Introduction: Healthcare professionals (HCPs) experience difficulties in timely recognising and directing palliative care (PC) needs of their patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive tool to enable HCPs in timely recognising and directing PC needs in CHF.
Methods: A four-stage mixed-method study was performed. Stage 1: identification of needs and questions of patients and families; stage 2: prioritisation and refinement of the needs and questions; stage 3a: testing and online feedback on V.1; stage 3b: selecting and refining care recommendations; stage 4: testing and review of V.2. Iterative reviews followed each step in the development process to ensure a wide range of stakeholder input. In total, 16 patients, 12 family members and 54 HCPs participated.
Results: A comprehensive set of 13 PC needs was identified, redefined and tested. The resulting tool, called Identification of patients with HeARt failure with PC needs (I-HARP), contains an introduction prompt with open questions to start the conversation, 13 closed screening questions with additional in-depth questions, and recommendations on actions for identified needs.
Conclusion: I-HARP contains an evidence-based set of questions and palliative CHF care suggestions for HCPs in the Netherlands. The resulting tool, approved by HCPs, patients and family members, is a promising guidance for HCP to timely recognise and direct PC needs in CHF.
BACKGROUND: Advanced cancer affects the emotional and physical well-being of both patients and family caregivers in profound ways and is experienced both dyadically and individually. Dyadic interventions address the concerns of both members of the dyad. A critical gap exists in advanced cancer research, which is a failure of goals research and dyadic research to fully account for the reciprocal and synergistic effects of patients' and caregivers' individual perspectives, and those they share.
AIM: We describe the feasibility and acceptability of the Me in We dyadic intervention, which is aimed at facilitating communication and goals-sharing among caregiver and patient dyads while integrating family context and individual/shared perspectives.
DESIGN: Pilot study of a participant-generated goals communication intervention, guided by multiple goals theory, with 13 patient-caregiver dyads over two sessions.
SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Patients with advanced cancer and their self-identified family caregivers were recruited from an academic cancer center. Dyads did not have to live together, but both had to consent to participate and all participants had to speak and read English and be at least 18 years or age.
RESULTS: Of those approached, 54.8% dyads agreed to participate and completed both sessions. Participants generated and openly discussed their personal and shared goals and experienced positive emotions during the sessions.
CONCLUSIONS: This intervention showed feasibility and acceptability using participant-generated goals as personalized points of communication for advanced cancer dyads. This model shows promise as a communication intervention for dyads in discussing and working towards individual and shared goals when facing life-limiting or end-of-life cancer.
Background: Providing patient-centered care (PCC) during the last year of life (LYOL) can be challenging due to the complexity of the patients’ medical, social and psychological needs, especially in case of chronic illnesses. Assessing PCC can be helpful in identifying areas for improvements. Since not all patients can be surveyed, a questionnaire for proxy informants was developed in order to retrospectively assess patient-centeredness in care during the whole LYOL. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and validity of an adapted version of the German Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) for surveying bereaved persons in order to assess PCC during the decedents’ LYOL.
Methods: The German PACIC short form (11 items) was adapted to a nine-item version for surveying bereaved persons on the decedent’s LYOL (PACIC-S9-Proxy). Items were rated on a five-point Likert scale. The PACIC adaptation and validation was part of a cross-sectional survey in the region of Cologne. Participants were recruited through self-selection and active recruitment by practice partners. Sociodemographic characteristics and missing data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted in order to assess the structure of the PACIC-S9-Proxy. Internal consistency was estimated using Cronbach’s alpha.
Results: Of the 351 informants who participated in the survey, 230 (65.52%) considered their decedent to have suffered from chronic illness prior to death. 193 of these informants (83.91%) completed =5 items of the questionnaire and were included in the analysis. The least answered item was item (74.09%) was item 4 (encouragement to group & classes for coping). The most frequently answered item (96.89%) was item 2 (satisfaction with care organization). Informants rated the item” Given a copy of their treatment plan” highest (mean 3.96), whereas “encouragement to get to a specific group or class to cope with the condition” (mean 1.74) was rated lowest. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.84. A unidimensional structure of the questionnaire was found (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin 0.86, Bartlett’s test for sphericity p < 0.001), with items’ factor loadings ranging from 0.46 to 0.82.
Conclusions: The nine-item questionnaire can be used as efficient tool for assessing PCC during the LYOL retrospectively and by proxies.
Purpose: Visitor restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic limit in-person family meetings for hospitalized patients. We aimed to evaluate the quantity of family meetings by telephone, video and in-person during the COVID-19 pandemic by manual chart review. Secondary outcomes included rate of change in patient goals of care between video and in-person meetings, the timing of family meetings, and variability in meetings by race and ethnicity.
Methods: A retrospective cohort study evaluated patients admitted to the intensive care unit at an urban academic hospital between March and June 2020. Patients lacking decision-making capacity and receiving a referral for a video meeting were included in this study.
Results: Most patients meeting inclusion criteria (N = 61/481, 13%) had COVID-19 pneumonia (n = 57/61, 93%). A total of 650 documented family meetings occurred. Few occurred in-person (n = 70/650, 11%) or discussed goals of care (n = 233/650, 36%). For meetings discussing goals of care, changes in patient goals of care occurred more often for in-person meetings rather than by video (36% vs. 11%, p = 0.0006). The average time to the first goals of care family meeting was 11.4 days from admission. More documented telephone meetings per admission were observed for White (10.5, SD 9.5) and Black/African-American (7.1, SD 6.6) patients compared to Hispanic or Latino patients (4.9, SD 4.9) (p = 0.02).
Conclusions: During this period of strict visitor restrictions, few family meetings occurred in-person. Statistically significant fewer changes in patient goals of care occurred following video meetings compared to in-person meetings, providing support limiting in-person meetings may affect patient care.
Background: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of palliative care interventions are challenging to conduct and evaluate. Tools used to judge the quality of RCTs do not account for the complexities of conducting research in seriously ill populations and may artificially downgrade confidence in palliative care research.
Objective: To compare assessments from the Palliative Care Trial Assessment Tool (PCTAT) and Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool.
Design: Reviewers assessed 43 RCTs using PCTAT and RoB. We compared assessments of each trial, assessed overall agreement (weighted kappa (Kw)) and examined (dis)agreement for comparable items. We assessed quality of life at 1–3 months among trials grouped according to RoB or PCTAT score (using meta-analysis) and whether RoB or quality improved over time (Cochran-Armitage trend test).
Results: Of 43 trials, those rated low RoB had a mean PCTAT score of 73 (SD 10); those rated high RoB had a mean PCTAT score of 56 (SD 14). Overall Kw was 0.33 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.42). Total agreement between comparable items was observed for 56% of trials (24/43) and total disagreement for 21% (8/43). The standardised mean difference in quality of life was statistically significant among RCTs with low RoB and high PCTAT, but not for those with medium/low PCTAT or high/unclear RoB. Quality of reporting improved over time, whereas RoB did not.
Conclusion: Although there was fair agreement between tools, areas of disagreement/non-comparability suggest the tools capture different aspects of bias/quality. A specific tool to evaluate quality of palliative care trials may be warranted.
Background: Evaluating the need for palliative care and predicting its mortality play important roles in the emergency department.
Aim: We developed a screening model for predicting 1-year mortality.
Design: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with 1-year mortality. Our risk scores based on these significant risk factors were then developed. Its predictive validity performance was evaluated using area under receiving operating characteristic analysis and leave-one-out cross-validation.
Setting and participants: Patients aged 15 years or older were enrolled from June 2015 to May 2016 in the emergency department.
Results: We identified five independent risk factors, each of which was assigned a number of points proportional to its estimated regression coefficient: age (0.05 points per year), qSOFA >= 2 (1), Cancer (4), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status score >= 2 (2), and Do-Not-Resuscitate status (3). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of our screening tool given the cutoff larger than 3 points were 0.99 (0.98–0.99), 0.31 (0.29–0.32), 0.26 (0.24–0.27), and 0.99 (0.98–1.00), respectively. Those with screening scores larger than 9 points corresponding to 64.0% (60.0–67.9%) of 1-year mortality were prioritized for consultation and communication. The area under the receiving operating characteristic curves for the point system was 0.84 (0.83–0.85) for the cross-validation model.
Conclusions: A-qCPR risk scores provide a good screening tool for assessing patient prognosis. Routine screening for end-of-life using this tool plays an important role in early and efficient physician-patient communications regarding hospice and palliative needs in the emergency department.
New public health approaches to palliative care highlight the role of communities in care, yet there is little evidence of studies on community-led initiatives in the palliative care context. Therefore, the aim of this study, which took place in Auckland, New Zealand, was to (1) explore Pacific family carers’ views on what they need to feel supported as they care for older family members at the end of life and (2) to devise a resource that reflects their views that may be used to raise community awareness about these needs. This was achieved using a Participatory Action Research (PAR) framework in which a focus group was carried out and a work group formed to implement the focus group’s recommendations that were informed by a thematic analysis of the focus group data. The analysis resulted in the foregrounding of four themes, with the focus of this paper being on the 4th theme, the centrality of spirituality for a group of Pacific caregivers. This emphasis was chosen due to it being an underexplored topic in the palliative care literature. Co-creating resources based on research with community members allows for the development of tailored approaches of significance to that community, in this instance, a music video.
BACKGROUND: The need for improving knowledge and practice of palliative care delivered by health workers become an agenda in several countries. In order to measure the practice, an instrument is needed. The study analyzed the validity and reliability of the instrument to assess the physician's practice in the management of patients with terminal diseases.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 89 physicians practicing in primary health care. The instrument of practice has been developed and resulted 5 domains consist of 20 items. An overview of reliability, construct validity, uni-dimensionality, and hierarchy of the person-items of the instrument were analyzed using Rasch Model.
RESULTS: The reliability of the instrument is excellent with a person measure reliability of 0.85 and the item measure reliability of 0.96. Construct validity is confirmed with the MNSQ outfit values in the range of 0.54 to 1.59 and Pt Measure Corr. values in the range of 0.31 to 0.8. This instrument has a value of more than 20% unidimensionality which indicates the level of independence for items is good.
CONCLUSION: The instrument has good validity and reliability to assess physician's practice in the management of patients with terminal disease.
Context: The unmet needs of patients with advanced disease are indicative of the patient centredness of healthcare. By tracking unmet needs in clinical practice, palliative interventions are aligned with patient priorities, and clinicians receive support in intervention delivery decisions for patients with overlapping, complex needs.
Objective: Identify tools used in everyday clinical practice for the purpose of identifying and addressing unmet healthcare needs for patients with advanced disease.
Methods: We conducted PubMed and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature searches to include studies published between 1 January 2008 and 21 April 2020. Three concepts were used in constructing a search statement: (1) patient need, (2) validated instrument and (3) clinical practice. 2313 citations were reviewed according to predefined eligibility, exclusion and inclusion criteria. Data were collected from 17 tools in order to understand how instruments assess unmet need, who is involved in tool completion, the psychometric validation conducted, the tool’s relationship to delivering defined palliative interventions, and the number of palliative care domains covered.
Results: The majority of the 17 tools assessed unmet healthcare needs and had been validated. However, most did not link directly to clinical intervention, nor did they facilitate interaction between clinicians and patients to ensure a patient-reported view of unmet needs. Half of the tools reviewed covered =3 dimensions of palliative care. Of the 17 tools evaluated, 4 were compared in depth, but all were determined to be insufficient for the specific clinical applications sought in this research.
Conclusion: A new, validated tool is needed to track unmet healthcare needs and guide interventions for patients with advanced disease.
The purpose of this quality improvement initiative was to analyze how nurses record their workload in the GRASP Workload Measurement System and document the end-of-life nursing care provided to imminently dying patients. The analysis was done in conformity with the Comfort Measures Order Set in our hospital. Nursing documentation was examined (n = 4 patient records) covering 15 oncology nursing shifts. Nurses are expected to complete the GRASP tool after each shift for all the patients in their care. It is presumed that nurses' workload data will be reported accurately and reliably, as well as interrelate with their nursing documentation. Workload audits are conducted routinely to ensure accuracy. Interrater Reliability Monitoring was used to analyze the degree of agreement between the ratings performed on the audit of the completed GRASP tool and the nursing documentation on end-of-life care delivered. The GRASP compliance rate was 66.6% and GRASP-documentation accuracy rate was 60-70%. These observations were below the established target of 90%. The results provide insight regarding any gaps between documentation and GRASP at end of life.
Objectives: Palliative care (PC) has gained rising attention in a holistic treatment approach to chronic heart failure (HF). It is unclear whether there is a need for PC in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) patients or heart transplant recipients.
Methods: In a cross-sectional explorative pilot study, outpatients after heart transplantation (HTx, n = 69) or LVAD implantation (n = 21) underwent screening for palliative care (PC) need and evaluation of symptom burden and psychological distress using tools that emanated from palliative cancer care.
Results: The ‘Palliative Care Screening Tool for Heart Failure Patients’ revealed scores of 4.3 ± 2.2 in HTx and 6.0 ± 2.1 in LVAD patients (max. 12 points, P = 0.003), indicating the need for PC (=5 points) in 32% of HTx and 67% of LVAD patients. Symptom burden, as assessed by MIDOS (‘Minimal Documentation System for Palliative Care’) scores was substantial in both groups (4.9 ± 4.7 in HTx vs 6.6 ± 5.3 in LVAD, max. 30 points, P = 0.181). ‘Fatigue’, ‘weakness’ and ‘pain’ were the most frequent symptoms. Using the ‘Distress-Thermometer’, ‘clinically relevant’ distress was detected in 57% of HTx and 47% of LVAD patients (P = 0.445). In the PHQ-4 (‘4-Item Patient Health Questionnaire’), 45% of LVAD patients, compared to only 10% of HTx patients, reported mild symptoms of anxiety and depression.
Conclusions: Findings reveal substantial need for PC in LVAD patients and, to a lesser extent, in heart transplant recipients, suggesting that multi-disciplinary PC should be introduced into routine aftercare.
This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility and possible effects of the “PalliActive Caregivers,” nursing intervention, on the uncertainty in illness and quality of life of family caregivers of patients with cancer receiving palliative care. This pilot study used a randomized controlled design. The participants were 80 family caregivers. The experimental group received the novel “PalliActive Caregivers” intervention. Data were collected using a sociodemographic form, the Uncertainty in Illness Scale, the Quality of Life scale, and an Intervention satisfaction questionnaire. The caregivers who received the intervention “PalliActive Caregivers” reported a high degree of satisfaction (9.74 on a 10-point scale). The intervention showed a significant decrease in uncertainty regarding illness in the experimental group (P = .009), as well as a significant decrease in the psychological well-being of quality of life within the experimental and control groups, before and after the intervention (P = .013, P = .010). It is recommended that future studies using the “PalliActive Caregivers” intervention examine the effects on other variables such as the burden of patient's symptoms, caregiver burden and rewards, self-efficacy in symptom management, competence, unmet needs, and satisfaction with care.
OBJECTIVE: This is a pilot study with a primary goal to develop an effective, targeted educational intervention that can serve as a teaching tool to educate African American (AA) population, especially the elderly, on options of end of life (EOL) prior to critical care.
METHOD: We first assessed the level of preparation for EOL in the AA community through a survey instrument. The survey was used to determine the deficits in knowledge in AA population in Mid-Michigan regarding EOL choices before and after the educational intervention. Paired-sample t-test was used to assess changes in understanding about EOL planning options. Regressions analysis was used to assess these changes while including several demographic covariates. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: Our pilot data indicated that the educational intervention could be used as an effective teaching tool in educating AA population on EOL choices.
SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: AA patients are more likely to choose life-sustaining measures at the end of their lives compared to other ethnic groups despite terminal illness. This decision is partly based on lack of knowledge of the available options of care at the EOL. Due to multiple life-sustaining measures, the AA patients are not receiving the care to help them peacefully die. This study provides evidence that physicians will need to increase their educational efforts with the AA population to help them better understand EOL options. An educational tool like the one developed in this study may be helpful and lessen the time of education so that the physician can answer any questions at the end of the session and also empower individuals and communities to take an active role in creating a culture of wellness at the EOL and decreasing morbidity.
BACKGROUND: The Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool intervention (CSNAT-I) has been shown to improve end-of-life care support for informal caregivers. This study investigated the impact of the CSNAT-I on caregivers of patients recently enrolled in specialised palliative care (SPC) at home in Denmark.
METHODS: A stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial with nine clusters (ie, SPC teams). Outcome measures were collected using caregiver questionnaires at baseline (T0) and 2-week (T1) and 4-week (T2) follow-up.
RESULTS: A total of 437 caregivers were enrolled (control group, n=255; intervention group, n=182). No intervention effect was found on the primary outcome, caregiver strain at T1 (p=0.1865). However, positive effects were found at T1 and T2 on attention to caregivers' well-being (p<0.0001), quality of information and communication (p<0.0001), amount of information (T1: p=0.0002; T2: p<0.0001), involvement (T1: p=0.0045; T2: p<0.0001), talking about greatest burdens (p<0.0001) and assistance in managing greatest burdens (p<0.0001). The effect sizes of these differences were medium or large and seemed to increase from T1 to T2. At T1, positive effects were found on distress (p=0.0178) and home care responsibility (p=0.0024). No effect was found on the remaining outcomes.
CONCLUSION: Although no effect was found on caregiver strain, the CSNAT-I showed positive effects on caregiver distress, home care responsibility and key outcomes regarding caregivers' experience of the interaction with healthcare professionals.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03466580.
Nurses conduct physical and psychosocial assessments during admissions to healthcare facilities. Patients rely upon nurses to provide support and education during their journey, from periods of health decline to states of optimal wellness. Therefore, nurses are an ideal population to assess spiritual health. The value and necessity of spiritual assessment were explored on an inpatient unit providing medical and palliative care to patients. Two spiritual assessment tools, comprised each of five items, were evaluated by nursing staff and patients. Spiritual Assessment Tool 1 used language that was unaffiliated with religion, nor a belief in God, and Spiritual Assessment Tool 2 used language affiliated with faith and belief in God.
BACKGROUND: Identification of people with deteriorating health is essential for quality patient-centred care and optimal management. The Supportive and Palliative Care Indicators Tool (SPICT) is a guide to identifying people with deteriorating health for care planning without incorporating a prognostic time frame.
OBJECTIVES: To improve renal nursing staff confidence in identifying patients approaching end-of-life and advocate for appropriate multidisciplinary care planning.
DESIGN: This pilot feasibility prospective cohort study conducted in the renal ward of a major metropolitan health service during 2019 included a preintervention/postintervention survey questionnaire. A programme of education was implemented training staff to recognise end-of-life and facilitate appropriate care planning.
RESULTS: Several domains in the postintervention survey demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in renal nurses' perception of confidence in their ability to recognise end of life. Of the 210 patients admitted during the study period, 16% were recognised as SPICT positive triggering renal physicians to initiate discussions about end-of-life care planning with patients and their families and to document a plan. Six months poststudy, 72% of those patients recognised as SPICT positive had died with a documented plan of care in place.
CONCLUSION: The use of SPICT for hospital admissions and the application of education in topics related to end-of-life care resulted in a significant improvement in nurses' confidence in recognising deteriorating and frail patients approaching their end of life. The use of this tool also increased the number of deteriorating patients approaching end of life with goals of care documented.
OBJECTIVE: No prior studies have used a single sample of bereaved families of cancer patients to compare multiple scales for assessing Complicated Grief. Here, we compare the two measures.
METHODS: We sent a questionnaire to the bereaved families of cancer patients who had died at 71 palliative care units nationwide.
RESULTS: The analysis included 3173 returned questionnaires. Prevalence of Complicated Grief was 7.8% by Brief Grief Questionnaire (with a cutoff score of 8) and 15.5% for Inventory of Complicated Grief (with a cutoff score of 26). The Spearman's correlation coefficient between the Brief Grief Questionnaire and the Inventory of Complicated Grief was 0.79, and a ceiling effect was seen for the distribution of the Brief Grief Questionnaire scores. Although 6.4% of respondents scored both 8 or higher on the Brief Grief Questionnaire and 26 or higher on the Inventory of Complicated Grief, only 1.4% scored both 8 or higher on the Brief Grief Questionnaire and <26 on the Inventory of Complicated Grief. In contrast, 9.1% scored <8 on the Brief Grief Questionnaire but 26 or higher on the Inventory of Complicated Grief.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of Complicated Grief was estimated to be higher by the Inventory of Complicated Grief than by the Brief Grief Questionnaire in this sample. Patients with severe Complicated Grief might be difficult to discriminate their intensity of grief by the Brief Grief Questionnaire. Once the diagnostic criteria of Complicated Grief are established, further research, such as optimization of cutoff points and calculations of sensitivity and specificity, will be necessary.
BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) have limited treatment options and have a deteriorated quality of life with an uncertain prognosis. Early identification of ESLD patients with a poor prognosis is valuable, especially for palliative care. However, it is difficult to predict ESLD patients that require either acute care or palliative care.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to create a machine-learning monitoring system that can predict mortality or classify ESLD patients. Several machine-learning models with visualized graphs, decision trees, ensemble learning, and clustering were assessed.
METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using electronic medical records of patients from Wan Fang Hospital and Taipei Medical University Hospital. A total of 1214 patients from Wan Fang Hospital were used to establish a dataset for training and 689 patients from Taipei Medical University Hospital were used as a validation set.
RESULTS: The overall mortality rate of patients in the training set and validation set was 28.3% (257/907) and 22.6% (145/643), respectively. In traditional clinical scoring models, prothrombin time-international normalized ratio, which was significant in the Cox regression (P<.001, hazard ratio 1.288), had a prominent influence on predicting mortality, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve reached approximately 0.75. In supervised machine-learning models, the concordance statistic of ROC curves reached 0.852 for the random forest model and reached 0.833 for the adaptive boosting model. Blood urea nitrogen, bilirubin, and sodium were regarded as critical factors for predicting mortality. Creatinine, hemoglobin, and albumin were also significant mortality predictors. In unsupervised learning models, hierarchical clustering analysis could accurately group acute death patients and palliative care patients into different clusters from patients in the survival group.
CONCLUSIONS: Medical artificial intelligence has become a cutting-edge tool in clinical medicine, as it has been found to have predictive ability in several diseases. The machine-learning monitoring system developed in this study involves multifaceted analyses, which include various aspects for evaluation and diagnosis. This strength makes the clinical results more objective and reliable. Moreover, the visualized interface in this system offers more intelligible outcomes. Therefore, this machine-learning monitoring system provides a comprehensive approach for assessing patient condition, and may help to classify acute death patients and palliative care patients. Upon further validation and improvement, the system may be used to help physicians in the management of ESLD patients.
BACKGROUND: A recent randomized trial of bereaved family members of patients who died in an intensive care unit identified symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress in recipients of semistructured condolence letters.
OBJECTIVES: To explore family member and clinician experiences with receiving or sending handwritten sympathy cards upon the death of patients involved in a personalized end-of-life intervention, the 3 Wishes Project.
METHODS: Interviews and focus groups were held with 171 family members and 222 clinicians at 4 centers to discuss their experiences with the 3 Wishes Project. Interview transcripts were searched to identify participants who discussed sympathy cards. Data related to sympathy cards were independently coded by 2 investigators through conventional content analysis.
RESULTS: Sympathy cards were discussed during 32 interviews (by 25 family members of 21 patients and by 11 clinicians) and 2 focus groups (8 other clinicians). Family members reported that personalized sympathy cards were a welcome surprise; they experienced them as a heartfelt act of compassion. Clinicians viewed cards as an opportunity to express shared humanity with families, reminding them that they and their loved one were not forgotten. Signing cards allowed clinicians to reminisce individually and collectively with colleagues. Family members and clinicians experienced sympathy cards as a meaningful continuation of care after a patient's death.
CONCLUSIONS: Inviting clinicians who cared for deceased patients to offer personalized, handwritten condolences to bereaved family members may cultivate sincere and individualized expressions of sympathy that bereaved families appreciate after the death of patients involved in the 3 Wishes Project.
Background: The predictive value of the prognostic tool for patients with advanced cancer is uncertain in mainland China, especially in the home-based palliative care (HPC) setting. This study aimed to compare the accuracy of the Palliative Prognostic Index (PPI), the Performance Status–Based Palliative Prognostic Index (PS-PPI), and the Chinese Prognosis Scale (ChPS) for patients with advanced cancer in the HPC setting in mainland China.
Methods: Patients with advanced cancer admitted to the hospice center of Yuebei People’s Hospital between January 2014 and December 2018 were retrospectively calculated the scores according to the three prognostic tools. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare survival times among different risk groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to assess the predictive value. The accuracy of 21-, 42- and 90-day survival was compared among the three prognostic tools.
Results: A total of 1863 patients were included. Survival time among the risk groups of all prognostic tools was significantly different from each other except for the PPI. The AUROC of the ChPS was significantly higher than that of the PPI and PS-PPI for 7-, 14, 21-, 42-, 90-, 120-, 150- and 180-day survival (P < 0.05). The AUROC of the PPI and PS-PPI were not significantly different from each other (P > 0.05).
Conclusions: The ChPS is more suitable than the PPI and PS-PPI for advanced cancer patients in the HPC setting. More researches are needed to verify the predictive value of the ChPS, PPI, and PS-PPI in the HPC setting in the future.