and nationally in Canada. It is important to ensure that interprofessional standards and competencies are in place to provide quality end-of-life care that meets the needs of patients and their families. The purpose of this content review was to identify core standards and competencies essential to an interprofessional team providing end-of-life care.
Methods: The researchers conducted a review of health professional associations and registration bodies that support professionals providing end-of-life care to identify existing standards and competencies. Key concepts were reviewed and organized using thematic analysis; relationships were developed; and core themes for interprofessional end-of-life care were identified.
Results:Four themes essential to the provision of end-of-life care were common across all health professions: (1) access to care, (2) professional practice, (3) person-centered care, and (4) the process and delivery of care.
Conclusions: Health professional associations need to ensure end-of-life care standards and competencies are in place for the provision of appropriate and holistic care. Aligning standards and competencies across professions improves the preparedness of health professionals to provide interprofessional end-of-life care.
Context: Patients with advanced cancer face a life-limiting condition that brings a high symptom burden that often includes pain, fatigue, and psychological distress. Psychosocial interventions have promise for managing symptoms but need additional tailoring for these patients' specific needs. Patients with advanced cancer in the community also face persistent barriers—availability of interventions in community clinics as well as financial and illness-related factors—to accessing psychosocial interventions.
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of telephone implementation of Engage, a novel brief combined Coping Skills Training and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy protocol, for reducing symptoms and increasing quality of life in community patients with advanced cancer.
Methods: Adult patients with advanced cancer receiving care in the community received Engage, four 60-minute manualized telephone sessions delivered by a trained psychotherapist and completed pretreatment and post-treatment assessments.
Results: Engage was feasible, achieving 100% accrual (N = 24) of a heterogeneous sample of patients with advanced cancer, with good retention (88% completed). Acceptability was demonstrated via satisfaction (mean 29 of 32; SD 2), engagement (95% attendance), and use of skills. Secondary analyses pointed to reductions in pain interference, fatigue, psychological distress, and improvements in psychological acceptance and engagement in value-guided activity after treatment.
Conclusion: Engage, our brief novel combined Coping Skills and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy intervention, demonstrated initial feasibility and acceptability when delivered over the telephone and increased access for community clinic patients with advanced cancer. Future research will assess the comparative efficacy of Engage in larger randomized trials.
All of us, without exception, must sooner or later face the inevitability of death. However, as comparative studies of different cultures show, the idea that death is something to be feared, denied or hidden away is far from universal. Undeniably, many people do not have a ‘good’ death, and those with a terminal illness experience suffering, pain, and even despair, a sense of dignity lost. But is this the only possible narrative? In 2014, and again in 2019, I had the opportunity to spend time as an observer in a palliative care unit. I hold a BA, a PhD in Humanities, and since 2014 my research has focused on end of life care. Even though I work in a clinical lab, the day to day activity in a clinical setting is a distant reality. However, at no other point in my life have I experienced a stronger sense of ‘reality’—the reality of life, of death, of what it means to love someone, of one’s own life entwined with that of another person. Witnessing the end-of-life can be a profound experience—what Kant would call the sublime—and it can unsettle, in a good way, anyone who comes to encounter it while unaware of its potential. My aim in this paper is to explain why I believe that the end of life in a palliative care context is an opportunity to experience the sublime and an authentic transformative experience. Finally, I describe four short stories to better understand what the experience of the sublime might be in the context of clinical practice.
BACKGROUND: Studies of nurses' required competence in EOL care in health centres are rare. It is important to produce information about experienced nurses' perceptions of the competence they consider important in their practical work.
AIM: The aim of this study was to describe nurses' required competence in EOL care in health centre inpatient wards as experienced by nurses.
METHOD: A descriptive qualitative study using four semi-structured group interviews (20 nurses) and inductive descriptive content analysis.
RESULTS: Five categories describing nurses' required competence in EOL care in a health centre inpatient ward were identified: (1) ethics and courage in action, (2) support for the patient, (3) support for the family, (4) care planning and (5) physical care. Factors promoting nurses' competence in EOL care comprised two categories: (1) professional development in EOL care and (2) an organisation that supports EOL care.
CONCLUSIONS: End-of-life care in health centre inpatient wards requires wide and complex competence from nurses. Nurses' experiences of required competence are associated with holistic care of the patient, encountering the family and multiprofessional cooperation. Nurses' competence in EOL care could be enhanced with postgraduate education, and educational planning should be given more attention in the future.
Background: Experts recommend integrating palliative care throughout the four-year medical school curriculum, including in required clerkships such as internal medicine (IM).
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether third-year medical students could gain meaningful experience in primary palliative care during their IM clerkship with observation and feedback from internists and/or IM residents or fellows.
Design: We implemented two clinical exercises: (1) perform advance care planning with a patient and (2) participate in the delivery of important news. Students self-reported aspects of their experience in a confidential online survey.
Setting/Subjects: Third-year medical students enrolled in a required IM clerkship.
Measurements: Students reported the setting in which they completed the exercises, their level of independence, and their level of comfort with advance care planning after completing the exercise. We performed a qualitative analysis of open-ended comments to determine domains, themes, and subthemes and a separate analysis to determine the extent to which the comments suggested learning relevant to the stated learning objectives for each exercise.
Results: The majority of students completed both exercises without palliative care specialists present, 76% (196/258) for the advance care planning exercise and 75% (195/259) for important news. Fifty-one percent (132/258) of students completed advance care planning with a significant level of independence, and 70% (182/258) reported being comfortable or very comfortable with advance care planning after completing the exercise. Qualitative analyses of student comments found that the majority of students described learning something related to the stated learning objectives for each exercise and suggested that they gained an appreciation of the complexity of patient-provider interactions around serious illness and palliative care.
Conclusion: We found it feasible to integrate clinical exercises in advance care planning and delivering important news into an IM clerkship.
Background: Although statements on the competencies required from physicians working within palliative care exist, these requirements have not been described within different levels of palliative care provision by multi-professional workshops, comprising representatives from working life. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the competencies required from physicians working within palliative care from the perspectives of multi-professional groups of representatives from working life.
Methods: A qualitative approach, using a workshop method, was conducted, wherein the participating professionals and representatives of patient organizations discussed the competencies that are required in palliative care, before reaching and documenting a consensus. The data (n = 222) was collected at workshops held in different parts of Finland and it was analyzed using a qualitative content analysis method.
Results: The description of the competencies required of every physician working within palliative care at the general level included 13 main categories and 50 subcategories in total. ‘Competence in advanced care planning and decision-making’ was the main category which was obtained from the highest number of reduced expressions from the original data (f = 125). Competence in social interactions was another strong main category (f = 107). In specialist level data, six main categories with 22 subcategories in total were found. ‘Competence in complex symptom management’ was the main category which was obtained from the biggest number of reduced expressions (f = 46). A notable association between general level and specialist level data was related to networking, since one of the general level categories was ‘Competence in consultations and networking’ (f = 34) and one of the specialist level categories was ‘Competence to offer consultative and educational support to other professionals’ (f = 30). Moreover, part of the specialist level results were subcategories which belonged to the main categories produced from the general level data.
Conclusions: The competencies described in this study emphasize decision-making, social interactions and networking. It is important to listen to the voices of the working-life representatives when planning curricula. Moreover, the views of the working-life representatives inform how the competencies gained during their education meet the challenges of the ordinary work.
Background: Providing end of life care (EoLC) is an important aspect of primary care, which reduces the risk of hospital admission for most patients. However, general practitioners (GPs) seem to have low confidence in their ability to provide EoLC. Little is known about an adequate volume and kind of training in EoLC among GP trainees.
Methods: We performed a before-after comparison in all post-graduate GP trainees who were registered in the vocational training program (KWBW VerbundweiterbildungPLUS). They were offered participation within a two-day seminar focussing on palliative care in 2017. Those who attended the seminar (intervention group I) completed a paper-based questionnaire directly before the intervention (T1) and 6 months after (T2). None-attendees (group C) were also asked to fill out the questionnaire once. The questionnaire covered previous experiences in palliative care, self-assessment of competencies in EoLC in the organisation of patient care as well as in control of symptoms, attitudes towards death and caring for dying patients and questions about GPs’ role in EoLC.
Results: In total, 294 GP trainees (I: n = 219; C: n = 75) participated in the study. Of those, more than 90% had previously gained experience in EoLC mainly during vocational training in the hospital rotation. Around a third had previously gained competencies in EoLC in medical school. Between groups I (T1) and C no significant differences were observed in socio-demographic characteristics, pre-existing experience or overall expertise. At T2, 75% of participants of group I declared they have extended their competencies in EoLC after the intervention and 70% classified the intervention as helpful or very helpful. Overall, they rated their competencies significantly higher than at T1 (p < 0.01). In detail, competencies in organisation of EoLC and competencies in handling of symptoms significantly improved (p < 0.01). Due to the intervention, 66% could reflect their attitudes towards dying, death and grief and 18% changed their attitudes. Group I highlighted palliative care as one of GPs tasks (Likert 4.47/5, SD 0.75).
Conclusions: The intervention fostered personal competencies, understanding and self-confidence in EoLC among GP trainees. This is crucial for the aim to broadly provide EoLC.
Objectives: Optimal cystic fibrosis (CF) end-of-life care (EOLC) is a challenge. There is little formal guidance about who should deliver this and how CF multi-disciplinary teams should interact with specialist palliative care. We assessed the knowledge, experience and preparedness of both CF and palliative care professionals for CF EOLC.
Methods: An electronic questionnaire was distributed to all members of the Oxford adult CF and palliative care teams.
Results: 35 of a possible 63 members responded (19 CF team; 16 palliative care). Levels of preparedness were low in both groups. Only 11% of CF and 19% of palliative care team members felt fully prepared for EOLC in adult CF. 58% of CF members had no (21%) or minimal (37%) general palliative care training. Similarly, 69% of the palliative care team had no CF-specific training. All respondents desired additional education. CF team members preferred further education in general EOLC while palliative care team members emphasised a need for more CF-specific knowledge.
Conclusions: Few members of either the CF or palliative care teams felt fully prepared to deliver CF EOLC and many desired additional educations. They expressed complementary knowledge gaps, which suggests both could benefit from increased collaboration and sharing of specialist knowledge.