This study aimed to identify the relationships of perception of hospice and palliative care with emotional intelligence and cognitive empathy in nursing students. The participants were 458 nursing students. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and analyzed with Pearson correlation coefficients, independent-samples t test, and binary logistic regression. Perception of hospice and palliative care was significantly and positively correlated with emotional intelligence (r = 0.224, P < .001) and cognitive empathy (r = 0.311, P < .001). Mean score differences of perception of hospice and palliative care by emotional intelligence and cognitive empathy were statistically significant (t = -3.973, P < .001; t = -4.109, P < .001, respectively). Logistic regression yielded an odds ratio of 1.860 (P < .001; 95% confidence interval, 1.283-2.698) between the perception of hospice and palliative care and emotional intelligence and an odds ratio of 2.028 (P < .001; 95% confidence interval, 1.394–2.951) between the perception of hospice and palliative care and cognitive empathy. Emotional intelligence and cognitive empathy should be cultivated to raise nursing students' perception of hospice and palliative care and must be included when developing related curricula and extracurricular programs.
Nurses spend more time with seriously and terminally ill patients across the continuum of care than other health professionals, yet nursing students lack adequate palliative care education and experience when they transition to practice. In response to the American Association of Colleges of Nursing CARES competencies for enhanced preparation in palliative care, the End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium developed modules for undergraduate programs. Nursing students' life experiences and their prior involvement with death and dying situations shape their potential achievement of end-of-life learning outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore traditional and nontraditional students' perspectives and outcomes of their lived experiences in response to the End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium modules and current palliative care program curriculum. Following university institutional review board approval, the phenomenological qualitative study included 2 focus groups of traditional and transfer students. Thematic data analysis revealed 4 primary themes with differences noted between groups in response to these themes: (1) witnessing suffering and death, (2) building courage and competence, (3) conversation challenges, and (4) curriculum issues and recommendations. Implications for future palliative care education indicate opportunities to better support students through expanded simulations and debriefing sessions, integrated roles for clinical faculty and preceptors, and interdisciplinary team collaboration opportunities across settings.
It is an international consensus that health care workers should be well trained to promote care for seriously ill and dying patients. Nursing students have reported that they feel inadequately prepared for palliative care. Simulation exercises have been described as increasing knowledge, skills, and competence, and participants have reported that they are more confident and prepared for palliative care with this learning approach than without. So far, there has not been much reported on how simulation contributes to learning in clinical practice. Therefore, this study explored whether learning outcomes from palliative care simulation further developed in practice. Second-year bachelor's-prepared nursing students voluntarily participated in a simulation activity as part of their hospital practice. Eleven students were interviewed about their learning experiences. The findings indicate that a prerequisite for further learning was to actively choose palliative care. Relationships with nurses, patients, and relatives and factors in themselves served as gatekeepers for attending learning situations. Becoming a nurse who can provide palliative care was described as an emotionally challenging experience. Elements that promoted learning outcomes in palliative care were simulation experience, clarified expectations, support, and a good dialog with the nurse before and after the learning situation.
INTRODUCTION: It is widely recognized that physicians of all backgrounds benefit from having a general palliative care skillset to optimally manage their patients at the end of life. However, strategies to teach palliative care skills to trainees outside of palliative medicine vary widely. In this report, we provide an evidence-based, cross-disciplinary palliative care framework applicable to a spectrum of specialty training environments and intended for non-palliative care trainees.
INNOVATION: We developed and implemented a concise, multi-modal and evidence-based pilot palliative care curriculum focused on essential general palliative care skills required by physicians providing patient care along the continuum of life across specializations. A needs assessment (local research, literature review and consensus expert opinion) in combination with learner characteristics (Kolb learning style inventory, Palliative Medicine Comfort and Confidence Survey and knowledge pre-test) informed the development of a curricular outline. The first iteration of the curriculum was formulated and delivered. Extensive evaluation, reassessment and feedback led to a second iteration, which is presented here.
OUTCOMES: Although the context will differ according to specialization, there are essential palliative care skills required of most specialist physicians. General palliative themes identified for focus include symptom management, communication, psychosocial aspects of care, care coordination and access, and myths and pitfalls in palliative care.
COMMENT: Specialty trainees' value embedded training in essential themes in palliative care within the context of their training program. The process and results of this project, including the provision of a framework, may be applied to postgraduate training programs in various specialties.
Unclear communication of inauspicious prognoses may disorientate both patients and their relatives, drastically jeopardizing the planning of palliative care. This paper considers the issue of truth-telling in the communicative problems of nurses and students of nursing with terminally ill patients. The fundamental objective is the analysis of the difficulties related to the lack of truth-telling and how it might impact their professional and personal lives. A qualitative study was realized, involving 47 participants, both nurses (25) and nursing students (22), working in palliative care units or in associations of volunteers for the assistance of oncological patients. The exploration was focused on the way they relate to patients who are not aware of their real health conditions and their consequences. Particular attention was paid to their opinions concerning what could be done in order to manage such problematic situations in the near future.
Background: Experts recommend integrating palliative care throughout the four-year medical school curriculum, including in required clerkships such as internal medicine (IM).
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether third-year medical students could gain meaningful experience in primary palliative care during their IM clerkship with observation and feedback from internists and/or IM residents or fellows.
Design: We implemented two clinical exercises: (1) perform advance care planning with a patient and (2) participate in the delivery of important news. Students self-reported aspects of their experience in a confidential online survey.
Setting/Subjects: Third-year medical students enrolled in a required IM clerkship.
Measurements: Students reported the setting in which they completed the exercises, their level of independence, and their level of comfort with advance care planning after completing the exercise. We performed a qualitative analysis of open-ended comments to determine domains, themes, and subthemes and a separate analysis to determine the extent to which the comments suggested learning relevant to the stated learning objectives for each exercise.
Results: The majority of students completed both exercises without palliative care specialists present, 76% (196/258) for the advance care planning exercise and 75% (195/259) for important news. Fifty-one percent (132/258) of students completed advance care planning with a significant level of independence, and 70% (182/258) reported being comfortable or very comfortable with advance care planning after completing the exercise. Qualitative analyses of student comments found that the majority of students described learning something related to the stated learning objectives for each exercise and suggested that they gained an appreciation of the complexity of patient-provider interactions around serious illness and palliative care.
Conclusion: We found it feasible to integrate clinical exercises in advance care planning and delivering important news into an IM clerkship.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the perception of attending physicians, medical residents, and undergraduate medical students about death and dying, the end of life (EoL), and palliative care (PC) during training and clinical practice, highlighting knowledge gaps, and the changes needed in medical school curricula.
METHOD: Cross-sectional study of 12 attending physicians, residents, and undergraduate medical students randomly selected from a single teaching hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, 2018. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, transcripts were coded in depth, and categorizing analysis was carried out.
RESULTS: Three topical categories were recognized: Negative feelings about death and the EoL, importance of PC, and gaps in curricular structure hindering preparedness for PC and EoL communication. Besides differing perspectives depending on their years of experience, all participants strongly endorsed that the current medical school curriculum does not train and support physicians to handle EoL and PC.
CONCLUSIONS: Medical education plays a fundamental role in the development of knowledge and skills on death, dying, and PC. Such practices should extend throughout the course and be continuously improved after graduates move to clinical practice.
Accompanied suicide is a controversial topic with varying practice across Europe; therefore, there is very little guidance on how healthcare professionals should be educated on accompanied suicide. This study implemented an anonymous, cross-sectional online survey to discover the perceptions of final-year MPharm students on accompanied suicide and the factors affecting one’s views, with the aim of investigating the knowledge, awareness and opinions of pharmacy students regarding accompanied suicide, as well as education to pharmacy students. Surveys were disseminated to final-year pharmacy students at Kingston University between January and March 2019. The survey comprised of three sections: Section A consisting of definitions – to determine knowledge of pharmacy students. Section B including case studies – to understand the opinions of pharmacy students and identify influential patient factors. Section C involving demographics – to discover the influential participant factors. An ethics application was submitted and approved prior to conducting this study. The data yielded a total of 111 responses out of a possible 139 (80% response rate); 77.5% participants were unable to correctly define each term given, with many also agreeing their lack of knowledge affected their views. Overall, most pharmacy students disagreed with accompanied suicide, regardless of the patient factors. Additionally, religious participants were more likely to disagree with the patient request (p < 0.03). Three recommendations were concluded to improve the education of pharmacy students: (1) an approved medical organisation to specifically define terminology, (2) include accompanied suicide in the pharmacy syllabus and (3) include lesser known terminal illnesses on the pharmacy syllabus.
Introduction: Pediatric residents are faced with ethical dilemmas in beginning- and end-of-life situations throughout their training. These situations are innately challenging, yet despite recommendations that residents receive training in ethics and end-of-life domains, they continue to report the need for additional training. To address these concerns, we developed an interactive and reflective palliative care and medical ethics curriculum including sessions focusing on ethical dilemmas at the beginning and end of life.
Methods: This module includes a trio of case-based, small-group discussions on artificial nutrition and hydration, futility, and ethical considerations in neonatology. Content was developed based on a needs assessment, input from local experts, and previously published material. Trainees completed assessments of comfort and understanding before and after each session.
Results: The module was attended and assessed by an average of 27 trainees per session, including residents and medical students. Knowledge of ethical considerations improved after individual sessions, with 86% of trainees reporting understanding ethical considerations involved in the decision to withdraw or withhold medically provided nutrition and hydration and 67% of trainees reporting understanding the use of the term futility. Trainee comfort in providing counseling or recommendations regarding specific ethical issues demonstrated a trend toward improvement but did not reach statistical significance.
Discussion: We successfully implemented this innovative module, which increased trainees' comfort with end-of-life care and ethical conflicts. Future studies should focus on the trainees' ability to implement these skills in clinical practice.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to explore the experiences of nursing students participating in end-of-life education programs.
DESIGN: A systematic review.
DATA SOURCES: Exhaustive literature searches were performed using seven electronic databases: Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL Plus, Dialnet Plus, Eric and Cuiden Plus.
REVIEW METHODS: In total, 6572 studies published from 2008 until 2018 were examined. The Critical Appraisal Skills Program was used to assess the quality of the studies included in the review. The findings were synthesized using meta-aggregation.
RESULTS: Seventeen studies were included in this systematic review, representing a sample of 606 nursing students. Simulation methods were most common among the educational programs analyzed. The analysis of qualitative data allowed us to identify 260 illustrations which were grouped into 14 categories and three themes: feelings and emotions during the performance of the pedagogical activity, end-of-life education among nursing students and competencies acquired on death and end-of-life. The most highlighted communication skills were learning to listen and building confidence to speak with the patient, family and the general public.
CONCLUSIONS: End-of-life programs generally helped students acquire communication skills, learn concepts and improve the administration of this type of care. In addition, they perceived the experience as an opportunity to learn more about oneself, gain trust and support critical thinking. Nonetheless, the evidence available in this field is limited due to the small number of studies, plus the limited data reported. Thus, further studies on this subject are necessary.
Engaging patients in EOL discussions has many potential benefits, primarily alleviating unanswered questions, which results in increased patient and family satisfaction. All healthcare providers should be prepared to engage in EOL discussions with patients in declining health. In this article, I share an experience that shaped my views on this subject and discuss the importance of completing an advance directive before a health crisis occurs.
Objectives: To map current practice regarding discussions around resuscitation across England and Scotland in patients with cancer admitted acutely to hospital and to demonstrate the value of medical students in rapidly collecting national audit data.
Methods: Collaborators from the Macmillan medical student network collected data from 251 patient encounters across eight hospitals in England and Scotland. Data were collected to identify whether discussion regarding resuscitation was documented as having taken place during inpatient admission to acute oncology. As an audit standard, it was expected that all patients should be invited to discuss resuscitation within 24 hr of admission.
Results: Resuscitation discussions were had in 43.1% of admissions and of these 64.0% were within 24 hr; 27.6% of all admissions. 6.5% of patients had a “do not attempt resuscitation” order prior to admission with a difference noted between patients receiving palliative and curative treatment (8.5% and 0.39%, respectively, p < .05). Discussions regarding escalation of care took place in only 29.3% of admissions.
Conclusions: These data highlight deficiencies in the number of discussions regarding resuscitation that are being conducted with cancer patients that become acutely unwell. It also demonstrates the value of medical student collaboration in rapidly collecting national audit data.
As nearly all doctors deal with patients requiring palliative care, it is imperative that palliative care education starts early. This study aimed to validate a national, palliative care competency framework for undergraduate medical curricula. We conducted a Delphi study with five groups of stakeholders (palliative care experts, physicians, nurses, curriculum coordinators, and junior doctors), inviting them to rate a competency list. The list was organized around six key competencies. For each competency, participants indicated the level to which students should have mastered the skill at the end of undergraduate training. Stability was reached after two rating rounds (N = 82 round 1, N = 54 round 2). The results showed high levels of agreement within and between stakeholder groups. Participants agreed that theoretical knowledge is not enough: Students must practice palliative care competencies, albeit to varying degrees. Overall, communication and personal development and well-being scored the highest: Junior doctors should be able to perform these in the workplace under close supervision. Advance care planning scored the lowest, indicating performance in a simulated setting. A wide range of stakeholders validated a palliative care competency framework for undergraduate medical curricula. This framework can be used to guide teaching about palliative care.
Caring for dying patients is often a new experience for ICU residents. End-of-life and palliative training in medical schools is lacking. Many residents experience troublesome emotions during residency. Literature establishes that residents show lower well-being scores than similar populations. To make emotional wellness a priority for residents, monthly mandatory Palliative Care Rounds (PCR) were established in the ICU. The role of the Palliative Care Social Worker (PCSW) is central in planning and implementing PCR. Social workers have unique skills well-suited to this type of activity in an acute care setting. Residents present cases and the PCSW facilitates discussion to explore complex emotions helping residents process their feelings. Forty-five residents responded to a seven-item questionnaire, out of 70 potential resident respondents (64% response rate). Only 60% said they learned about end-of-life and its emotional aspects in medical school. Ninety-eight percent reported the PCR helped them be more aware of their feelings, and would recommend it to colleagues. Ninety-five percent said PCR are important for interns and residents to help them grow professionally and become better clinicians. Through the process of dissecting their emotions, PCR allows for personal and professional growth that improves residents’ ability to become empathic providers.
Interprofessional education allows students to collaborate with students and professionals of multiple disciplines. An Interdisciplinary Palliative Care (IPC) Seminar, held in the Midwest, involves students from disciplines of medicine, nursing, pharmacy, social work, and chaplaincy. The curriculum of the seminar incorporates asynchronous and synchronous didactic presentations, experiential learning through group exercises and discussion, along with home visits by students in interdisciplinary dyads. The purpose of this study was to determine whether students’ participation in a 3-week IPC seminar would positively influence their socialization and value of interprofessional collaboration with the ultimate goal of developing skilled professionals who engage in interprofessional practice in hospice and palliative care settings. This descriptive study invited participants to take a pre- and postseminar online survey using the Interprofessional Socialization and Valuing Scale-21 (ISVS-21) to assess shifts in students’ perceptions of interprofessional socialization and the value of collaborative health-care practice. In their pre-and postseminar scores, 71 participants reported they more strongly agreed with all items on the ISVS-21 after completing the seminar. The results from this study suggest the IPC Seminar is an effective educational model for advancing the value of interprofessional socialization and collaborative practice in hospice and palliative health-care.
Background: The number of medical undergraduate and postgraduate students completing palliative care clinical rotations in Canadian medical schools is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the proportion of Canadian medical trainees completing clinical rotations in palliative care and to determine whether changes took place between 2008 and 2018.
Methods: In this descriptive study, all Canadian medical schools (n = 17) were invited to provide data at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels (2007/08–2015/16 and 2007/08–2017/18, respectively). Information collected included the number, type and length of palliative care clinical rotations offered and the total number of medical trainees or residents enrolled at each school.
Results: All 17 Canadian medical schools responded to the request for information. At the undergraduate level, palliative care clinical rotations were not offered in 2 schools, mandatory in 2 and optional in 13. Three schools that offered optional rotations were unable to provide complete data and were therefore excluded from further analyses. In 2015/16, only 29.7% of undergraduate medical students completed palliative care clinical rotations, yet this was a significant improvement compared to 2011/12 (13.6%, p = 0.02). At the postgraduate level, on average, 57.9% of family medicine trainees completed such rotations between 2007/08 and 2016/17. During the same period, palliative care clinical rotations were completed by trainees in specialty or subspecialty programs in anesthesiology (34.2%), geriatric medicine (64.4%), internal medicine (30.9%), neurology (28.2%) and psychiatry (64.5%).
Interpretation: Between 2008 and 2018, a large proportion of Canadian medical trainees graduated without the benefit of a clinical rotation in palliative care. Without dedicated clinical exposure to palliative care, many physicians will enter practice without vital palliative care competencies.
Previous literature demonstrates that current palliative care training is in need of improvement for medical students in global, European and Canadian contexts. The training of medical undergraduates is key to ensure that the ongoing and increasing need for enhanced access to palliative care across all settings and communities is met. We describe building a comprehensive palliative and end-of-life care curriculum for medical undergraduates at our university. As with recent European and US studies, we found that the process of university curriculum renewal provided a critical opportunity to integrate palliative care content, but needed a local palliative care champion already in place as an energetic and tireless advocate. The development and integration of a substantive bilingual (English and French) palliative and end-of-life care curriculum over the 4-year medical undergraduate program at our university has occurred over the course of 14 years, and required multiple steps and initiatives. Subsequent to the development of the curriculum, there has been a 13-fold increase in students selecting our palliative care clinical rotations. Critical lessons learned speak to the importance of having a team vision, interprofessional collaboration with a focus on vision, plans and implementation, and flexibility to actively respond and further integrate new educational opportunities within the curriculum. Future directions for our palliative care curriculum include shifting to a competency-based training and evaluation paradigm. Our findings and lessons learned may help others who are working to develop a comprehensive undergraduate medical education curriculum.
BACKGROUND: Caring for patients in the end-of-life is an emotionally and physically challenging task. Therefore, undergraduate nursing students (UNS) need opportunities to learn to care for the dying patient. This study aimed to describe UNS' experiences of caring for patients at end-of-life.
METHODS: Interviews with 16 UNS in their last semester of nursing education were conducted. Data were analyzed with a phenomenological approach.
RESULTS: The UNS created a professional relationship with the dying patient. It meant that when the patient was unable to speak for themselves, the UNS could still meet his/her wishes and needs. The UNS believed they could take responsibility for the patient who was no longer able to take responsibility for themselves. Meeting with the patient's family could be experienced with anxiousness but was dependent on the personal chemistry between the patient's family and the UNS.
CONCLUSION: The UNS creates a relationship with the patient and their family. To be knowledgeable about the patient's physical and psychosocial needs means that the UNS can support the patient in the end-of-life phase. Being close to the patient and the family results in an intensity of emotions in the care situation. The UNS can receive support from their colleagues during processing their emotions and creating an experience from their encounters with patients in end-of-life care.
BACKGROUND: Providing care for dying people and the death of patients are stressing situations faced by nursing students during their clinical practice. Learning about palliative care improves the management of emotions and the ability to cope when caring for patients in end-of-life processes. However, there is little knowledge on the effect of this learning on the students' perceptions of their own death.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of a palliative care course on the thoughts of nursing students about their own death.
DESIGN: A qualitative, descriptive, and comparative study was conducted based on content analysis, administering an open-ended questionnaire on dying and death at the start and end of a palliative care course.
PARTICIPANTS: The study included 85 volunteers studying Palliative Care in the second year of their Nursing Degree at the University of Granada (Spain).
RESULTS: Students described their perceptions in more detail after the course, with more numerous code citations, and their post-course responses evidenced a reduction in anxiety about their own death and an increased recognition of the need to respect the decisions of patients for a dignified death.
CONCLUSIONS: Palliative care learning modifies the perception by nursing students of their own death and their understanding of a dignified death, which may enhance the care they deliver to patients at the end of life.
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in medical care, pediatric deaths are still an unfortunate reality. Most of these deaths occur within a hospital setting. End-of-life care is an important part of medical care for children with serious illnesses. Despite the importance, pediatric providers report a lack of comfort surrounding end-of-life care.
OBJECTIVE: To assess categorical pediatric residents' perceptions and participation in providing end-of-life care to dying children and their families.
STUDY DESIGN: This is a survey-based, descriptive, mixed-methods study. Survey was sent to categorical pediatric residents at Indiana University School of Medicine in June 2018 to obtain both quantitative and qualitative information on resident perception and participation in end-of-life care. Surveys were sent to 100 residents with a response rate of 68%.
SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Pediatric residents at Indiana University School of Medicine.
RESULTS: The comfort and participation in end-of-life care are limited in all levels of pediatric training. Residents do not feel comfortable with 19 of 22 questions related to end-of-life care. Only 32% of residents felt their education prepared them to participate in end-of-life care. Almost one-fifth (19.5%) of residents report participating in zero aspect of end-of-life care. Themes discussed by residents include education, experience, communication, social norms, emotions, self-care, comfort, and family.
CONCLUSION: More formalized education and training is needed to increase resident comfort with and participation in end-of-life care. Such future interventions should focus on communication surrounding difficult conversations and providing guidance for families.