Sous forme d’un journal allant de 2005 à 2019, l’auteur retrace son histoire d’amour avec Christophe, son époux mort à la suite d’une prise mortelle de drogues de synthèse. Il raconte leur rencontre, leurs combats communs, les circonstances de sa disparition et son propre deuil, de même qu’il alerte les pouvoirs publics sur la circulation de ces substances.
Earlier this year many of us watched on our TV screens pictures from Northern Ireland of a funeral. The funeral of Lyra McKee. Lyra was a 29-year-old journalist at work in Derry when she was shot dead. Her funeral was a public event which took place in Belfast's Anglican cathedral. Lyra was also a partner, the partner of Sara Canning. Sara was left without the love of her life. At the funeral Sara was surrounded by a loving family, friends, and colleagues from Lyra's work. Sara's grief and bereavement were afforded public acknowledgement by family, clergymen and others. This is how it should be. But are all lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) persons supported in their bereavement? I am reminded of my own experience of bereavement since the death in 2013 of my partner, Mervyn.
The experience of same-sex-attracted people who have lost a partner is neglected in the existing literature on bereavement. Previous research on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, queer and questioning (LGBTIQ) populations tends to focus on the loss of a partner to HIV-related causes, and there is scant research concerning non-HIV-related bereavement. The purpose of this article is to investigate the non-HIV-related bereavement experiences of same-sex partners and to address the potential complications of disenfranchised grief. Coping with the loss of a same-sex partner and the impact of bereavement on subsequent relationships are also discussed. Implications for counseling of bereaved same-sex-attracted individuals are drawn, and recommendations for future psychological research on the experience of bereavement are made.
Peu de recherches ont porté sur les profils et les préoccupations de santé parmi les hommes homosexuels et bisexuels vieillissants. Dans le cadre d’une enquête en ligne pancanadienne, 411 répondants âgés de 55 ans et plus ont répondu à un questionnaire portant sur l’évaluation de ces deux problématiques. Les résultats montrent que les écarts avec la population hétérosexuelle du même groupe d’âge se situent en particulier dans le champ de la santé mentale, où les problèmes sont plus prononcés, des différences qui se retrouvent aussi entre les 55-64 ans et les 64 ans et plus dans notre échantillon. Ces résultats peuvent contribuer à développer des interventions mieux ciblées visant à favoriser le bien-vieillir parmi ces minorités sexuelles.
The end-of-life needs of people who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) are in many ways identical to those of non-LGBTQ people; however, for a variety of reasons, they are at risk of receiving suboptimal care, irrespective of whether they are being cared for at home or in a nursing home, hospital, or hospice. Although research on the needs of LGBTQ people at the end of life is sparse, drawing on what is available this article explores some of their unique concerns that practitioners should consider during their interactions.
Although male suicide has received research attention, the gendered experiences of men bereaved by male suicide are poorly understood. Addressing this knowledge gap, we share findings drawn from a photovoice study of Canadian-based men who had lost a male friend, partner, or family member to suicide. Two categories depicting the men's overall account of the suicide were inductively derived: (a) unforeseen suicide and (b) rationalized suicide. The "unforeseen suicides" referred to deaths that occurred without warning wherein participants spoke to tensions between having no idea that the deceased was at risk while reflecting on what they might have done to prevent the suicide. In contrast, "rationalized suicides" detailed an array of preexisting risk factors including mental illness and/or substance overuse to discuss cause-effect scenarios. Commonalities in unforeseen and rationalized suicides are discussed in the overarching theme, "managing emotions" whereby participants distanced themselves, but also drew meaning from the suicide.
To better understand the role of technology in later-life planning among older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trans (LGBT) adults, we conducted focus groups to explore factors linked to diverse sexual orientations and gender identities. Twenty focus groups were facilitated across Canada with 93 participants aged 55 to 89. Constant comparative analysis yielded four categories: (a) fear, (b) individual benefits, (d) social elements, and (d) contextual elements. Fear related to technology and fear of end-of-life planning. Individual benefits referred to technology as a platform for developing LGBT identities and as a source of information for later-life planning. Social elements were establishment and maintenance of personal relationships and social support networks. Contextual elements referred to physical and situational barriers to technology use that limited access and usability. These findings can inform technological practice and services to enhance later-life planning.
LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) older adults are more likely than their heterosexual peers to age with limited support in stigmatizing environments often poorly served by traditional social services challenging their preparedness for end of life. Fourteen focus groups and three individual interviews were conducted in five Canadian cities with gay/bisexual men (5 groups; 40 participants), lesbian/bisexual women (5 groups; 29 participants), and transgender persons (3 interviews, 4 groups; 24 participants). Four superordinate themes were identified: (a) motivators and obstacles, (b) relationship concerns, (c) dynamics of LGBT culture and lives, and (d) institutional concerns. Several pressing issues emerged including depression and isolation (more common among gay and bisexual men), financial/class issues (lesbian and bisexual women), and uncomfortable interactions with health-care providers (transgender participants). These findings highlight the challenges and complexities in end-of-life preparation within LGBT communities.
Grief and bereavement are universal human experiences that do not discriminate based on sex, gender, or sexual orientation. Existing literature provides valuable insight into the bereavement experiences of persons who identify as heterosexuals, but much less can be found on persons who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender/queer* (LGBT*). Given that the historical experiences of loss and personal characteristics such as interpersonal, familial, and social patterns of coping with grief are likely to influence the bereavement process, this study focused on the impact of partner bereavement on the interpersonal relationships and subsequent partnerships of the LGBT* bereaved. To this end, the purpose of this study was to use a mixed-methods approach to better understand how LGBT* persons described their experiences with partner bereavement and to identify what effect these experiences had on interpersonal relationships and subsequent partnerships.
BACKGROUND: Ensuring palliative care for all under a new global health policy must include key populations, that is, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people, and sex workers. Accessibility and quality of care have not been investigated in lower and middle-income countries where civil rights are the weakest.
AIM: To examine the accessibility to, and experiences of, palliative care for key populations in Zimbabwe.
DESIGN: Qualitative study using thematic analysis of in-depth interviews and focus groups.
SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 60 key population adults and 12 healthcare providers and representatives of palliative care and key population support organisations were interviewed in four sites (Harare, Bulawayo, Mutare and Masvingo/Beitbridge).
RESULTS: Participants described unmet needs and barriers to accessing even basic elements of palliative care. Discrimination by healthcare providers was common, exacerbated by the politico-legal-economic environment. Two dominant themes emerged: (a) minimal understanding of, and negligible access to, palliative care significantly increased the risk of painful, undignified deaths and (b) discriminatory beliefs and practices from healthcare providers, family members and the community negatively affected those living with life-limiting illness, and their wishes at the end of life. Enacted stigma from healthcare providers was a potent obstacle to quality care.
CONCLUSION: Discrimination from healthcare providers and lack of referrals to palliative care services increase the risk of morbidity, mortality and transmission of infectious diseases. Untreated conditions, exclusion from services, and minimal family and social support create unnecessary suffering. Public health programmes addressing other sexually taboo subjects may provide guidance.
Griffin a choisi de quitter Théo, son premier amour parti à l'autre bout du pays pour ses études. Les deux garçons s'aiment toujours et sont restés en contact. Griffin était convaincu qu'ils formeraient à nouveau un couple un jour, même quand Théo se met à fréquenter Jackson. Malheureusement, tout vole en éclats à la mort de Théo, laissant derrière lui un garçon qui a bien du mal à vivre dans un monde où il n'est plus.
Despite the high prevalence of suicide in gay communities, the impact of suicide on surviving male partners is poorly understood. This article presents a qualitative case study of two gay men who lost a partner to suicide and explores how stigma may shape gay men's bereavement experiences. Data were collected using photovoice methods and analysed using a thematic approach. Five themes were inductively derived: (1) trying to prevent the inevitable; (2) guilty of keeping secrets; (3) dreams shattered by suicide; (4) abandoned and alone in grief; and (5) a lonesome road to recovery. Within each theme, the article indentifies how stigma-related challenges associated with suicide, mental illness and minority sexual identity shaped gay men's bereavement experiences. Practice and policy implications are discussed, including how the provision of tailored clinical and peer supports can assist gay men in the bereavement of a same-sex partner to suicide. The findings detailed in this study highlight the need for interventions to de-stigmatise mental illness and suicide within and outside the gay community.
End of life is difficult for all patients but sexual and gender minorities (SGM) are prone to isolation and loneliness, especially if their SGM status is unknown or unaccepted. In oncology clinics, where goals of care discussions about end of life are integral and frequent, querying patients about their SGM status and sexual health is of particular importance. The American Society of Clinical Oncology recently released a position statement that called for greater focus on SGM populations with the goal of reducing and eventually eliminating disparities in cancer care within this group. An important first step in addressing such disparities is learning how best to train cancer health-care providers to ask patients about their SGM status and about sexual health in general. This article summarizes the mandate for understanding cancer issues in SGM populations and the dearth of cancer-related data within this group. This article also describes an ongoing 3-part study intended to build a mini curriculum with the goal of helping cancer health-care providers to ask patients with cancer about SGM status and to ask all patients with cancer about sexual health issues. The results of this ongoing study could potentially improve end-of-life care for subgroups of patients.
Sexual minority individuals are at higher risk for suicide ideation compared with heterosexual individuals. We tested whether the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide explains increased suicide ideation among sexual minority college students living in the southeastern region of the United States. The cross-sectional study assessed correlates of suicide ideation in a convenience sample (n = 82) of sexual minority college students. Perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness correlated with suicide ideation. However, only perceived burdensomeness correlated with suicide ideation while controlling for depressive symptoms. Pending replication, perceived burdensomeness may be a target for suicide prevention and intervention among sexual minority college students.
This paper asks how do the deaths and the postmortem detransitioning (the verbal, visual, and material rejection of a person’s gender identity) of transgender women impact trans activism? After analyzing the case studies of Jennifer Gable and Leelah Alcorn, I outline how the contentious memorialization of transgender women and the disenfranchized grief of survivors influence trans activism. I conclude that activism is characterized by respecting the wishes of the deceased, by preventing the violence which transgender women experience, by advocating for trans elder care, by educating about end-of-life issues, and by lobbying for laws that protect transgender men and women after death.
Lesbian, gay bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) older adults have unique health care needs, especially in the palliative care and hospice setting. In this article, we present a male patient with metastatic ovarian cancer, admitted with worsening dyspnea, now at the end of life. Only his wife was aware of his identified gender, and nondisclosure was very important to him. As he continued to decline, the team navigated LGBTQ-sensitive care within the health care setting, insurance inequalities, and support and communication to his family. This case study summarizes clinical recommendations for the LGBTQ individual in the hospice and palliative care setting, suggesting how our patient's care may have been improved. With the changes in social acceptance and attitudes, the LGBTQ community has become more visible and their numbers appear to be growing. It is important, therefore, that hospice and palliative care providers be educated on their needs to provide competent and inclusive health care.
As lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) communities age, many individuals expect a need to enter the long-term care system toward the end of life. Not unlike most aging Canadians, this anticipation is met with concern and fear. However, previous research suggests that older LGBTQ + individuals have unique fears often related to personal safety and discrimination. This qualitative study examined the hopes and fears of older LGBTQ + adults considering long-term care as they face end of life. Data were collected from three focus groups in Ontario, Canada, and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Specific and frequent reference to fear of entering long-term care homes was common across all focus groups, as participants anticipated: social isolation, decreased independence and capacity for decision-making, increased vulnerability to LGBTQ+-related stigma as well as exposure to unsafe social and physical environments. The results from this study, therefore, emphasize the need for palliative care specialists and long-term care home staff to address the unique health needs of older LGBTQ + adults nearing the end of life in order to work toward allaying fears and creating supportive and inclusive long-term care environments.
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is likely the largest provider of health care for LGBT persons in US. However, histories of homophobia, stigma, discrimination, and past military policies have all had a lasting impact on the health of LGBT veterans. Effects can be seen across healthcare needs, disparities, access, and utilization for or by LGBT veterans. A case from a VA hospice unit is used to illustrate some challenges and opportunities when providing end-of-life care for an older, lesbian veteran. This veteran had been cared for by her wife who was struggling to meet care needs at home. Over time, it became clear that the wife was emotionally and financially dependent on the veteran, and would be facing many psychosocial and financial challenges when the veteran died. However the wife was reticent to accept referrals for help or services due to past negative experiences with social service agencies related to her sexual orientation. The interdisciplinary team collaborated to care for the veteran's medical needs, and the wife's emotional and psychosocial needs, until after the veteran's death. This case highlights many of the unique needs and challenges that may arise in caring for LGBT veterans and their families at end-of-life.
End-of-life care has attracted increased attention in recent years due to increases in both the number and mean age of the world's population; however, the experiences of LGBT persons during end-of-life care remain understudied. Given the health disparities and barriers to care experienced throughout the life course of LGBT persons, the frequent involvement of legal spouses in end-of-life care, and the recency of marriage equality, it can be surmised that LGBT persons might experience significantly different barriers to their desired end-of-life care compared to their heterosexual and cisgender counterparts. This article aims to synthesize what is known about these barriers, particularly in the absence of legal marriage or protective legal documentation. Of two hundred and twelve articles reviewed, twenty-three were included for analysis. Common barriers that emerged were discriminatory laws (e.g., prohibitions against same-sex marriage) and policies, lack of decision-making capacity, lack of knowledge regarding patient wishes, lack of visitation rights, challenges from biological next of kin, and discrimination and psychological distress. Recommendations for future research are provided based on gaps that were identified. These include increased research on transgender persons and bisexual persons, and on providers of end-of-life care. In addition, the recommendations take into account that important legislative and policy changes occurred after the period in which the studies reviewed here were published. The impact of those changes cannot be reported in this study and should be determined by future studies. This synthesis provides the contextual understanding necessary for research and improvement in this vastly understudied area.
Although several publications document the health care disparities experienced by sexual and gender minorities (SGMs), including lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals,1e4 less is known about the experiences and outcomes for SGM families and individuals in hospice and palliative care (HPC) settings. This article provides a brief overview of issues pertaining to SGMs in HPC settings, highlighting gaps in knowledge and research. Current and best practices for SGM individuals and their families in HPC settings are described, as are recommendations for improving the quality of such care.