Critical considerations of space and place at the end of life have been limited in the social science literature. To address this gap, we draw on empirical data from two interrelated but separate qualitative Australian data sets to critically examine dying in relation to considerations of space, place and affect. These studies share the primary aim to better understand and articulate end-of-life experiences, with one using video reflexive ethnography and the other semi-structured interviews with patients. Challenging the broader valorisation of particular places of dying and death (e.g. home, hospice, hospital), we critically explore the meanings and affects of space and place and how they are rooted in normative expectations. Drawing on participant accounts we interrogate simplistic concepts of home versus hospice, or hospital versus community, developing a critical social science of the intersections of space and place at the end of life.
Contemporary society has grown seemingly detached from the realities of growing old and subsequently, dying. A consequence, perhaps, of death becoming increasingly overmedicalised, nearly one in two UK nationals die institutional deaths. In this article we, two architectural scholars engaged in teaching, research and practice and a nurse and healthcare scholar with a focus on end-of-life care and peoples' experiences, wish to draw attention to a controversy resulting from a paucity in current literature on the terms of reference of the dying 'patient' as we navigate the future implications of the COVID-19 pandemic. This contributes to a relative lack of touchstones for architects to refer to when designing person-centred palliative care environments. Unlike common building types, architects are extremely unlikely to have lived experience of palliative care environments as patients; and therefore, require the help of healthcare professionals to imagine and empathise with the requirements of a person dying away from home. This paper includes a review of ageing and dying literature to understand, and distil from an architectural perspective, who, design professionals, are designing for and to remember the nuanced characteristics of those we hold a duty of care toward. We ask readers to heed the importance of accurate terms of reference, especially when commissioning and/or designing environments of palliative care. Furthermore, we put forward an appeal for interdisciplinary collaboration to develop a framework for codesigning positive experiences of person-centred care and environments at the end of life.
Background: Rehabilitation and palliative care may play an important role in addressing the problems and needs perceived by socioeconomically disadvantaged patients with advanced cancer. However, no study has synthesized existing research on rehabilitation and palliative care for socioeconomically disadvantaged patients with advanced cancer. The study aimed to map existing research of rehabilitation and palliative care for patients with advanced cancer who are socioeconomically disadvantaged.
Material and Methods: A scoping review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). A systematic literature search was performed in CINAHL, PubMed and EMBASE. Two reviewers independently assessed abstracts and full-text articles for eligibility and performed data extraction. Both qualitative and quantitative studies published between 2010 and 2019 were included if they addressed rehabilitation or palliative care for socioeconomically disadvantaged (adults =18 years) patients with advanced cancer. Socioeconomic disadvantage is defined by socioeconomic position (income, educational level and occupational status).
Results: In total, 11 studies were included in this scoping review (138,152 patients and 45 healthcare providers) of which 10 were quantitative studies and 1 was a qualitative study. All included studies investigated the use of and preferences for palliative care, and none focused on rehabilitation. Two studies explored health professionals’ perspectives on the delivery of palliative care.
Conclusion: Existing research within this research field is sparse. Future research should focus more on how best to reach and support socioeconomically disadvantaged people with advanced cancer in community-based rehabilitation and palliative care.
Background: Integration of palliative care services into the surgical treatment plan is important for holistic patient care. We sought to examine the association between patient race/ethnicity and county-level vulnerability relative to patterns of hospice utilization.
Patients and Methods: Medicare Standard Analytic Files were used to identify patients undergoing lung, esophageal, pancreatic, colon, or rectal cancer surgery between 2013 and 2017. Data were merged with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s social vulnerability index (SVI). Logistic regression was utilized to identify factors associated with overall hospice utilization among deceased individuals.
Results: A total of 54,256 Medicare beneficiaries underwent lung (n = 16,645, 30.7%), esophageal (n = 1427, 2.6%), pancreatic (n = 6183, 11.4%), colon (n = 26,827, 49.4%), or rectal (n = 3174, 5.9%) cancer resection. Median patient age was 76 years (IQR 71–82 years), and 28,887 patients (53.2%) were male; the majority of individuals were White (91.1%, n = 49,443), while a smaller subset was Black or Latino (racial/ethnic minority: n = 4813, 8.9%). Overall, 35,416 (65.3%) patients utilized hospice services prior to death. Median SVI was 52.8 [interquartile range (IQR) 30.3–71.2]. White patients were more likely to utilize hospice care compared with minority patients (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.17–1.31, p < 0.001). Unlike White patients, there was reduced odds of hospice utilization (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.96–0.99) and early hospice initiation (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.91–0.97) as SVI increased among minority patients.
Conclusions: Patients residing in counties with high social vulnerability were less likely to be enrolled in hospice care at the time of death, as well as be less likely to initiate hospice care early. The effects of increasing social vulnerability on hospice utilization were more profound among minority patients.
Burnout, a condition characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment, has been studied in many disciplines in health care, including nursing, medicine, and social work. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived organizational support, coworker social support, the nursing practice environment, and nurse demographics (age, years of nursing experience, education level, marital status, and sex) on burnout in a national sample of palliative care nurses. The study aims were (1) to examine the relationship between perceived organizational support, coworker social support, and nursing practice environment on burnout in palliative care nurses; (2) to examine the relationship between age, years of nursing experience, education level, marital status, and sex on burnout in palliative care nurses; and (3) to examine potential moderators (perceived organizational support and coworker social support) on the relationship between demographic characteristics and palliative care nurse burnout. A convenience sample of 73 Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association registered nurses who were bedside caregivers was recruited from Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association's membership. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and regression modeling. Findings indicated palliative care nurses had moderate to high levels of burnout. There was a negative correlation between burnout and perceived organizational support, and between burnout and coworker social support. The nursing practice environment of palliative care nurses was favorable; perceived organizational support and coworker social support were not moderators for demographics of age and years of experience and their relationship to burnout.
Background: Options available to Canadians at the end of life increased with the legalization of medical assistance in dying (MAiD). Bill C-14 modified the Canadian Criminal Code allowing individuals who meet very specific criteria to receive a medical intervention to hasten their death. June 2019 marked 3 years since the legislation has changed and while met with favour from most Canadians who believe it will provide enhanced options for quality of life at the end of life, there remains much debate over both its moral implications and practical components. Little is known regarding the Canadian healthcare provider experience with MAiD, in particular in rural and remote parts of the country such as northwestern Ontario.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore physicians' experiences in Northwestern Ontario with MAiD. The geographic location of this study is of particular significance as physicians in rural and remote parts of Canada face unique challenges in the provision of high-quality palliative and end-of-life services. This qualitative research focused on developing a better understanding of physicians' perceptions and practices with MAiD, in particular regarding access, decision-making, provision of service and role clarity.
Methods: The researchers employed an exploratory qualitative research approach, using 1 semi-structured focus group and 18 semi-structured interviews comprising 9 set of questions. Data were collected through audio-taped semi-structured interviews, in person and by telephone.
Findings: Four distinct but interconnected themes emerged from thematic analysis of the transcripts of the focus group and interviews: physician perception of patient awareness, appreciation and understanding of MAiD; challenges providing true choice at end of life; burgeoning relationships between palliative care and MAiD; and physician recommendations.
Conclusion: The results of this study provide a snapshot of the Northwestern physician experiences with MAiD and contribute to the growing body of work exploring these issues on a national scale. MAiD is highlighted as both a rewarding and challenging experience for physicians in Northwestern Ontario in this study.
AIM: To examine whether nurses' location of employment, demographics, or training influences their perceptions of what constitutes optimal care for dying patients in hospital.
DESIGN: Questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study.
METHODS: Between December 2016-June 2018, 582 registered or enrolled nurses from Australia (N = 153), South Korea (N = 241), and Hong Kong (N = 188) employed in a variety of hospital care units rated the extent to which they agreed with 29 indicators of optimal end-of-life care across four domains: patient, family, healthcare team, and healthcare system. Latent class analysis identified classes of respondents with similar responses.
RESULTS: Top five indicators rated by participants included: 'physical symptoms managed well'; 'private rooms and unlimited visiting hours'; 'spend as much time with the patient as families wish'; 'end-of-life care documents stored well and easily accessed' and 'families know and follow patient's wishes'. Four latent classes were generated: 'Whole system/holistic' (Class 1); 'Patient/provider-dominated' (Class 2); 'Family-dominated' (Class 3) and 'System-dominated' (Class 4). Class 1 had the highest proportion of nurses responding positively for all indicators. Location was an important correlate of perceptions, even after controlling for individual characteristics.
CONCLUSION: Nurses' perceptions of optimal end-of-life care are associated with location, but perhaps not in the direction that stereotypes would suggest. Findings highlight the importance of developing and implementing location-specific approaches to optimize end-of-life care in hospitals.
IMPACT: The findings may be useful to guide education and policy initiatives in Asian and Western countries that stress that end-of-life care is more than symptom management. Indicators can be used to collect data that help quantify differences between optimal care and the care actually being delivered, thereby determining where improvements might be made.
BACKGROUND: A sense of place (SOP) is defined as the emotional bonds, values, meaning, and symbols attached to a place.
AIMS: To assess SOP of patients with cancer during end-of-life care at home (home-hospice service) versus at a hospital in relation to place of care, social support, and emotional distress.
METHODS: Participants were 150, stage IV, cancer patients with a life expectancy of less than 6 months, as defined by oncological staff, who were not receiving any life-prolonging care. Seventy-five patients received care at home (home-hospice), and the other 75 received care at the oncology department at the hospital, by palliative unit staff. Participants completed the Brief Symptom Inventory anxiety and depression subscales, questionnaires on perceived support and both questionnaires on home SOP and hospital SOP.
RESULTS: Mean scores of emotional distress were similar for patients in home-hospice and at the hospital. Home SOP among individuals receiving care at home was high, and hospital SOP was high among hospitalized individuals. The structural equation model had good fit indexes, showing that each of the SOP variables mediated the association between place of care and emotional distress. Perceived support was associated with lower distress only in the hospital setting.
CONCLUSIONS: The SOP concept is relevant to understanding emotional distress in relation to place of care at end of life. Strengthening SOP in relation to place of care should be considered. As newly introduced concept regarding place of care at the end of life, SOP warrants further research.
BACKGROUND: Public knowledge and awareness of palliative care (PC) is important to its effective use. However, it remains unclear whether the geographic variation in knowledge of PC exits in the United States. This study examined the national geographic variation in knowledge of PC.
METHODS: The study sample was obtained from the 2018 National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey. Basic knowledge of PC, goal concordant treatment, misconceptions, and primary information source of PC were compared across 4 census regions. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with awareness of PC among 9 census divisions.
RESULTS: A total of 3194 respondents (weighted sample size: 229 591 005) were included in this study. Overall, 29% of all respondents reported having knowledge of PC; 32.9% of those residing in Northeast had some knowledge of PC, followed by 30.8% in the South, 26.2% in Midwest, and 25.6% in West. By census divisions, respondents residing in 3 divisions were more likely to have PC knowledge (New England, odds ratio: 3.06, 95% CI: 1.48-6.32, P = .003; South Atlantic, odds ratio: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.15-3.35, P = .014; Pacific, odds ratio: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.12-3.09, P = .018) compared to those in the Mountain division.
CONCLUSIONS: The variation of PC knowledge on census division and state level in 2018 was consistent with the real-world geographic disparities in the availability of PC programs. These findings represent an opportunity for minimizing the gap of geographic disparity by initiating strategic programs and promoting PC programs nationwide.
OBJECTIVES: This study explored associations between birth region, socio-demographic predictors and advance care planning (ACP) uptake.
METHODS: A prospective, multi-center, cross-sectional audit study of 100 sites across eight Australian jurisdictions. ACP documentation was audited in the health records of people aged 65 years or older accessing general practice (GP), hospital and long-term care facility (LTCF) settings. Advance care directives (ACD) completed by the person ('person completed ACDs') and ACP documents completed by a health professional or other person ('health professional or someone else ACP') were counted. Hierarchical multi-level logistic regression assessed associations with birth region.
RESULTS: From 4187 audited records, 30.0% (1152/3839) were born outside Australia. 'Person completed ACDs' were less common among those born outside Australia (21.9% vs 28.9%, X2 (1, N = 3840) = 20.3, p & 0.001), while 'health professional or someone else ACP' was more common among those born outside Australia (46.4% vs 34.8%, X2 (1, N = 3840) = 45.5, p & 0.001). Strongest associations were found for those born in Southern Europe: 'person completed ACD' (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.36-0.88), and 'health professional or someone else ACP' (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.01-1.98). English-language proficiency and increased age significantly predicted both ACP outcomes.
DISCUSSION: Region of birth is associated with the rate and type of ACP uptake for some older Australians. Approaches to ACP should facilitate access to interpreters and be sensitive to diverse preferences for individual and family involvement in ACP.
Most older adults living with chronic illness prefer palliation of symptoms at home rather than invasive therapies or hospitalization at the end of life. In the United States, death occurring at home has become more common than death occurring in the hospital. However, national patterns may overlook important regional variation in end-of-life (EOL) care. Additionally, research is lacking on these patterns among the increasing population of older adults with chronic illness. Therefore, we sought to assess recent temporal patterns and regional variation in end-of-life health care use by Medicare beneficiaries with chronic illness.
Objectives: We evaluated healthcare cost differences at the end of life (EOL) between language regions in Switzerland, accounting for a comprehensive set of variables, including treatment intensity.
Methods: We evaluated 9716 elderly who died in 2014 and were insured at Helsana Group, with data on final cause of death provided by the Swiss Federal Statistical Office. EOL healthcare costs and utilization, = 1 ICU admission and 10 life-sustaining interventions (cardiac catheterization, cardiac assistance device implantation, pulmonary artery wedge monitoring, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, gastrostomy, blood transfusion, dialysis, mechanical ventilation, intravenous antibiotics, cancer chemotherapies) reimbursed by compulsory insurance were examined.
Results: Taking into consideration numerous variables, relative cost differences decreased from 1.27 (95% CI 1.19–1.34) to 1.06 (CI 1.02–1.11) between the French- and German-speaking regions, and from 1.12 (CI 1.03–1.22) to 1.08 (CI 1.02–1.14) between the Italian- and German-speaking regions, but standardized costs still differed. Contrary to individual factors, density of home-care nurses, treatment intensity, and length of inpatient stay explain a substantial part of these differences.
Conclusions: Both supply factors and health-service provision at the EOL vary between Swiss language regions and explain a substantial proportion of cost differences.
Purpose: The USA has observed a significant increase in the use of palliative care for patients diagnosed with advanced cancer. However, it is unknown how geographic variation affects patients’ use of palliative care services. We examined temporal and demographic trends in receipt of and timing of palliative care by state and region.
Methods: A retrospective cohort study of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database. Study sample included community-dwelling patients aged = 65 years with metastatic lung cancer who were diagnosed between 2001 and 2015. Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to evaluate temporal trends in receipt of and timing of palliative care by states and census region.
Results: The proportion of metastatic lung cancer patients who received palliative care ranged from 16.4% in Washington and 16.3% in Connecticut to 6.4% in Louisiana. From 2001 to 2015, use of palliative care increased from 3.2 to 29.8% in the West region, from 3.3 to 31.9% in the Northeast region, from 3.8 to 36.2% in the Midwest region, and from 0.9 to 23.3% in the South region (all P < 0.001). The median time from the date of cancer diagnosis to the date of first palliative care visit varied geographically, from 44 days in Utah to 66 days in California. Hospital-based palliative care was most common in these states.
Conclusion: The substantial geographic variation in the use of palliative care suggesting a need for additional research on geographic disparities in palliative care and strategies that might improve state-level palliative care delivery.
Background: As the mortality attributable to dementia-related diseases in the United States escalates, providing quality and equitable end-of-life care for dementia patients across care settings has become a major public health challenge. Previous research suggests that place of death may be an indicator of quality of end-of-life care. This study aims to examine the geographical variations and temporal trends in place of death of dementia decedents in the US and the relationships between place of death of dementia decedents and broad structural determinants.
Methods: Using nationwide death certificates between 2000 and 2014, we described the changes in place of death of dementia decedents across states and over time. Chi-square test for trend in proportions was used to test significant linear trend in the proportion of dementia decedents at difference places. State fixed effects models were estimated to assess the relationships between the proportion of dementia decedents at difference places and state-level factors, particularly availability of care facility resources and public health insurance expenditures.
Results: Dementia decedents were more likely to die at home and other places and less likely to die at institutional settings over the study period. There was wide inter-state and temporal variability in the proportions of deaths at different places. Among state-level factors, availability of nursing home beds was positively associated with rates of nursing home/long term care deaths and negatively associated with rates of home deaths. Medicaid expenditure on institutional long term supports and services was positively associated with rates of nursing home/long term care deaths and negatively associated with rates of home deaths. Medicaid expenditure on home and community based services, however, had a positive association with rates of home deaths.
Conclusions: There was a persistent shift in the place of death of dementia decedents from institutions to homes and communities. Increased investments in home and community based health services may help dementia patients to die at their homes. As home becomes an increasingly common place of death of dementia patients, it is critical to monitor the quality of end-of-life care at this setting.
BACKGROUND: Acute hospitalization is a frequent reason for live discharge from hospice. Although risk factors for live discharge among hospice patients have been well documented, prior research has not examined the role of neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics, or how these characteristics relate to racial/ethnic disparities in hospice outcomes.
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and risk for live discharge from hospice because of acute hospitalization. The authors also explore the moderating role of race/ethnicity in any observed relationship.
RESEARCH DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using electronic medical records of hospice patients (N=17,290) linked with neighborhood-level socioeconomic data (N=55 neighborhoods). Multilevel models were used to identify the independent significance of patient and neighborhood-level characteristics for risk of live discharge because of acute hospitalization.
RESULTS: Compared with the patients in the most well-educated and affluent sections of New York City [quartile (Q)4], the odds of live discharge from hospice because of acute hospitalization were greater among patients who resided in neighborhoods where lower proportions of residents held college degrees [Q1 adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-1.75; Q2 AOR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.84] and median household incomes were lower (Q1 AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.10-1.85; Q2 AOR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.10-1.85; Q3 AOR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.07-1.80). However, these observed relationships were not equally distributed by patient race/ethnicity; the association of neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and risk for live discharge was significantly lower among Hispanic compared with white patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings demonstrate neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage poses a significant risk for live discharge from hospice. Additional research is needed to clarify the social mechanisms underlying this association, including greater attention to the experiences of hospice patients from under-represented racial/ethnic groups.
Background: It remains unclear whether the end-of-life (EOL) treatment/environment impacts on survival after anticancer treatment in terminally ill women with ovarian carcinoma (OC).
Objective: The aim of this investigation was to clarify how long those women actually survived after their last anticancer treatments and their hallmarks.
Setting, Design, and Measurements: Between 2003 and 2011, 79 terminally ill women with OC were retrospectively analyzed as a single institutional study. Postcancer treatment survival (PCS), defined as the duration between the last date of the abovementioned “cancer treatment” and that of death from any cause, was analyzed on stratification by type of supportive care or where patients spend their EOL. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW)—adjusted Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression analyses were employed to compare PCS between the two groups.
Results: The median PCS of patients was 10.8 weeks. In the multivariable analysis, the performance status and EOL place retained their significance as independent prognostic factors of poorer PCS (performance status [2–3/0–1]: hazard ratio [HR] = 3.279 [95% confidence interval; CI 1.967–5.586; p < 0.0001], EOL place [hospital/home hospice]: HR = 0.574 [95% CI 0.355–0.913; p = 0.0188]). In the IPTW-adjusted cohort, the median PCS rates were 15.0 and 9.7 weeks in patients of home/hospice and hospital groups, respectively (p = 0.04). Also in the IPTW cohort, the EOL place retained its significance (IPTW-adjusted: HR [95% CI]: 1.548 [1.009–2.374], p = 0.045, multivariable adjusted with IPTW: HR [95% CI]: 1.670 [1.077–2.588], p = 0.022).
Conclusion: Our current data may be hypothesis generating; it is possible that the EOL environment is a crucial prognostic factor for survival after anticancer treatment.
OBJECTIVES: Goal concordant or congruent care involves having expressed wishes upheld. Yet, the preferred location for end-of-life care may be unaddressed. Caregiver-patient congruence between preferred and actual locations of care may influence the quality of life in bereavement. The study aimed to explore how the congruence between caregiver-patient preferred and actual locations of death influenced well-being in bereavement.
METHODS: Mixed methods were employed. In-depth in-person interviews were conducted with 108 bereaved caregivers of a hospice patient about 4 months after the death. An interview guide was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data: demographics, decision-making, Core Bereavement Items (CBI), Health Related Quality of Life, and perspectives on the end-of-life experiences. Data were analyzed with a convergent mixed methods one-phase process.
RESULTS: Patient preference-actual location congruence occurred for 53%; caregiver preference-actual location congruence occurred for 74%; caregiver-patient preference and location of death occurred for 48%. Participants who reported some type of incongruence demonstrated higher levels of distress, including more days of being physically and emotionally unwell and more intense bereavement symptoms. The Acute Separation subscale and CBI total scores demonstrated significant differences for participants who experienced incongruence compared with those who did not. Preference location congruence themes emerged: (1) caregiver-patient location congruence, (2) caregiver-patient location incongruence, and (3) location informed bereavement.
CONCLUSIONS: Congruence between a dying person's preferred and actual locations at death has been considered good care. There has been little focus on the reciprocity between caregiver-patient wishes. Discussing preferences about the place of end-stage care may not make location congruence possible, but it can foster shared understanding and support for caregivers' sense of coherence and well-being in bereavement.
Advance care planning is spreading globally, but it is still a difficult task for healthy, community-dwelling Japanese residents. In Japan, it is called “life discussion,” and the first step is a discussion on goals, values, and preferences of medical care among family or other close persons, as knowledge on this topic is limited. This study aimed to explore the factors associated with the degree of engagement in life discussions among friends and family in depopulated areas. In 2 areas of Japan, 2466 individuals (aged 40-79 years) participated in this survey. Health/life habits, such as collecting health information and participating in some community activities, were significantly associated with the discussions more than attitude to medical/long-term care and community. Additionally, it was discussed how local governments could intervene to encourage advance care planning in depopulated areas. In conclusion, health habits or attitudes for care such as preference and desire for care among community-dwelling adults were associated with engaging in the discussions. It was proposed that local governments should motivate individuals to consider end-of-life experiences from a first-person perspective for creating advance care planning directives, and nurses could facilitate the discussion when death is imminent.
Mounting evidence supports oncology organizations' recommendations of early palliative care as a cancer care best practice for patients with advanced cancer and/or high symptom burden. However, few trials on which these best practices are based have included rural and remote community-based oncology care. Therefore, little is known about whether early palliative care models are applicable in these low-resource areas. This literature synthesis identifies some of the challenges of integrating palliative care in rural and remote cancer care. Prominent themes include being mindful of rural culture; adapting traditional geographically based specialty care delivery models to under-resourced rural practices; and using novel palliative care education delivery methods to increase community-based health professional, layperson, and family palliative expertise to account for limited local specialty palliative care resources. Although there are many limitations, many rural and remote communities also have strengths in their capacity to provide high-quality care by capitalizing on close-knit, committed community practitioners, especially if there are receptive local palliative and hospice care champions. Hence, adapting palliative care models, using culturally appropriate novel delivery methods, and providing remote education and support to existing community providers are promising advances to aid rural people to manage serious illness and to die in place. Reformulating health policy and nurturing academic-community partnerships that support best practices are critical components of providing early palliative care for everyone everywhere.
The economics of death and dying highlighted that environmental factors negatively influence healthcare sustainability. Therefore, this study conducted a system-based literature review to identify the negative externality of environmental damages on global healthcare reforms. Based on 42 peer-reviewed papers in the field of healthcare reforms and 12 papers in the field of environmental hazards, we identified 25 factors associated with death and dying and 15 factors associated with health-related damages across the world respectively. We noted that environmental factors are largely responsible to affect healthcare sustainability reforms by associating with the number of healthcare diseases pertaining to air pollutants. The study suggests healthcare practitioners and environmentalists to devise long-term sustainable healthcare policies by limiting highly toxic air pollutants through technology-embodied green healthcare infrastructure to attained efficient global healthcare recovery.