Background: Patients with advanced cancer and their caregivers have substantial misperceptions regarding hospice, which contributes to its underuse.
Methods: The authors conducted a single-site randomized trial of a video educational tool versus a verbal description of hospice in 150 hospitalized patients with advanced cancer and their caregivers. Patients without a caregiver were eligible. Intervention participants (75 patients and 18 caregivers) viewed a 6-minute video depicting hospice. Control participants (75 patients and 26 caregivers) received a verbal description identical to the video narrative. The primary outcome was patient preference for hospice. Secondary outcomes included patient and/or caregiver knowledge and perceptions of hospice, and hospice use.
Results: Between February 2017 and January 2019, approximately 55.7% of eligible patients (150 of 269 eligible patients) and 44 caregivers were enrolled. After the intervention, there was no difference noted with regard to patients' preferences for hospice (86.7% vs 82.7%; P = .651). Patients in the video group reported greater knowledge regarding hospice (9.0 vs 8.4; P = .049) and were less likely to endorse that hospice is only about death (6.7% vs 21.6%; P = .010). Among deceased patients, those assigned to the intervention were more likely to have used hospice (85.2% vs 63.6%; P = .01) and to have had a longer hospice length of stay (median, 12 days vs 3 days; P < .001). After the intervention, caregivers assigned to view the video were more likely to prefer hospice for their loved ones (94.4% vs 65.4%; P = .031), reported greater knowledge concerning hospice (9.7% vs 8.0%; P = .001), and were less likely to endorse that hospice is only about death (0.0% vs 23.1%; P = .066).
Conclusions: A hospice video did not significantly impact patients' preferences for hospice care. Patients with advanced cancer and their caregivers who were assigned to view the video were more informed regarding hospice and reported more favorable perceptions of hospice. Patients were more likely to use hospice and to have a longer hospice length of stay.
Given the need for organs, public organizations use social marketing strategies to increase the number of donors. Their campaigns employ a variety of moral appeals. However, their effects on audiences are unclear. We identified 14 campaigns in Germany from over the last 20 years. Our approach combined a multimodal analysis of categorized posters with a qualitative analysis of responses, collected in interviews or focus groups, of 53 persons who were either skeptical or undecided about organ donation. The combined analyses revealed that the posters failed to motivate laypersons in general to donate, and were even less effective on skeptical or undecided individuals. We explain this in terms of the types of moral messages found on posters and the limits of such social marketing strategies. Furthermore, we discuss certain ethical aspects of organ donation campaigns pertaining to communicating norms and trust in public institutions.
Background: Communities have limited understanding of palliative care, creating barriers to informed choice around consideration of a full range of care options in the event of serious illness. Few empirically tested interventions are available to educate community about palliative care, and ultimately improve timely access to these services.
Aim: To test the acceptability (primary outcome), and feasibility of a narrative approach to public health communication seeking to improve attitudes to possible access to palliative care in the event of serious illness.
Design: Randomised phase II trial with six parallel experimental conditions. Outcomes tested included measures of acceptability, feasibility and change in attitudes to possible access to palliative care post-intervention. Contrasts planned for exploratory testing included format, message content and narrator.
Setting/participants: Community-based sample of consecutive English-speaking adults who volunteered their participation in response to a study advertisement distributed online through established community groups.
Results: A narrative approach to public health communication was found to be acceptable to community members, and feasible to deliver online. Exploratory data suggested it immediately improved attitudes towards possible access to palliative care in the event of serious illness, with the narrative detailing a description of the evidence delivered by a healthcare professional appearing to be the most promising strategy.
Conclusions: This study provides preliminary data to inform a future, longitudinal trial evaluating effectiveness and ultimately other evidence-based, public health approaches to improve community engagement with palliative care. Further studies are required to confirm the generalisability of findings to a broader representative sample and other settings including internationally.
Background: Substitute decision-makers (SDMs) make decisions on behalf of patients who do not have capacity, in line with previously expressed wishes, values and beliefs. However, miscommunications and poor awareness of previous wishes often lead to inappropriate care. Increasing public preparedness to communicate on behalf of loved ones may improve care in patients requiring an SDM.
Methods: We conducted an online survey in January 2019 with a representative sample of the Canadian population. The primary outcome was self-reported preparedness to be an SDM. The secondary outcome was support for a high school curriculum on the role of SDMs. The effect of socio-demographics, known enablers and barriers to acting as an SDM, and attitudes towards a high school curriculum were assessed using multivariate analysis.
Results: Of 1,000 participants, 53.1% felt prepared to be an SDM, and 75.4% stated they understood their loved one’s values. However, only 55.6% reported having had a meaningful conversation with their loved one about values and wishes, and only 61.7% reported understanding the SDM role. Engagement in advance care planning for oneself was low (23.1%). Age, experience, training and comfort with communication were associated with preparedness in our multivariate analysis. A high school curriculum was supported by 61.1% of respondents, with 28.3% neutral and 10.6% against it.
Interpretation: There is a gap between perceived and actual preparedness to be an SDM. Many report understanding their loved one’s values yet have not asked them about wishes in illness or end of life. The majority of respondents support high school education to improve preparedness.
Studio DöBra is a community-based initiative in which children (9 y/o) and older adults (mostly 80+) engaged with topics related to dying, death and loss through shared arts activities (e.g. collage, sculpture, games). In an ageing society, Sweden's end-of-life (EoL) care is increasingly professionalised and specialised, but there is little community involvement. One goal of Studio DöBra was therefore to support community engagement with EoL-related topics. Another goal was to create opportunities for interaction between children and older adults as there are few intergenerational meeting places. Two iterations of Studio DöBra were developed (2016, 2018) in different Swedish cities, utilising a community-based participatory research approach. Project groups comprised first author MK and representatives of community organisations such as meeting places for older adults, after-school centres and artistic organisations. Each iteration engaged eight children and eight older adults in a series of five workshops. This article investigates how children and older adults motivate their participation, their experiences of participating and ways in which they were affected by participation. We also investigate how parents reflect on their child's participation in Studio DöBra. Older adults, children and their parents were interviewed after each Studio DöBra. An inductive qualitative process guided by interpretive description was used to analyse the transcripts. Findings indicate that participants acted as individuals with agency in connecting across generations and in creating spaces for engaging with EoL-topics, not only in Studio DöBra but also in their social networks. Participants reflected on a changing sense of community through new intergenerational connections and social activities, and expressed a desire to maintain these. However, participants indicated sustainability challenges related to lacking agency in maintaining these spaces and sense of intergenerational community, as they rely on support from community organisations.
CONTEXT: Providing hospice and palliative care (HPC) early in the course of care for patients with life-threatening illness is important for improving patient quality of life. However, little literature exists for factors affecting to the intention to use early palliative care (EPC) of general population.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the sources of information about HPC, investigate whether they affect intention to use HPC and EPC, and examine the relationship between the components of a good death and the intention to use HPC and EPC.
METHODS: A stratified nationwide cross-sectional survey including 1,500 participants, 20 to 74 years old, was conducted to investigate their intentions to use HPC and EPC, available information sources, and perceived components of a good death.
RESULTS: The main sources of information about HPC were television and radio. Information acquired from health professionals was positively associated with the intention to use EPC. While regarding a good relationship with family as a component of a good death was related to low intention to use EPC, being able to trust medical staff, being involved in decisions about care, and being respected as an individual were associated with high intention to use EPC.
CONCLUSION: Information from healthcare providers and public awareness through education and publicity efforts are necessary to inform the public about the benefits of EPC. Furthermore, it is essential that medical staff cultivate the skills necessary to secure public trust and provide care that respects patients until the end of their lives.
Background: Advance care planning conversations and preparations do not occur as frequently as they should. Framing advance care planning as a health behavior and an opportunity for community engagement can help improve community-dwellers’ intentions to have discussions and preparations regarding facing serious illness, death and dying.
Methods: A multi-setting confidential pre/post paper survey assessing advance care planning discussions and preparation intentions was given to community-dwelling citizens residing in the New York metropolitan area. Survey items were adapted from a previous end of life survey to include questions on chronic illnesses, important conversations, comfort levels and concerns about end of life. The intervention was a 1-hour presentation on advance care planning (importance, laws, effective communication and audience questions)
Results: Our study found significant interest in discussing advanced care planning across age groups. There were significant changes for participant intentions regarding: having conversations with loved ones, a health care proxy or similar document and none; as well as differences in participant intentions for discussions with caregiver, family, friends, primary physician and no-one.
Conclusion: Educating individuals on the importance of advance care planning may be effective in changing community dwellers’ intentions to start the conversation and put advanced care planning measures in place.
OBJECTIVES: Palliative care services have, up to now, paid insufficient attention to social aspects of dying and bereavement and this has affected how patients and their families experience end of life and bereavement within their communities. New public health approaches to palliative care offer a different way forward by seeking to develop communities that support death and bereavement. Such approaches are now a priority for the majority of hospices in the UK and work with schools has been identified as a key area of work. Practice that engages schools and children on issues concerning end-of-life care is, however, underdeveloped and underdocumented. This research explored the role of hospices in working with schools to promote education and support around end-of-life and bereavement experiences.
METHODS: Action research was used to explore the potential for hospices to work with schools and engage participants in change processes. The research was conducted in 1 hospice and 2 primary schools in Scotland. Participants included children, parents and school and hospice staff.
RESULTS: Seven innovations were identified that were found to be useful for the school curriculum and the relationship between hospices, school communities and wider society. A model for integrated practice between hospices and schools is suggested.
CONCLUSIONS: This research adds to knowledge about how hospices might engage in community engagement activities that encourage school staff to develop greater openness and support around end-of-life and bereavement care for their children. This will require a rethinking of normal hospice services to also participate in community capacity building.
Les difficultés financières, l’absence de couverture sociale et la pénurie médicale contribuent à ce que, en Ouganda, de nombreux malades et leurs familles soient livrés à eux-mêmes. Pourtant les équipes soignantes et les associations se mobilisent pour diffuser la culture palliative dans le respect des diversités culturelles. Très autonomes dans leur expertise clinique, les infirmières dispensent des soins et vont à la rencontre des patients à domicile.
Chronic pain is among problems of old people and causes changes in their life pattern and processes. Teaching palliative care can help old people suffering from chronic pain to live an active life. The aim of this research was to determine effects of educating of palliative care on life pattern of elderly women with chronic pain. The present study was a Quasi-experimental design with pre-test and post test was conducted on 30 elderly women suffering from chronic pain in 2018 in Iran. The Questionnaire for evaluating the Pattern of Life with Pain in the elderly was filled before the intervention, group educating of palliative care was carried out using an educational package, and the questionnaire was completed again immediately and one and three months after. The data was analyzed using mean, standard deviations, Fisher's F test, and Greenhouse-Geisser and Bonferroni post-hoc test by employing SPSS- 16. Mean changes before teaching palliative care significantly differed from those of immediately and one and three months after the educational program (p = 0.0), (p = 0.004). There were significant differences between the stages of immediately and one month after the educational program and that of three months after it (p = 0.001), (p = 0.002). Concerning the personal life patterns, there were statistically significant differences between the stage immediately after the educational program and those before the intervention and three months after it (p = 0.005), (p = 0.000). Regarding the social life pattern, only the stage of one month after the educational program significantly differed from that of three months (p = 0.005). Mean growth in life pattern of the old women suffering from chronic pain in the stages after the intervention indicated the importance of and the necessity for palliative care during old age. Moreover, the success of this education three months after the educational program as compared to immediately and one month after it indicates that allocation of sufficient time plays a very important role in transferring information and in teaching methods of palliative care to old people.
BACKGROUND: Advance care planning (ACP) is a process of reflection and discussion wherein a patient, in consultation with a health-care provider, family, and/or loved ones, clarifies values and treatment preferences and establishes goals, including a plan for end-of-life (EOL) care. Advance care planning encompasses appreciating and understanding illness and treatment options, elucidating patient values and beliefs, and identifying a substitute decision maker (SDM) or designating a power of attorney (POA) for personal care. These discussions have proven to be effective in improving patient-family satisfaction, reducing anxiety regarding EOL care in patients and family members, and improving patient-centered care by empowering patients to direct their care at EOL. However, ACP conversations are often difficult to have due to the sensitive nature of such discussions.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether group facilitation for teaching and discussing ACP enhances participants' understanding of ACP and allows them to feel comfortable and supported when discussing these sensitive issues.
METHODS: Patients who were registered in North York General Hospital's (NYGH) pulmonary rehabilitation program from June 2016 until August 2017 were given the opportunity to attend two 1-hour sessions related to ACP. The first session was dedicated to educating patients on ACP, explaining the hierarchy of the SDM and the role of the POA for personal care. The second session, provided a short time later, was devoted to discussions of values, wishes, fears, and trade-offs for future medical and EOL care. These discussions led by the supportive care nurse practitioner and a physician who are members of the NYGH Freeman Palliative Care Team were held in a group-facilitated format. Anonymous feedback forms, including both qualitative and quantitative feedback, were completed by the participants and analyzed.
PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of a sample of 30 participants who attended 1 or 2 of the ACP sessions revealed that 21 identified as female and 9 identified as male. The average age of the participants was 76 years.
FINDINGS: Participants felt the content was relevant to their needs and were comfortable asking questions with all feedback averages ranging from good to very good. Participants appreciated the opportunity to share their thoughts in an open and interactive format.
CONCLUSION: Discussing issues relevant to ACP, including providing information about ACP, sharing fears, wishes, and tradeoffs, were well-received in a group-support environment. Future studies should assess the impact of ACP group discussion on the individual, such as identifying a POA, having discussions regarding wishes and values with the SDM/POA, and examining the clinical impact of such sessions.
Depuis le début des années 2000, les soins palliatifs se sont considérablement développés au Québec et ailleurs dans le monde. Toutefois, avec les bouleversements démographiques qui transforment le paysage social de la plupart des pays occidentaux, le modèle actuel des soins palliatifs modernes pourrait être insuffisant pour faire face aux besoins grandissants de la population vieillissante. L'objectif de cet article est d'offrir un aperçu d'une vision complémentaire aux soins palliatifs modernes : le modèle des Communautés compatissantes. Développée par Allan Kellehear dans les années 2000, l'approche des Communautés compatissantes conçoit la fin de vie en tant qu'enjeu de santé publique, s'inspire de la promotion de la santé et propose un modèle sociocommunautaire aux soins de fin de vie. Dans cet article, les principaux fondements de l'approche des Communautés compatissantes seront présentés et illustrés par des exemples internationaux et locaux. Les défis et l'avenir de cette approche seront également évoqués.
Background: Heart failure (HF) afflicts 6.5 million Americans with devastating consequences to patients and their family caregivers. Families are rarely prepared for worsening HF and are not informed about end-of-life and palliative care (EOLPC) conservative comfort options especially during the end stage. West Virginia (WV) has the highest rate of HF deaths in the U.S. where 14% of the population over 65 years have HF. Thus, there is a need to investigate a new family EOLPC intervention (FamPALcare), where nurses coach family-managed advanced HF care at home.
Methods: This study uses a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design stratified by gender to determine any differences in the FamPALcare HF patients and their family caregiver outcomes versus standard care group outcomes (N = 72). Aim 1 is to test the FamPALcare nursing care intervention with patients and family members managing home supportive EOLPC for advanced HF. Aim 2 is to assess implementation of the FamPALcare intervention and research procedures for subsequent clinical trials. Intervention group will receive routine standard care, plus 5-weekly FamPALcare intervention delivered by community-based nurses. The intervention sessions involve coaching patients and family caregivers in advanced HF home care and supporting EOLPC discussions based on patients’ preferences. Data are collected at baseline, 3, and 6 months. Recruitment is from sites affiliated with a large regional hospital in WV and community centers across the state.
Discussion: The outcomes of this clinical trial will result in new knowledge on coaching techniques for EOLPC and approaches to palliative and end-of-life rural home care. The HF population in WV will benefit from a reduction in suffering from the most common advanced HF symptoms, selecting their preferred EOLPC care options, determining their advance directives, and increasing skills and resources for advanced HF home care. The study will provide a long-term collaboration with rural community leaders, and collection of data on the implementation and research procedures for a subsequent large multi-site clinical trial of the FamPALcare intervention. Multidisciplinary students have opportunity to engage in the research process.
The organ transplantation enterprise is morally flawed. "Brain-dead" donors are the primary source of solid vital organs, and the transplantation enterprise emphasizes that such donors are dead before organs are removed-or in other words that the dead donor rule is followed. However, individuals meeting standard diagnostic criteria for brain death-unresponsiveness, brainstem areflexia, and apnea-are still living, from a physiological perspective. Therefore, removing vital organs from a heart-beating, mechanically ventilated donor is lethal. But neither donors nor surrogates nor the public in general are typically informed of this obviously relevant information. Therefore, donors or surrogates do not provide valid consent for a lethal medical procedure. This is a serious moral failing on the part of the transplant community. To address this concern, I advocate for accurate and fully transparent communication of information to the public to allow for an informed civic dialogue about the ethics and legality of lethal organ procurement. Furthermore, I advocate that systems be put in place by the transplant community to allow for valid consent for lethal organ procurement.
AIM: The purpose of the present study was to clarify the current state of awareness-raising activities to educate residents about decision-making regarding end-of-life care using a nationwide survey of municipalities in Japan.
METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of all municipalities in Japan (n = 1741) was carried out. We asked one representative from each municipality whether or not there were ongoing municipality-led activities to raise awareness and educate the community about end-of-life care decisions. A logistic regression analysis was carried out to examine the regional characteristics associated with running municipality-led awareness-raising activities. Additionally, we investigated the creation and contents of awareness-raising materials targeting residents.
RESULTS: The questionnaire was completed by 1145 municipalities (valid response rate 65.8%). We found that 39.4% of the municipalities surveyed were currently running or planning activities about end-of-life care. Municipalities with active public awareness campaigns had a significantly higher financial capability index than inactive municipalities. Awareness-raising materials targeting residents were created in 134 of the municipalities. The most frequently mentioned components of the materials were the importance of articulating one's intentions with regard to end-of-life care services in advance, sharing those feelings with the family and revisiting them repeatedly (73.9%), and the explanation of home healthcare and long-term care services (47.7%).
CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that cities with tight budgets are unable to carry out activities to raise awareness and educate residents about end-of-life care. Thus, it is important to pursue the implementation of further national-level initiatives and funding support for municipalities.
Under-five (U-5) mortality is a major public health problem in lower-middle income countries. The aim of this study is to examine the associations between maternal education and mortality of children below 5 years age in Indian context. We have used bi-variate and multivariate logistic regressions to assess the associations. Our study reveals that increasing level of education among women and in association with socio-economic and demographic factors significantly reduces the incidence of U-5 mortality. The findings suggest that increasing opportunities for female education and addressing socio-economic and demographic vulnerabilities could be effective strategies to combat the incidence of U-5 mortality.
Dans le cadre de la prise en charge des personnes en fin de vie, la mise en application des dispositions relatives aux directives anticipées reste une difficulté sur le terrain. Une équipe soignante de Saône-et-Loire a mené un travail de recherche sur cette question et ainsi éclairé plusieurs freins, dont une : méconnaissance de la loi et un, manque d’information du public. Des pistes de réflexion prolongent ces travaux.
As the national demand for donated organs continues to rise, the rate of registered donors within the United States has remained stagnant, creating a shortage of viable, transferrable organs. Lack of registered donors can be partially attributed to misconceptions about organ donation, which has led to a population less willing to register as organ donors. The utilization of educational interventions can begin to address common misconceptions and change attitudes to favor organ donation. A quantitative pretest, posttest survey design was utilized in order to assess effectiveness of an educational intervention within the college-aged population. Results suggest that educational interventions are effective in creating positive attitudes about organ donation in college-aged students.
The purpose of this study is to determine family caregivers' recommendations for professional health care professionals on how to help prepare them for the death of an elder with dementia. Purposive criterion sampling was employed to identify 30 bereaved caregivers of family members aged 65 and older who died with a dementia-related diagnosis. In-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted over a 12-month period, and qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Three primary themes emerged: (a) Educate Caregivers, (b) Lead Caregivers, and (c) Provide a Caring and Compassionate Presence. The results highlight the importance of various health care professionals' roles in preparing family caregivers for a death. In doing so, both the dying and their caregivers may have a better end-of-life experience with improved bereavement outcomes.
INTRODUCTION: Two-thirds of chronically ill patients do not have an advance directive. The primary aim of this study was to develop an intervention to increase the documentation of advance directives in elderly adults in an internal medicine resident primary care clinic. The secondary aims were to improve resident confidence in discussing advance care planning and increase the number of discussions.
METHODS: The study was a pre- and postintervention study. The study intervention was a 30-minute educational session on advance care planning. Study participants were patients aged 65 years and older who were seen in an internal medicine residency primary care clinic over a 6-month period and internal medicine residents. Clinic encounters were reviewed for the presence of advance care planning discussions before and after the intervention. Resident confidence was measured on a Likert scale.
RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-five eligible patients were seen in the clinic from January 1, 2017, to June 30, 2017, and included in the analysis performed between 2017 and 2018. The mean number of documented advance care planning discussions increased from 2.24 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-4.9) during the preintervention period to 8.94 (95% CI: 5.94-13.24]) during the postintervention period (P = .0011). Following the intervention, residents overall reported increased confidence in discussing advance care planning.
CONCLUSION: A relatively modest intervention to increase advance care planning discussions is feasible in an internal medicine primary care clinic and can improve the confidence of residents with end-of-life discussion.