BACKGROUND: Increased burnout level and decreased job satisfaction in oncology nurses negatively affect the quality of life of the employees and impair the quality of nursing care, services to be provided.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The aim of this study was to determine levels and to compare of burnout and job satisfaction among cancer nurses in oncology, hematology and palliative care clinics.The research was conducted between July 2019 - December 2019 in oncology, hematology and pallitive care clinics in three different public training and research hospitals. Each nurse completed a Sociodemographic Data Form, the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Scale and the Maslach Burnout Scale.
RESULTS: Nurses were working for averagely 50.81±7.59 hours per week and averagely 200.72±29.09 hours per month. Mean weekly shift number of the nurses was 9.49±4.43. There was a statistically significant and negative correlation between the emotional exhaustion subscale scores of the nurses included in the study and their internal satisfaction scores external satisfaction scores and total satisfaction scores (p<0.001). There was a statistically significant and negative correlation between the nurses' Depersonalisation subscale scores and internal satisfaction scores, external satisfaction scores and total satisfaction scores (p<0.001). A statistically significant and positive correlation was found between the nurses' personal accomplishment subscale scores and internal satisfaction scores, external satisfaction scores and total satisfaction scores (p<0.001).
CONCLUSION: Nurses in palliative care clinics had the highest emotional exhaustion. Also there is a significant correlation between the job satisfaction and burnout levels of nurses working in hemotology, oncology and palliative care clinics providing care to cancer patients. There is a significant correlation between the job satisfaction and burnout levels of nurses working in hemotology, oncology and palliative care clinics providing care to cancer patients.
Background: Physicians experience high rates of burnout, which may negatively impact patient care. Palliative care is an emotionally demanding specialty with high burnout rates reported in previous studies from other countries. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of burnout and degree of resilience among Canadian palliative care physicians and examine their associations with demographic and workplace factors in a national survey.
Methods: Physician members of the Canadian Society of Palliative Care Physicians and Société Québécoise des Médecins de Soins Palliatifs were invited to participate in an electronic survey about their demographic and practice arrangements and complete the Maslach Burnout Inventory for Medical Professionals (MBI-HSS (MP)), and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). The association of categorical demographic and practice variables was examined in relation to burnout status, as defined by MBI-HSS (MP) score. In addition to bivariable analyses, a multivariable logistic regression analysis, reporting odds ratios (OR), was conducted. Mean CD-RISC score differences were examined in multivariable linear regression analysis.
Results: One hundred sixty five members (29%) completed the survey. On the MBI-HSS (MP), 36.4% of respondents reported high emotional exhaustion (EE), 15.1% reported high depersonalization (DP), and 7.9% reported low personal accomplishment (PA). Overall, 38.2% of respondents reported a high degree of burnout, based on having high EE or high DP. Median CD-RISC resilience score was 74, which falls in the 25th percentile of normative population. Age over 60 (OR = 0.05; CI, 0.01–0.38), compared to age = 40, was independently associated with lower burnout. Mean CD-RISC resilience scores were lower in association with the presence of high burnout than when burnout was low (67.5 ± 11.8 vs 77.4 ± 11.2, respectively, p < 0.0001). Increased mean CD-RISC score differences (higher resilience) of 7.77 (95% CI, 1.97–13.57), 5.54 (CI, 0.81–10.28), and 8.26 (CI, 1.96–14.57) occurred in association with age > 60 as compared to =40, a predominantly palliative care focussed practice, and > 60 h worked per week as compared to =40 h worked, respectively.
Conclusions: One in three Canadian palliative care physicians demonstrate a high degree of burnout. Burnout prevention may benefit from increasing resilience skills on an individual level while also implementing systematic workplace interventions across organizational levels.
COVID-19 has truly affected most of the world over the past many months, perhaps more than any other event in recent history. In the wake of this pandemic are patients, family members, and various types of care providers, all of whom share different levels of moral distress. Moral conflict occurs in disputes when individuals or groups have differences over, or are unable to translate to each other, deeply held beliefs, knowledge, and values. Such conflicts can seriously affect healthcare providers and cause distress during disastrous situations such as pandemics when medical and human resources are stretched to the point of exhaustion. In the current pandemic, most hospitals and healthcare institutions in the United States have not allowed visitors to come to the hospitals to see their family or loved ones, even when the patient is dying. The moral conflict and moral distress (being constrained from doing what you think is right) among care providers when they see their patients dying alone can be unbearable and lead to ongoing grief and sadness. This paper will explore the concepts of moral distress and conflict among hospital staff and how a system-wide provider wellness programme can make a difference in healing and health.
Purpose: End-of-life (EOL) decision-making is stressful. We conducted a quality improvement initiative to EOL decision-making and reduce stress for clinicians and patients’ relatives.
Methods: A before–after study running from 2010–2014 at four interdisciplinary intensive care units (ICU) in a German university hospital was performed. Between periods, a multifaceted intervention was implemented to improve timeliness, clinician involvement, and organisational support. Consecutive patients with severe sepsis and therapy limitations were included. Relatives were interviewed by telephone after 90 days to assess their psychological symptoms. Clinician burnout was assessed by staff surveys in each period.
Results: Participation in the pre- and postintervention period was 84/145 and 90/159 among relatives, and 174/284 and 122/297 among ICU clinicians. Staff judged intervention elements as mostly helpful, but implementation of intervention elements was heterogeneous. From pre- to postintervention, relatives’ risk of posttraumatic stress, depression and anxiety did not change (all p = 0.464). Clinicians’ risk of burnout increased (29% vs. 41%, p = 0.05). Relatives were highly satisfied in both periods (median of 9 vs. 9.2 on a 1–10 scale each). Attendings involved residents and nurses more often (both p = 0.018). Nurses more often had sufficient information to talk with relatives (41% vs. 62%, p = 0.002). Time to first EOL decision as well as barriers and facilitators of EOL decision-making did not change.
Conclusions: The intervention may have increased involvement in EOL decision-making, but was accompanied by an increased risk of clinician burnout maybe due to lack of improving communication skills and organisational support. More research is needed to understand which interventions can decrease clinician burnout.
BACKGROUND: In recent years there has been increasing attention for the prevalence and prevention of burnout among healthcare professionals. There is unclarity about prevalence of burnout in healthcare professionals providing palliative care and little is known about effective interventions in this area.
AIM: To investigate the prevalence of (symptoms of) burnout in healthcare professionals providing palliative care and what interventions may reduce symptoms of burnout in this population.
DESIGN: A systematic literature review based on criteria of the PRISMA statement was performed on prevalence of burnout in healthcare professionals providing palliative care and interventions aimed at preventing burnout.
DATA SOURCES: PubMed, PsycInfo and Cinahl were searched for studies published from 2008 to 2020. Quality of the studies was assessed using the method of Hawkers for systematically reviewing research.
RESULTS: In total 59 studies were included. Burnout among healthcare professionals providing palliative care ranged from 3% to 66%. No major differences in prevalence were found between nurses and physicians. Healthcare professionals providing palliative care in general settings experience more symptoms of burnout than those in specialised palliative care settings. Ten studies reported on the effects of interventions aimed at preventing burnout. Reduction of one or more symptoms of burnout after the intervention was reported in six studies which were aimed at learning meditation, improving communication skills, peer-coaching and art-therapy based supervision.
CONCLUSION: The range of burnout among healthcare professionals providing palliative care varies widely. Interventions based on meditation, communication training, peer-coaching and art-therapy based supervision have positive effects but long-term outcomes are not known yet.
Burnout, a condition characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment, has been studied in many disciplines in health care, including nursing, medicine, and social work. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived organizational support, coworker social support, the nursing practice environment, and nurse demographics (age, years of nursing experience, education level, marital status, and sex) on burnout in a national sample of palliative care nurses. The study aims were (1) to examine the relationship between perceived organizational support, coworker social support, and nursing practice environment on burnout in palliative care nurses; (2) to examine the relationship between age, years of nursing experience, education level, marital status, and sex on burnout in palliative care nurses; and (3) to examine potential moderators (perceived organizational support and coworker social support) on the relationship between demographic characteristics and palliative care nurse burnout. A convenience sample of 73 Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association registered nurses who were bedside caregivers was recruited from Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association's membership. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and regression modeling. Findings indicated palliative care nurses had moderate to high levels of burnout. There was a negative correlation between burnout and perceived organizational support, and between burnout and coworker social support. The nursing practice environment of palliative care nurses was favorable; perceived organizational support and coworker social support were not moderators for demographics of age and years of experience and their relationship to burnout.
The number of children living with chronic, complex medical needs is steadily increasing secondary to advances in clinical technology and disease management. As a result, patient care requirements become multifaceted with the need for specific therapies and treatments that require extensive knowledge and skills. As these children are managed throughout the health care continuum, nurses are challenged to offer specialized care for complex conditions, while meeting the personnel and financial demands of the changing health care environment. It is well established that medically complex children can put a burden on family life, resulting in compassion fatigue for nonclinical caregivers. It is possible that, secondary to frequent and lengthy hospitalizations, nurses may also be affected. Therefore, a review of compassion fatigue or professional burnout in nurses caring for medically complex children was conducted. Appropriate identification of nurses at risk for compassion fatigue is imperative to provide the necessary interventions and support. Reducing compassion fatigue is likely to improve outcomes, including nursing turnover, nursing professional engagement, and job satisfaction, thus improving the care delivery experience for children with complex conditions.
Palliative care nurses are exposed to hard situations, death, and duel feelings in their daily practice. These, and other work stressors, can favor burnout development. Thus, it is important to analyze the prevalence and risk factors of burnout in palliative care nurses and estimate its prevalence. A systematic review and meta-analysis was done with quantitative primary studies. n = 15 studies were included with n = 6 studies including information for the meta-analysis. The meta-analytic prevalence estimation of emotional exhaustion was 24% (95% CI 16-34%), for depersonalization was 30% (95% CI 18-44%) and for low personal accomplishment was 28% with a sample of n = 693 palliative care nurses. The main variables related with burnout are occupational variables followed by psychological variables. Some interventions to improve working conditions of palliative care nurses should be implemented to reduce burnout.
Background: Narrative medicine (NM) interventions have positively influenced empathy and burnout to varying degrees in health-care workers. We systematically reviewed the impact of poetry, a form of NM, on empathy and professional burnout.
Methods: A comprehensive search of Ovid MEDLINE(R) and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, and Daily, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid PsycINFO, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus, from inception to September 25, 2018, for articles published in English, was conducted using search terms related to NM, empathy, professional burnout, and health-care personnel.
Results: Of the 401 abstracts independently screened for inclusion by 2 reviewers, 2 quantitative, 3 qualitative studies, and 1 research letter were included. One research letter, focusing on the use of poetry, found it to increase empathy as measured by a nonvalidated questionnaire. All other studies used mixed NM interventions: 2 quantitative studies, using validated surveys, showed an increase in empathy and 2 qualitative studies showed limited to a prominent finding of increased empathy. There were no studies that used poetry exclusively to assess impact on professional burnout. One quantitative study, utilizing a validated survey, revealed no overall reduced burnout among residents, although high attendance participants had moderately reduced burnout postintervention, and one qualitative study noted limited reduction in burnout.
Conclusion: There is evidence that poetry as part of a NM intervention may increase empathy and limited evidence that it may reduce professional burnout among health-care workers.
INTRODUCTION: End-of-life care (EOLC) is necessary for patients who are not expected to live long. Nurses have positive attitudes toward EOLC, but they encounter difficulties in practice. That situation creates conflict, which can affect burnout. It is essential to manage nurses' conflict about their ability to practice EOLC by enhancing their individual strengths. Focusing on the role of self-compassion may help to prevent burnout related to the conflict about ability to practice EOLC.
OBJECTIVE: The study aim was to assess the mediating effect of self-compassion on the association between conflict about ability to practice EOLC and burnout.
METHODS: A correlational study was conducted with emergency department nurses who practiced EOLC. Self-report measures of conflict about ability to practice EOLC, burnout, and self-compassion were obtained.
RESULTS: Negative aspects of self-compassion mediated the relationship among conflict, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization (burnout). Self-compassion did not mediate the association between conflict and reduced personal accomplishment (burnout).
CONCLUSIONS: Negative aspects of self-compassion mediated the relationship between conflict and burnout (excluding reduced personal accomplishment). To prevent burnout, it is necessary to screen for nurses with low self-compassion and to provide opportunities to change their cognitive recognition and disclose their conflicts.
Critical care nurses frequently provide end-of-life and bereavement care. This type of care is rewarding, but can put nurses at risk for moral distress, compassion fatigue, and burnout. By incorporating self-care into their routine, critical care nurses minimize this risk and maintain their own health and well-being. This article provides suggestions for promoting physical, emotional, and spiritual self-care for nurses caring for dying intensive care unit patients and their families. A case scenario illustrates the importance of this concept. Practical examples of self-care are highlighted along with discussion on how leadership can support self-care and maintain a healthy work environment.
Les soins palliatifs demandent de plus en plus de compétences médicales, soignantes, humaines et éthiques, afin d’asseoir leur légitimité dans des domaines de plus en plus pointus de la médecine – réanimation, néonatalogie, cancérologie, gériatrie – ainsi que dans la diversité des prises en charge, y compris au domicile ou en EPHAD.
Dans ce contexte de développement des formations et d’élargissement des champs de compétences de la pratique palliative, cette 5e édition du manuel offre :
-les indispensables connaissances thérapeutiques ;
-les outils, à destination des professionnels en vue d’acquérir une compétence clinique pour la rencontre et l’accompagnement humain, psychique et relationnelle de la personne malade ;
-une contextualisation de la pratique des soins palliatifs dans leur dimension sociale, sanitaire et politique ;
-des jalons pédagogiques pour le développement des soins palliatifs dans leur dimension pédagogique et de recherche.
Conducting palliative care research can be personally and professionally challenging. While limitations in funding and training opportunities are well-described, a less recognized barrier to successful palliative care research is creating a sustainable and resilient team. In this special report, we describe the experience and lessons-learned in a single palliative care research lab. In the first few years of the program, 75% of staff quit, citing burnout and the emotional tolls of their work. To address our sustainability, we translated resilience theory to practice. First, we identified and operationalized shared mission and values. Next, we conducted a resilience resource needs assessment for both individual team-members and the larger team as a whole, and created a workshop based curriculum to address unmet personal and professional support needs. Finally, we changed our leadership approach to foster psychological safety and shared mission. Since then, no team-member has left and the program has thrived. As the demand for rigorous palliative care research grows, we hope this report will provide perspective and ideas to other established and emerging palliative care research programs.
Background: To effectively care for dying patients, nurses need to possess death self-efficacy—the state of having both a range of skills and capabilities to provide care to dying patients and confidence in one’s ability to do so. A paucity of death self-efficacy may lead to burnout.
Objectives: The aims of this study are to clarify oncology nurses’ death self-efficacy and to explore its relationships with attitudes toward death and burnout.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 7 cancer hospitals across mainland China between June and July 2019. Oncology nurses completed an online survey consisting of the Death Self-efficacy Scale, Death Attitude Profile–Revised Scale, and Maslach Burnout Inventory.
Results: The 755 oncology nurses completing the survey reported low death self-efficacy and high levels of burnout. Those who had more years of clinical experience, had the highest professional rank, talked death quite often, and have received palliative care trainings, doing no shift work, scored higher on death self-efficacy. Death self-efficacy was positively correlated with positive attitudes toward death and negatively correlated with levels of burnout. The multiple regression analysis showed that death self-efficacy and attitudes toward death were independent, significant predictors of oncology nurses’ burnout.
Conclusions: Chinese oncology nurses are not well prepared to care for dying cancer patients and cope with death-related issues.
Background: The aim of this study was to analyse the buffering effect of individual, social and organisational resources on health and intention to leave the profession in the context of burden due to quantitative job demands.
Methods: In 2017, a cross-sectional survey was carried out anonymously among nurses in palliative care in Germany. One thousand three hundred sixteen nurses responded to the questionnaire (response rate 38.7%), which contained, amongst others, questions from the German version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). Moderator analyses were conducted to investigate the buffering effect of different resources on health (‘self-rated health’ and ‘burnout’) and ‘intention to leave’ in the context of quantitative demands.
Results: ‘Self-rated health’ was significantly buffered by the resources ‘recognition through salary’ (p = 0.001) and ‘good working team’ (p = 0.004). Additionally, buffering effects of the resources ‘workplace commitment’ and ‘good working team’ on ‘burnout’ (p = 0.001 and p = 0.006, respectively) as well as of the resources ‘degree of freedom’, ‘meeting relatives after death of patients’, ‘recognition from supervisor’ and ‘possibilities for development’ on ‘intention to leave’ (p = 0.014, p = 0.012, p = 0.007 and p = 0.036, respectively) were observed.
Conclusions: The results of our study can be used to develop and implement job (re) design interventions with the goal of reducing the risk of burnout and enhancing job satisfaction among nurses in palliative care. This includes for example adequate payment, communication training and team activities or team events to strengthen the team as well as the implementation of some rituals (such as meeting relatives after the death of patients). As our study was exploratory, the results should be confirmed in further studies.
Although burnout syndrome has been investigated in depth, studies specifically focused on palliative home care are still limited. Moreover, there is still a lack of evidence regarding the interplay between emotional flexibility and sensitivity to context in preventing burnout in home care settings. For these reasons, the aims of this study were to examine burnout symptoms among practitioners specializing in palliative home care and to investigate the role of regulatory flexibility and sensitivity to context in understanding burnout. An exploratory cross-sectional design was adopted. A convenience sample (n = 65) of Italian specialist palliative care practitioners participated in this study. Participants were recruited between February and April 2019 from two palliative home care services that predominantly cared for end-of-life cancer patients. The Italian version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the Flexible Regulation of Emotional Expression (FREE) scale (a measure of emotional flexibility), and the Context Sensitivity Index (CSI) (a measure of sensitivity to context) were administered. Analyses of variance were conducted using the three MBI factors as dependent variables and profession as an independent variable. Subsequently, three identical analyses of covariance were conducted with age, work experience, flexibility and sensitivity to context as covariates. The results showed a low burnout risk for all three of the MBI factors, and there were no gender differences. An ANOVA revealed a significant effect of profession type and age on the emotional exhaustion factor of the MBI, and an ANCOVA indicated that these effects persisted after covariates were accounted for. The results also showed a significant effect of the FREE score on emotional exhaustion. These findings can help explain the differential contributions of profession type and age to the burnout symptoms investigated. In addition, the emotional flexibility component, as an aspect of resilience, represents a significant and specific factor of emotional exhaustion. Interventions to prevent burnout must consider these relationships.
Burnout is common in physicians who care for patients with serious illness, with rates greater than 60% in some studies. Risk factors for burnout include working on small teams and/or in small organizations, working longer hours and weekends, being younger than 50 years, burdensome documentation requirements, and regulatory issues. Personal factors that can protect against burnout include mindfulness, exercise, healthy sleep patterns, avoiding substance abuse, and having adequate leisure time. Institutional and work factors that can buffer against burnout include working on adequately staffed teams, having a manageable workload, and minimally burdensome electronic health record documentation.
Objectives: Palliative care workers have continuous exposure to the emotionally draining effects of pain, suffering, death, grief, and mourning. Burnout syndrome is common among these individuals who accompany patients on the way to death. This study evaluated burnout, stress, anxiety, and depression among care givers.
Methods: A total of 47 individuals working in palliative care units or internal disease and neurology clinics participated in the study. The participants were divided into 2 groups: palliative care workers (Group P) and workers in internal disease and neurology clinics (Group A). All of the participants completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Beck anxiety and depression scales, and the Stress Appraisal Measure.
Results: A total of 47 healthcare workers agreed to complete the scales. Emotional burnout and desensitization scores were found to be elevated, and personal success scores were low in both groups. The Beck Anxiety Inventory revealed findings of moderate anxiety in both groups, while cognitive-sensorial, physiological, and pain complaints, as well as signs of stress, were more pronounced in Group A.
Conclusion: Burnout is a significant problem among healthcare workers and signs of stress and cognitive-sensorial, physiological, and pain complaints are particularly common among those working in palliative care units. Structural arrangements aimed at addressing the causes of burnout could positively affect the well-being of healthcare workers.
By 2060, almost 25% (98 million) of the population is expected to be aged 65 or older. Health care professionals who provide hospice and palliative care are overtasked and demonstrate symptoms of burnout. Narrative medicine and mindfulness interventions create meaningful connections with patients, improve the delivery of patient-centered care, and enhance the health of the caregivers. In this pilot program, health care professionals in hospice and palliative care settings were invited to participate in a study to evaluate the impact of narrative medicine or mindfulness on measures of burnout and empathy. Participants completed baseline and 12-week post-intervention surveys of burnout and empathy, as well as weekly journals of their experience. Mean overall scores for depersonalization were significantly reduced at 12-week post-intervention. There were no significant changes in emotional exhaustion or empathy compared to baseline. This brief, weekly intervention may be beneficial for both patients and health care professionals in the hospice and palliative care setting.
BACKGROUND: Clinician burnout in hospice and palliative care (HPC) has potentially widespread negative consequences including increased clinical errors, decreased professionalism, decreased staff retention, and decreased empathy. Reading non-medical literature has been associated with increased empathy, but no studies on the effect of reading on burnout have previously been conducted. We wished to assess reading patterns of practicing HPC clinicians and determine associations between non-medical reading and burnout.
METHODS: Sixteen-item electronic survey regarding reading practices, exposure to non-medical literature, fatigue, quality of life, and burnout symptoms was administered to members of the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Burnout measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were assessed by the validated 2-item Maslach Burnout Inventory. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate regression.
RESULTS: Seven hundred nine members responded (15.2% response rate), of which 129 (18.2%) met the criteria for burnout, with 117 (16.6%) meeting the criteria for high emotional exhaustion and 45 (7.9%) meeting the criteria for high depersonalization. On univariate analysis, burnout was associated with age, reading habits, and fatigue, but not years in practice. On multivariable logistic regression consistent readers had decreased odds of overall burnout compared to inconsistent readers (OR 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39-0.97, P=0.036). This was true across the depersonalization (OR 0.58; 95% CI, 0.36-0.93, P=0.025), but not the emotional exhaustion domain.
CONCLUSIONS: Reading non-medical literature on a consistent basis may be associated with a significantly decreased likelihood of burnout, specifically across the depersonalization domain.