Objective: Patients with cancer face numerous problems at the end of their lives, which makes palliative care necessary for a peaceful death. Considering the important role nurses play in the provision of end-of-life care, the present study was conducted to study the effect of a traditional training method on nurses' perception of and clinical competency in providing end-of-life care to patients with cancer in a hospital in Southeastern Iran.
Methods: This was a pilot clinical trial in which the nurses in an oncology ward were allocated to two groups, experimental (n = 24) and control (n = 33), using a table of random numbers. The experiment group received three sessions of workshop training. The nurses' perception and clinical competency were measured before and 3 months postintervention.
Results: The results showed the perception scores in the experimental and control groups to be 171.75 ± 19.54 and 170.03 ± 17.03 before education and 176.16 ± 19.54 and 176.12 ± 16.12 postintervention, respectively. The scores of clinical competency were 98.71 ± 10.24 and 99.58 ± 12.17 before education and 101.5 ± 14.67 and 104.97 ± 12 postintervention in the experimental and control groups, respectively. According to the findings, neither of the groups showed a significant difference between pre- and post-intervention in terms of perception of or clinical competency in end-of-life care.
Conclusions: A traditional training method such as workshop training cannot cause long-term improvement in nurses' end-of-life care perception or clinical competency. It seems that nurses would benefit from acquiring cognitive and behavioral skills and knowledge through a more continuous form of instruction delivered through modern blended educational methods.
BACKGROUND: In recent years the use of time to death (TTD) variables in the modeling of individual health expenditures has been of interest to health economics researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age and TTD on hospital inpatient expenditure (HIE).
METHODS: We used a claims database from Iran Health Insurance Organization of Tehran city that includes considerable proportion of Tehran residents and contains information on insured individuals' HIE. We included HIE of all insured decedents (30 to 90 years old) who died during March 2013 and March 2014 (n=1018). No sampling was required. According to the decedents' date of death, we extracted their last 24 months HIE. The period of time March 30, 2011 until March 30, 2014 (3 years) was used to guarantee a full 24 months of observations for decedents. A two-part econometric model was employed to investigate the effect of age, TTD, and some demographic variables on probability and conditional amount of individuals' hospital expenditure. Stata software (version 16.0) was used for data processing and analysis.
RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that the month-based TTDs especially near months before death of decedents (TTD1 to TTD10) significantly affected both probability and conditional amount of HIE. One month before death incurred more HIE than the rest of the months. A further interesting finding is that after including TTD, age variable as a conditional driver of HIE loses its direct effect on decedents' HIE, but age TTD interaction effect on HIE is still positive and statistically significant.
CONCLUSION: The results confirm that TTD as a proxy of mortality indicator has a considerable effect on decedents' HIE. The age variable has not directly affected decedents' HIE but indirectly and through its interaction with TTD has a statistically significant effect on HIE. In addition to age, policy-makers should consider TTD to make better predictions of future HIE.
Background: Decision making regarding the treatment of neonates with poor prognoses is difficult for healthcare staff working in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This study aimed to investigate the attitudes of physicians and nurses about the value of life and ethical decision making when encountering neonates with poor prognosis in the NICU.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in five NICUs of five hospitals in Tehran city, Iran. The attitudes of 144 pediatricians, gynecologists and nurses were assessed using the questionnaire of attitude toward the value of life and agreement on intensive care management based on three hypothetical case scenarios of neonates with poor prognosis. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics via the SPSS software.
Results: The negative agreement on the no initiation of intensive care measures and the discontinuation of resuscitation in neonates with poor prognosis was more than the positive agreement. Also, various factors influenced the participants' decision making for the provision of care to neonates. Regarding the case scenarios, the participants agreed on the provision of aggressive, conservative, and palliative care with various frequencies. This study confirms the importance of healthcare providers' perspectives and their impacts on ethical decision making. The participants favored the value or sacredness of life and agreed on the use of all therapeutic measures for saving the lives of neonates with poor prognosis.
Conclusion: More studies are required to improve our understandings of factors influencing ethical decision making by healthcare providers when encountering neonates with poor prognosis in NICUs.
Background: Palliative care is an important branch of nursing care. Patients with end-stage renal disease, owing to the chronic nature of the disease, will require palliative care, with nursing staff being responsible for delivering these services. Understanding the priorities of this type of care from the perspective of patients and nursing staff can be helpful in delivering it effectively and efficiently. This study was conducted to determine and compare palliative care priorities from the perspectives of patients and nursing staff in a haemodialysis ward in Iran.
Method: This research is a cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study with a sample size equal to the research population (322 patients and 45 nursing staff) in a haemodialysis ward in Kerman, Iran. Data were collected using two self-administered questionnaires that included demographic information and palliative care priorities. Data were analysed using SPSS19 with central tendency and dispersion indicators (frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation, Mann–Whitney U-test, Kruskal–Wallis, independent t, ANOVA and one-way ANOVA). The significance level was P<0.05.
Results: The mean total score (± standard deviation) of palliative care priorities from the patients' and nurses' perspective was 268.83±3.90 and 271.11±29.76, respectively, which was categorised for both groups as ‘high priority’. From the patients' perspective, the highest mean score was obtained from ‘supporting patient with insurance concerns’, while the lowest mean score was derived from ‘managing diarrhoea’. The nurses also believed that ‘managing and relief of pain’ had the highest priority and ‘bloating’ had the lowest priority in palliative care. From the perspective of both groups, holistic support and relief of physical disorders had the highest and lowest mean scores, respectively. Further, the mean scores of palliative care priorities did not differ significantly from the perspective of patients and nursing staff in the haemodialysis ward (P=0.68).
Conclusion: Palliative care is a high priority for both haemodialysis patients and nursing staff and both groups prioritised it similarly. As palliative care has not yet been initiated formally across all treatment centres in Iran, it is necessary to prioritise its inclusion within the renal and haemodialysis wards in Iran and provide further training or education for nurses to ensure they are equipped to deliver effective and informed palliative care.
BACKGROUND: Palliative nursing care provides the best possible quality of life (QoL) for patients who face life-threatening conditions, such as breast cancer, and their families. It seems that coping with breast cancer can affect couples' QoL. Hence, this study aimed to assess the potential role of ways of coping (WOC) in QoL among husbands of women with breast cancer.
METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, 150 men whose wives were affected by non-metastatic breast cancer and were at least 4 months post-diagnosis, were recruited. The Persian version of the WOC questionnaire (WOCQ) and the World Health Organization's QoL brief questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF) were used to measure WOC and QoL. ThePearson correlation test was applied to assess bivariate correlation of the variables.
FINDINGS: A significant direct correlation was found between the total WHOQoL-BREF score and all subscales of WHOQ, except escape-avoidance coping (r=-0.017, P=0.830). Most dimensions of the WHOQoL-BREF and WOCQ subscales were correlated significantly and directly. Nevertheless, escape-avoidance coping had a significant indirect correlation with the physical dimension of WHOQoL-BREF (r=-0.220, P=0.007).
CONCLUSION: Findings indicated a need for coping-based interventions in palliative nursing to improve QoL in husbands of women with breast cancer.
Background: Death and dying care is an area with less attention in nursing. This even is evidenced as more challenging in some populations such as neonates. Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) nurses should be aware of the quality of care they provide for dying neonates and their families to find the areas which need attention.
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric features of the Quality of Dying and Death (QODD) questionnaire in NICU nurses in Tehran, the capital city of Iran.
Methods: This methodological study was conducted in 2017. For this purpose, using census method, 130 NICU nurses working in selected hospitals participated. After the backward-forward translation, based on the method proposed by the International Test Commission, the psychometric properties of the Persian QODD were examined through the assessment of the face, content and construct validity, internal consistency, and stability.
Results: Final Persian QODD's content and face validity were accepted through a qualitative method. In the confirmatory factor analysis, the original version of QODD was not confirmed. Subsequently, an exploratory factor analysis was carried out in which phrases were included in three dimensions (symptom control, preparation for death of neonate, and professional attention) that explained 75% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha values ranged from 0.82 to 0.88 for these three dimensions. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was ICC = 0.94 between two tests performed with a 2-week interval on twenty eligible nurses.
Conclusions: The Persian version of QODD has acceptable psychometric properties in nurses working with the neonatal population and can be used to investigate the NICU nurses' opinion on the QODD provided in NICU patients.
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of perinatal anomalies is a stressful experience that can negatively affect mothers, families, health-care systems, and societies. Perinatal palliative care (PPC) is a new development in maternity services which focuses on emotional, spiritual, social, and symptom management and provides care for women and families with fetal anomaly diagnosis. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a service package for women with fetal anomaly diagnosis in socio-cultural context of Iran.
METHODS: This research is an exploratory mixed methods study with the qualitative-quantitative sequencing design that consists of four sequential phases. In the first phase, following a qualitative approach, the researcher will explore the needs and experiences of women with fetal anomaly diagnosis, their families, health care providers and policy-makers. At the second phase, based on the review of the literature, Program, guideline, service package and protocol for care of women and their families after perinatal anomaly diagnosis will be identified in other countries. In the third phase, recommendations from qualitative phase and literature review will be combined, the initial protocol of the palliative care service package for perinatal anomaly diagnosis will be identified and prioritized. In the fourth phase, the opinion of experts about this service package will be collected by using RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method technique and the applicability of the service package's recommendations in clinical settings will be determined.
DISCUSSION: The results of this Mixed Methods study are expected response the needs and experiences of the women with perinatal anomaly diagnosis being met in the socio-cultural context of Iran and a service package for palliative care of these women developed.
This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Persian version of Death Anxiety Scale-Extended (DAS-E). A total of 507 patients with end-stage renal disease completed the DAS-E. The factor structure of the scale was evaluated using exploratory factor analysis with an oblique rotation and confirmatory factor analysis. The content and construct validity of the DAS-E were assessed. Average variance extracted, maximum shared squared variance, and average shared squared variance were estimated to assess discriminant and convergent validity. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (a = .839 and .831), composite reliability (CR = .845 and .832), Theta ( = .893 and .867), and McDonald Omega (O = .796 and .743). The analysis indicated a two-factor solution. Reliability and discriminant validity of the factors was established. Findings revealed that the present scale was a valid and reliable instrument that can be used in assessment of death anxiety in Iranian patients with end-stage renal disease.
Chronic pain is among problems of old people and causes changes in their life pattern and processes. Teaching palliative care can help old people suffering from chronic pain to live an active life. The aim of this research was to determine effects of educating of palliative care on life pattern of elderly women with chronic pain. The present study was a Quasi-experimental design with pre-test and post test was conducted on 30 elderly women suffering from chronic pain in 2018 in Iran. The Questionnaire for evaluating the Pattern of Life with Pain in the elderly was filled before the intervention, group educating of palliative care was carried out using an educational package, and the questionnaire was completed again immediately and one and three months after. The data was analyzed using mean, standard deviations, Fisher's F test, and Greenhouse-Geisser and Bonferroni post-hoc test by employing SPSS- 16. Mean changes before teaching palliative care significantly differed from those of immediately and one and three months after the educational program (p = 0.0), (p = 0.004). There were significant differences between the stages of immediately and one month after the educational program and that of three months after it (p = 0.001), (p = 0.002). Concerning the personal life patterns, there were statistically significant differences between the stage immediately after the educational program and those before the intervention and three months after it (p = 0.005), (p = 0.000). Regarding the social life pattern, only the stage of one month after the educational program significantly differed from that of three months (p = 0.005). Mean growth in life pattern of the old women suffering from chronic pain in the stages after the intervention indicated the importance of and the necessity for palliative care during old age. Moreover, the success of this education three months after the educational program as compared to immediately and one month after it indicates that allocation of sufficient time plays a very important role in transferring information and in teaching methods of palliative care to old people.
Stress is a commonly reported concern of individuals with chronical diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). This study sought to investigate the relationships between self-transcendence, death anxiety, and perceived stress among individuals with MS from Iran. A second aim of the study was to assess the buffering effect of self-transcendence in the relationship between death anxiety and perceived stress. Two hundred and fifteen participants with MS from four hospitals completed measures assessing self-transcendence, death anxiety, and perceived stress. Using structural equation modeling, death anxiety was found to be positively related to perceived stress. In addition, there was a negative relationship between self-transcendence and perceived stress. Results of the study suggest that self-transcendence is a buffer in the link between death anxiety and perceived stress for individuals with MS. The findings demonstrate the importance of self-transcendence in decreasing the effects of death anxiety on perceived stress and have clinical implications for health professionals.
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, palliative care is one of the main components of healthcare. As the incidence of cancer is increasing in the world, home-based palliative care can be beneficial for many patients. This study was designed to explore health care providers' perceptions about home-based palliative care in terminally ill cancer patients.
METHODS: This qualitative study was carried out using the conventional content analysis from October 2016 to September 2018 in Iran. Participants were home care providers who were selected using purposive sampling. The data were collected through 18 individual interviews, and a focus group meeting. Data were analyzed based on the method proposed by Lundman and Graneheim.
RESULTS: from the data analysis, 511 initial codes were extracted, which were categorized into the two main categories of challenges and opportunities for home-based palliative care and 10 subcategories. The subcategories of challenges included deficiencies in inter-sectoral and inter-professional cooperation, lack of infrastructures for end-of-life care, challenges related to the management of death, challenges of transferring patients to home, providing non-academic palliative care, lack of political commitment of the government and Spiritual vacuum. The category of opportunities included subcategories of cost-effectiveness, moving towards socializing health, and structure of the health system.
CONCLUSIONS: Home-based palliative care requires government and health system support. Structural and process modification in the healthcare can provide conditions in which terminally ill cancer patients receive appropriate care in home and experience death with dignity through support of family, friends and healthcare.
BACKGROUND: Nurses play a major role in providing end-of-life care, and euthanasia is considered to be one of the most important ethical challenges that care providers can face.
AIM: To assess the nurses' attitude towards euthanasia in Iran.
METHODS: The cross-sectional study included nurses who worked in intensive and critical care, as well as dialysis units of a teaching hospital affiliated to Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, who were selected by the census sampling technique. Data were collected using a two-part questionnaire encompassing the demographic characteristics of nurses and the 20-item Euthanasia Attitude Scale.
RESULTS: The overall score of nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia, ranging from one to five, was 2.71±0.45, indicating a negative attitude and opposition towards euthanasia. Alongside this, the results demonstrated that there was no significant relationship between demographic characteristics and nurses' attitudes toward euthanasia.
CONCLUSION: In general, nurses in Iran oppose euthanasia. This can be attributed to the context of religious beliefs and culture in Iran as an Islamic country.
In the traditional/religious context of the Iranian society, dream plays a very important role. To understand its role, the purpose of this study was to discover the role of dreams in the lives of the bereaved and to reconstruct semantics. In this study, the qualitative approach and grounded theory have been considered. In this regard, the bereaved, whom their loved ones were passed away at least 4 months and at last 4 years, were studied by deep interviewing until data saturation occurs. Therefore, the findings of this study revealed the dualism of dream/awakening in the bereaved, which ultimately results in the deconstruction of the bereaved due to the spiritual interaction of the bereaved and the deceased.
Families are struggling with many challenges in the final stages of patient life. It is important to understand what actions nurses do for the family of the end-of-life (EOL) patients. This study aimed to explain the main strategy of nurses’ dealing with the family of the EOL patients. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Semistructured interviews were conducted on 32 nurses from hospitals in Tehran. Nurses used six measures of explaining the bitter reality, effective communication, management of violence, referral, consolation, and reinforcement. “Contingency help” was conceptualized as the main strategy. Nurses through “contingency help” were involved in solving the emotional, physical, financial, and spiritual needs of the family. Nurses will be able to apply the results of this study to the development of care policies for the family of the EOL patients.
BACKGROUND: Health care providers should be able to provide good quality end-of-life care. A tool to evaluate the positive and negative consequences of caring for dying patients is warranted.
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the End-of-Life Caregiving Experience Appraisal Scale (EOLCAS).
METHODS: This research was conducted in two phases. Phase I: The World Health Organization Protocol of forward-backward translation and an expert panel in order to determine face and content validity. Phase II: Survey development with 310 nurses who worked in critical care units, construct validity (construct, convergent and divergent validity), internal consistency (average inter-item correlation, Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega) and construct reliability were evaluated.
RESULTS: The exploratory factor analysis showed that the present scale (Persian version) has four factors: Negative physical-emotional and social consequences, transcendental communication, information deficits and future rumination, which explained 83·92% of the overall extracted variance. Convergent and divergent validity were confirmed for all factors. The internal consistency and construct reliability were acceptable.
CONCLUSION: The scale has a multidimensional concept that is sufficiently reliable and the use of the scale would be helpful in measuring consequences of caring for dying patients.
RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This scale makes a significant contribution in that it helps in the recognition of positive and negative consequences of critical care nurses' caring for dying patients.
The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between attitudes toward planning for end-of-life (EOL) care and social supports, spirituality, distrust of the US healthcare system, and acculturation; and to investigate a relationship between attitudes and communication of EOL wishes in Iranian-American older adults. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was used. Older adults (N = 135) were surveyed using Qualtrics online software. The participants were new immigrants to the U.S., highly educated, and insured with a generally positive self-reported health status. Of this sample, 47.4% reported that they communicated their EOL wishes orally or through written documentation. Favorable attitudes toward planning were associated with acculturation and healthcare system distrust, and, inversely, were negatively associated with spirituality. No significant association was found between attitudes and social support. Favorable attitudes predicted participants’ communication of wishes. The findings can inform the provision of effective interventions to enhance culturally competent EOL care.
INTRODUCTION: It is generally accepted that depression, affecting the quality of life, is a serious and common complication in patients with cancer. Given that there is no integrated study on this topic in Iran, the present study sought to investigate the prevalence of depression in patients with cancer by a systematic review and meta-analysis.
METHODS: To meet the study objectives, all English and Persian papers published from 2000 to January 2018 were systematically collected and the data were extracted for analysis.
RESULTS: There were 14 studies which were selected on the basis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total number of 2831 patients with cancer had participated in the studies. The prevalence of depression among Iranian patients with cancer was 35% (95% CI 16% to 70%) based on random effects model. Among various types of cancer, the highest prevalence of depression appeared to patients suffering from breast cancer.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depression among patients with cancer in Iran was higher than the developed countries. As depression affects the quality of life of patients with cancer, the results can help policymakers and service providers in planning to reduce the prevalence of depression.
Objective: Cancer patients face many health challenges, including spiritual issues. Therefore, an awareness of health-care providers' perspective on spiritual care provision is important. This study aimed to determine health-care providers' perception of spiritual care and to examine the individual barriers to its implementation in cancer patients.
Methods: The present descriptive study included 136 physicians and nurses. The Spiritual Care Survey was used as a research tool. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 20.0.
Results: In this study, 70.6% of the participants considered spiritual care to be influential in the patients' quality of life. However, 64.7% had received no spiritual care training, while 82.4% indicated a willingness to attend these courses. Regarding the obstacles to providing spiritual care, the highest and lowest scores, respectively, belonged to the lack of time and the person's reluctance to talk about spiritual issues.
Conclusions: Spiritual care has not yet found its proper place in the care setting of Iran, and health-care team members do not have sufficient training to provide this kind of care despite their belief in its positive impact on patients' quality of life.
BACKGROUND: Production of effective, low-cost, and efficient radiopharmaceuticals is an important task and requires further research and clinical studies. In this clinical trial, safety and efficacy of Lu-177/Sm-153 ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP) cocktail has been evaluated for pain relief of bone metastases.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients with the mean age of 55.5 ± 15.8 years participated in this study. Patients received a total dose of 37 MBq/kg. Pain and performance assessments were followed using a Brief Pain Inventory form. Complete blood count and renal and liver function tests were also performed up to 12 weeks postadministration.
RESULTS: Eighteen patients (72%) demonstrated complete pain relief (relief = 100%) and approximately all patients (96%) experienced significant improvement in their quality of life. No grade IV hematological toxicity was observed during the 12-week follow-up period, and grade III toxicity was seen in 1 patient only. In addition, no abnormalities were seen in renal and liver function during the follow-up period.
CONCLUSIONS: There were no considerable complications after administration of Lu-177/Sm-153 EDTMP; this cocktail seems to be a safe and effective treatment for bone pain palliation in patients with skeletal metastases and improves the quality of life.
Background: Accurate pain assessment in elderly population is essential for pain management and nurses have a pivotal role. The 11-face Faces Pain Scale (FPS-11) is a well-established pain assessment measure that has not been validated in the Iranian elderly.
Aim: The aim was to study the property assessment of the Iranian version of FPS-11 (FPS-11-IR) among elderly outpatients with chronic pain.
Methods: This is a cross-sectional validation study that conducted in three outpatient clinics in Tehran, Iran, in 2017. Older people aged = 60 years (n = 217) with chronic knee pain due to degenerative joint disease were participated. The construct validity was examined by applying contrast constructs, and the face validity was determined by rank-ordering test. To assess concurrent validity, the Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated between the scores of 11-point Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) and FPS-11-IR. Test-retest reliability was determined in 1-week interval.
Results: Most of elderly participants (72%) agreed that pain construct displays in faces of the FPS-11-IR and participants" agreement on face rank ordering were vary for each face, ranging from 80% to 100%. Spearman's correlation coefficient between FPS-11-IR and NRS scores was very strong (r = 0.91, P < 0.01). Intraclass correlation coefficient between test-retest scores was 0.96 that indicates excellent reliability.
Conclusions: The FPS-11-IR is a reliable and valid pain assessment scale to use in geriatric patients chronic pain.