This study aimed to identify the relationships of perception of hospice and palliative care with emotional intelligence and cognitive empathy in nursing students. The participants were 458 nursing students. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and analyzed with Pearson correlation coefficients, independent-samples t test, and binary logistic regression. Perception of hospice and palliative care was significantly and positively correlated with emotional intelligence (r = 0.224, P < .001) and cognitive empathy (r = 0.311, P < .001). Mean score differences of perception of hospice and palliative care by emotional intelligence and cognitive empathy were statistically significant (t = -3.973, P < .001; t = -4.109, P < .001, respectively). Logistic regression yielded an odds ratio of 1.860 (P < .001; 95% confidence interval, 1.283-2.698) between the perception of hospice and palliative care and emotional intelligence and an odds ratio of 2.028 (P < .001; 95% confidence interval, 1.394–2.951) between the perception of hospice and palliative care and cognitive empathy. Emotional intelligence and cognitive empathy should be cultivated to raise nursing students' perception of hospice and palliative care and must be included when developing related curricula and extracurricular programs.
OBJECTIVE: Quality end-of-life (EOL) care is critical for dying residents and their family/friend caregivers. While best practices to support resident comfort at EOL in long-term care (LTC) homes are emerging, research rarely explores if and how the type of care received at EOL may contribute to caregivers' perceptions of a good death. To address this gap, this study explored how care practices at EOL contributed to caregivers' perceptions of a good resident death.
METHOD: This study used a retrospective cross-sectional survey design. Seventy-eight participants whose relative or friend died in one of five LTC homes in Canada completed self-administered questionnaires on their perceptions of EOL care and perceptions of a good resident death.
RESULTS: Overall, caregivers reported positive experiences with EOL care and perceived residents to have died a good death. However, communication regarding what to expect in the final days of life and attention to spiritual issues were often missing components of care. Further, when explored alongside direct resident care, family support, and rooming conditions, staff communication was the only aspect of EOL care significantly associated with caregivers' perceptions of a good resident death.
SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: The findings of this study suggest that the critical role staff in LTC play in supporting caregivers' perceptions of a good resident death. By keeping caregivers informed about expectations at the very end of life, staff can enhance caregivers' perceptions of a good resident death. Further, by addressing spiritual issues staff may improve caregivers' perceptions that residents were at peace when they died.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the perception of attending physicians, medical residents, and undergraduate medical students about death and dying, the end of life (EoL), and palliative care (PC) during training and clinical practice, highlighting knowledge gaps, and the changes needed in medical school curricula.
METHOD: Cross-sectional study of 12 attending physicians, residents, and undergraduate medical students randomly selected from a single teaching hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, 2018. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, transcripts were coded in depth, and categorizing analysis was carried out.
RESULTS: Three topical categories were recognized: Negative feelings about death and the EoL, importance of PC, and gaps in curricular structure hindering preparedness for PC and EoL communication. Besides differing perspectives depending on their years of experience, all participants strongly endorsed that the current medical school curriculum does not train and support physicians to handle EoL and PC.
CONCLUSIONS: Medical education plays a fundamental role in the development of knowledge and skills on death, dying, and PC. Such practices should extend throughout the course and be continuously improved after graduates move to clinical practice.
Accompanied suicide is a controversial topic with varying practice across Europe; therefore, there is very little guidance on how healthcare professionals should be educated on accompanied suicide. This study implemented an anonymous, cross-sectional online survey to discover the perceptions of final-year MPharm students on accompanied suicide and the factors affecting one’s views, with the aim of investigating the knowledge, awareness and opinions of pharmacy students regarding accompanied suicide, as well as education to pharmacy students. Surveys were disseminated to final-year pharmacy students at Kingston University between January and March 2019. The survey comprised of three sections: Section A consisting of definitions – to determine knowledge of pharmacy students. Section B including case studies – to understand the opinions of pharmacy students and identify influential patient factors. Section C involving demographics – to discover the influential participant factors. An ethics application was submitted and approved prior to conducting this study. The data yielded a total of 111 responses out of a possible 139 (80% response rate); 77.5% participants were unable to correctly define each term given, with many also agreeing their lack of knowledge affected their views. Overall, most pharmacy students disagreed with accompanied suicide, regardless of the patient factors. Additionally, religious participants were more likely to disagree with the patient request (p < 0.03). Three recommendations were concluded to improve the education of pharmacy students: (1) an approved medical organisation to specifically define terminology, (2) include accompanied suicide in the pharmacy syllabus and (3) include lesser known terminal illnesses on the pharmacy syllabus.
Background: Family meetings are often conducted in palliative care, but there is no universal agreed or accepted model. A new model of Patient-Centered Family Meetings is proposed whereby the patient sets the agenda.
Aim: To seek palliative care clinicians' perceptions and experiences of Patient-Centered Family Meetings (“Meetings”) and their acceptability and feasibility in the inpatient specialist palliative care setting.
Design: A qualitative study used semistructured interviews. Theoretical and procedural direction was taken from grounded theory with thematic content analysis using the constant comparative method.
Setting/Participants: Interviews were conducted with clinicians (n = 10) at the intervention site who had participated in a Meeting.
Results: Four themes were identified: (1) a patient-set agenda gives patients a “voice”; (2) a patient-set agenda and the Meeting model enhances clinicians' understanding of patients and families; (3) the Meeting model was perceived to be acceptable; and (4) the Meeting model was perceived to be only feasible for selected patients.
Conclusion: Clinicians perceived that a patient-set meeting agenda with defined questions enhanced their knowledge of the patient's issues and their understanding of the patient and their family's needs. The patients' most important issues often differed from the clinicians' expectations of what might be important to individual patients. There were contrasting views about the acceptability and feasibility of these Meetings as standard practice due to clinician time constraints and the Meeting not being required or relevant to all patients. Given the perceived benefits, the identification of patients and families who would most benefit is an important research priority.
CONTEXT: There has been a growing consensus that parenteral nutrition and hydration is to be forgone in terminally ill patients with cancer. However, it remains unclear what the beliefs and perceptions of parenteral nutrition and hydration by the family members are.
OBJECTIVES: To clarify their beliefs and perceptions and to examine the relationships between the factors of family members, their beliefs and perceptions, and their overall satisfaction with the care the patient received at the place of death.
METHODS: This study was performed as a part of the cross-sectional anonymous nationwide survey of the bereaved family members of cancer patients in Japan.
RESULTS: In total, 1001 questionnaires were sent and 610 were returned. Among these, 499 were analyzed. Regarding the prevalence of beliefs and perceptions about parenteral nutrition and hydration, 'When a patient cannot eat enough, parenteral hydration is needed' was the highest (87.7%), followed by 'The opinions of medical staff are important in the issue of parenteral nutrition and hydration', 'Parenteral hydration serves as a substitute for oral hydration', and 'If I were a patient and could not eat enough, parenteral hydration would be needed' (85.1, 81.0, and 80.0%, respectively). We extracted two concepts as follows: 'Belief that parenteral nutrition and hydration are beneficial' and 'Perceived need for parenteral nutrition and hydration'. They were not identified as independent determinants of overall care satisfaction.
CONCLUSION: This study showed that beliefs and perceptions about parenteral nutrition and hydration were important in the family members in palliative care.
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in medical care, pediatric deaths are still an unfortunate reality. Most of these deaths occur within a hospital setting. End-of-life care is an important part of medical care for children with serious illnesses. Despite the importance, pediatric providers report a lack of comfort surrounding end-of-life care.
OBJECTIVE: To assess categorical pediatric residents' perceptions and participation in providing end-of-life care to dying children and their families.
STUDY DESIGN: This is a survey-based, descriptive, mixed-methods study. Survey was sent to categorical pediatric residents at Indiana University School of Medicine in June 2018 to obtain both quantitative and qualitative information on resident perception and participation in end-of-life care. Surveys were sent to 100 residents with a response rate of 68%.
SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Pediatric residents at Indiana University School of Medicine.
RESULTS: The comfort and participation in end-of-life care are limited in all levels of pediatric training. Residents do not feel comfortable with 19 of 22 questions related to end-of-life care. Only 32% of residents felt their education prepared them to participate in end-of-life care. Almost one-fifth (19.5%) of residents report participating in zero aspect of end-of-life care. Themes discussed by residents include education, experience, communication, social norms, emotions, self-care, comfort, and family.
CONCLUSION: More formalized education and training is needed to increase resident comfort with and participation in end-of-life care. Such future interventions should focus on communication surrounding difficult conversations and providing guidance for families.
This study was conducted to determine neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) nurses' opinions about the palliative care needs of neonates with multiple congenital anomalies. The study sample consisted of the 20 nurses who agreed to participate in the study and worked in the NICU between November and December 2017. A one-to-one interview method was utilized using a semistructured interview form. Written consent was obtained from participants and reconfirmed verbally prior to data collection. In the study, most of the nurses stated that the therapeutic medical treatment should not be started for dying neonates with multiple congenital anomalies. It was also found that nurses did not have enough palliative care knowledge for neonates. The palliative care needs of the neonates with multiple congenital anomalies in NICUs were found to be pain management, infection care, enhancing quality of life by avoiding unnecessary medical practices, skin care, the care of the baby in the ventilator, timely application of the treatment of neonates, and supporting family.
As the population of chronically ill, older adults increases, there is a growing need for palliative care. The Institute of Medicine recommends that health care providers have a basic competency in palliative care. However, the definition of basic palliative care in practice and providers' understanding of basic palliative care lack clarity. The purpose of this study was to describe nurses' perceptions of basic palliative care in the acute care setting. This was accomplished by conducting focus group and individual interviews. The major themes of helping families navigate chronic illness and empowering families and subthemes of being present, giving options, and advocating emerged from the analysis. Through education and role modeling, nurses helped families navigate illness and end-of-life experiences. Study findings describe acute care nurses' perceptions of basic palliative care and may help to identify the educational needs of nurses in order to provide basic palliative care for patients and their families in acute care settings.
Background: The prevalence of undertreated cancer pain remains high. Suboptimal pain control affects quality of life and results in psychological and emotional distress. Barriers to adequate pain control include fear of opioid dependence and its side effects.
Aim: To investigate the attitudes and perceptions of morphine use in cancer pain in advanced cancer patients and their caregivers and to examine the influence of caregivers’ attitudes and perceptions on patients’ acceptance of morphine.
Design: Qualitative study involving semi-structured individual interviews transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically.
Setting/Participants: A total of 18 adult opioid-naïve patients with advanced cancer and 13 caregivers (n = 31) were recruited at a private tertiary hospital via convenience sampling.
Results: Attitudes and perceptions of morphine were influenced by previous experiences. Prevalent themes were similar in both groups, including perceptions that morphine was a strong analgesic that reduced suffering, but associated with end-stage illness and dependence. Most participants were open to future morphine use for comfort and effective pain control. Trust in doctors’ recommendations was also an important factor. However, many preferred morphine as a last resort because of concerns about side effects and dependence, and the perception that morphine was only used at the terminal stage. Caregivers’ attitudes toward morphine did not affect patients’ acceptance of morphine use.
Conclusion: Most participants were open to future morphine use despite negative perceptions as they prioritized optimal pain control and reduction of suffering. Focused education programs addressing morphine misperceptions might increase patient and caregiver acceptance of opioid analgesics and improve cancer pain control.
BACKGROUND: The use of Do-Not-Resuscitate (DNR) orders has increased but many are placed late in the dying process. This study is to determine the association between the timing of DNR order placement in the intensive care unit (ICU) and nurses' perceptions of patients' distress and quality of death.
METHODS: 200 ICU patients and the nurses (n = 83) who took care of them during their last week of life were enrolled from the medical ICU and cardiac care unit of New York Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medicine in Manhattan and the surgical ICU at the Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston. Nurses were interviewed about their perceptions of the patients' quality of death using validated measures. Patients were divided into 3 groups-no DNR, early DNR, late DNR placement during the patient's final ICU stay. Logistic regression analyses modeled perceived patient quality of life as a function of timing of DNR order placement. Patient's comorbidities, length of ICU stay, and procedures were also included in the model.
RESULTS: 59 patients (29.5%) had a DNR placed within 48 hours of ICU admission (early DNR), 110 (55%) placed after 48 hours of ICU admission (late DNR), and 31 (15.5%) had no DNR order placed. Compared to patients without DNR orders, those with an early but not late DNR order placement had significantly fewer non-beneficial procedures and lower odds of being rated by nurses as not being at peace (Adjusted Odds Ratio namely AOR = 0.30; [CI = 0.09-0.94]), and experiencing worst possible death (AOR = 0.31; [CI = 0.1-0.94]) before controlling for procedures; and consistent significance in severe suffering (AOR = 0.34; [CI = 0.12-0.96]), and experiencing a severe loss of dignity (AOR = 0.33; [CI = 0.12-0.94]), controlling for non-beneficial procedures.
CONCLUSIONS: Placement of DNR orders within the first 48 hours of the terminal ICU admission was associated with fewer non-beneficial procedures and less perceived suffering and loss of dignity, lower odds of being not at peace and of having the worst possible death.
BACKGROUND, AIM, AND HYPOTHESIS: This randomized controlled trial aimed to compare the impact of a physician's attire on the perceptions of patients with cancer of compassion, professionalism, and physician preference. Our hypothesis was that patients would perceive the physician with formal attire as more compassionate than the physician wearing casual attire.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred five adult follow-up patients with advanced cancer were randomized to watch two standardized, 3-minute video vignettes with the same script, depicting a routine physician-patient clinic encounter. Videos included a physician in formal attire with tie and buttoned-up white coat and casual attire without a tie or white coat. Actors, patients, and investigators were all blinded to the purpose and videos watched, respectively. After each video, patients completed validated questionnaires rating their perception of physician compassion, professionalism, and their overall preference for the physician.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences between formal and casual attire for compassion (median [interquartile range], 25 [10-31] vs. 20 [8-27]; p = .31) and professionalism (17 [13-21] vs. 18 [14-22]; p = .42). Thirty percent of patients preferred formal attire, 31% preferred casual attire, and 38% had no preference. Subgroup analysis did not show statistically significant differences among different cohorts of age, sex, marital status, and education level.
CONCLUSION: Doctors' attire did not affect the perceptions of patients with cancer of physician's level of compassion and professionalism, nor did it influence the patients' preference for their doctor or their trust and confidence in the doctor's ability to provide care. There is a need for more studies in this area of communications skills.
Clinical trial identification number. NCT03168763
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The significance of physician attire as a means of nonverbal communication has not been well characterized. It is an important element to consider, as patient preferences vary geographically, are influenced by cultural beliefs, and may vary based on particular care settings. Previous studies consisted of nonblinded surveys and found increasing confidence in physicians wearing a professional white coat. Unfortunately, there are no randomized controlled trials, to the authors' knowledge, to confirm the survey findings. In this randomized, blinded clinical trial the researchers found that physician's attire did not affect patients' perception of the physician's level of compassion and professionalism. Attire also did not influence the patients' preferences for their doctor or their trust and confidence in the doctor's ability to provide care.
BACKGROUND: Inpatient palliative care consultation (IPCC) teams have been established to improve care for patients with specialist palliative care (PC) needs throughout all hospital departments. The objective is to explore physicians' perceptions on the impact of IPCC, its triggers, challenges and limits, and their suggestions for future service improvements.
METHODS: A Qualitative study drawing on semi-structured interviews with 10 PC specialists of an IPCC team and nine IPCC requesting physicians from oncology and non-oncological departments of a university hospital. Analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis.
RESULTS: PC specialists and IPCC requesting physicians likewise considered organization of further care and symptom-burden as main reasons for IPCC requests. The main impact however was identified from both as improvement of patients' (and their caregivers') coping strategies and relief of the treating team. Mostly, PC specialists emphasized a reduction of symptom burden, and improvement of further care. Challenges in implementing IPCC were lack of time for both. PC specialists addressed requesting physicians' skepticism towards PC. Barriers for realization of IPCC included structural aspects for both: limited time, staff capacities and setting. PC specialists saw problems in implementing recommendations like disagreement towards their suggestions. All interviewees considered education in PC a sensible approach for improvement.
CONCLUSIONS: IPCC show various positive effects in supporting physicians and patients, but are also limited due to structural problems, lack of knowledge, insecurity, and skepticism by the requesting physicians. To overcome some of these challenges implementation of PC education programs for all physicians would be beneficial.
BACKGROUND: Legal dispositions for advance care planning (ACP) are available but used by a minority of older adults in Switzerland. Some studies found that knowledge of and perception of those dispositions are positively associated with their higher usage. The objective of the present study is to test the hypothesis of an association between increased knowledge of ACP dispositions and a more positive perception of them.
METHODS: Data collected in 2014 among 2125 Swiss community-dwellers aged 71 to 80 of the Lausanne cohort 65+ (Lc65+), a population-based longitudinal study on aging and frailty. Data collection was conducted through a questionnaire on knowledge, use and perception of lasting power of attorney, advance directives and designation of a health care proxy. Covariables were extracted from the Lc65+ database. Bivariable and multivariable regression analyses assessed the association between level of knowledge and perception.
RESULTS: Half the participants did not know about legal dispositions for ACP; filing rates were 14% for advance directives, 11% for health care proxy and 6% for lasting power of attorney. Level of knowledge about the dispositions was associated with a more positive perception of them, even when adjusting for confounding factors.
CONCLUSION: Although the direction of the association's causality needs more investigation, results indicate that better knowledge on ACP dispositions could improve the perception older people have of them. Communication on dispositions should take into account individual knowledge levels and address commonly enunciated barriers that seem to diminish with increased knowledge.
Spirituality and religion are at the core of Kenyan life. Pastoral leaders play a key role in shaping the individual and community's response to living with chronic and life-threatening illnesses. Involvement of religious leaders would therefore be critical in advocacy and education efforts in palliative care (PC) to address the needs of this population. The goal of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of religious leaders in Western Kenya regarding PC. This was a mixed-methods study with 86 religious leaders utilizing a 25-question survey followed by 5-person focus group discussions. Eighty-one percent of participants agreed that pastors should encourage members with life-threatening illnesses to talk about death and dying. However, almost a third of participants (29%) also agreed with the statement that full use of PC can hasten death. The pastors underscored challenges in end-of-life spiritual preparation as well as the importance of traditional beliefs in shaping cultural norms. Pastors supported the need for community-based PC education and additional training in PC for religious leaders. The results of this study confirm the dominant role of religion and spirituality in PC in Kenya. This dominant role in shaping PC is tied closely to Kenyan attitudes and norms surrounding death and dying.
The need for cultural understanding is particularly important in end-of-life (EOL) care planning as the use of EOL care in minority populations is disproportionately lower than those who identify as Caucasian. Data regarding the use of EOL care services by Native Hawaiians in Hawai'i and the United States is limited but expected to be similarly disproportionate as other minorities. In a population with a lower life expectancy and higher prevalence of deaths related to chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity, as compared to the state of Hawai'i as a whole, our objective was to review the current literature to understand the usage and perceptions of EOL care planning in the Native Hawaiian population. We searched ten electronic databases and after additional screening, seven articles were relevant to our research purpose. We concluded that limited data exists regarding EOL care use specifically in Native Hawaiians. The available literature highlighted the importance of understanding family and religion influences, educating staff on culturally appropriate EOL care communication, and the need for more research on the topic. The paucity of data in EOL care and decision-making in Native Hawaiians is concerning and it is evident this topic needs more study. From national statistics it looks as though this is another health disparate area that needs to be addressed and is especially relevant when considering the rapid increase in seniors in our population.
Objectives: To identify patient perceptions of how and when palliative care (PC) could complement usual heart failure (HF) management.
Background: Despite guidelines calling for the integration of PC into the management of HF, PC services remain underutilized by this population. Patient preferences regarding delivery of and triggers for PC are unknown.
Setting/subjects: Individuals with New York Heart Association Class II-IV disease were recruited from inpatient and outpatient settings at an academic quaternary care hospital.
Measurements: Participants completed semistructured interviews discussing perceptions, knowledge, and preferences regarding PC. They also addressed barriers and facilitators to PC delivery. Two investigators independently analyzed data using template analysis.
Results: We interviewed 27 adults with HF (mean age 63, 85% white, 63% male, 30% Class II, 48% Class III, and 22% Class IV). Participants frequently conflated PC with hospice; once corrected, they expressed variable preferences for primary versus specialist services. Proponents of primary PC cited continuity in care, HF-specific expertise, convenience, and cost, whereas advocates for specialist care highlighted expertise in symptom management and caregiver support, reduced time constraints, and a comprehensive approach to care. Triggers for specialist PC focused on late-stage manifestations of disease such as loss of independence and absence of disease-directed therapies.
Conclusions: Patients with HF demonstrated variable conceptions of PC and its relevance to their disease management. Although preferences for delivery model were based on a variety of logistical and relational factors, triggers for initiation remained focused on late-stage disease, suggesting that patients with HF may misconceive PC is an option of last resort.
BACKGROUND: Palliative care principles are known to support the experiences of children and their families throughout the illness trajectory. However, there is little knowledge of the parental perceptions of care delivered and gaps experienced by families receiving end-of-life care. We report the most helpful aspects of care provided during the end of life and identify opportunities to improve care delivery during this critical time.
METHODS: This study consists of 2 one-hour focus group sessions with 6 participants each facilitated by a clinical psychologist to explore the experiences of bereaved parents of pediatric oncology patients at the end of their child's life. The data were transcribed and coded using constant comparative analysis and evaluated for inter-rater reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient.
RESULTS: Four common themes were identified through qualitative analysis: (1) valued communication qualities, (2) valued provider qualities, (3) unmet needs, and (4) parental experiences. The most prevalent of these themes was unmet needs (mentioned 51 times). Subthemes were identified and evaluated. Parents described struggling with communication from providers, loss of control in the hospital environment, and challenges associated with transition of care to hospice services.
CONCLUSION: Interventions that support the complex needs of a family during end-of-life care are needed, especially with regard to coordination of care.
OBJECTIVE: Advance care planning (ACP) is a core quality measure in caring for individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) and there are no best practice standards for how to incorporate ACP into PD care. This study describes patient and care partner perspectives on ACP to inform a patient- and care partner-centered framework for clinical care.
METHODS: This is a qualitative descriptive study of 30 patients with PD and 30 care partners within a multisite, randomized clinical trial of neuropalliative care compared to standard care. Participants were individually interviewed about perspectives on ACP, including prior and current experiences, barriers to ACP, and suggestions for integration into care. Interviews were analyzed using theme analysis to identify key themes.
RESULTS: Four themes illustrate how patients and care partners perceive ACP as part of clinical care: (1) personal definitions of ACP vary in the context of PD; (2) patient, relationship, and health care system barriers exist to engaging in ACP; (3) care partners play an active role in ACP; (4) a palliative care approach positively influences ACP. Taken together, the themes support clinician initiation of ACP discussions and interdisciplinary approaches to help patients and care partners overcome barriers to ACP.
CONCLUSIONS: ACP in PD may be influenced by patient and care partner perceptions and misperceptions, symptoms of PD (e.g., apathy, cognitive dysfunction, disease severity), and models of clinical care. Optimal engagement of patients with PD and care partners in ACP should proactively address misperceptions of ACP and utilize clinic teams and workflow routines to incorporate ACP into regular care.
BACKGROUND: Futile care in the neuroscience intensive care unit (NSICU) can create moral distress for clinicians who may differ in their interpretation of the value of such care. We sought to compare the perception of provision of futile care in the NSICU among physicians, advanced practice providers, and intensive care unit registered nurses (ICURNs).
METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 77 patients. A standardized questionnaire was used to ask clinicians whether care being provided to NSICU patients admitted for more than 48 hours was futile and whether they would want that treatment for their loved one. Demographics, diagnosis, and reason for treatment futility were collected. Futility was analyzed independently and in an aggregate manner (yes/probable combined and no/probable combined).
RESULTS: The sample median age was 61 (SD, 17.179) years, men comprised 53% of the sample, and 68% were white. Collectively, there were 77 futile responses (33%), 136 nonfutile (59%), and 18 probable futile (8%). Physicians and nurse practitioners deemed futility in 36% of patients; ICURNs, in 27% (P < .05). Age, race, or diagnosis did not impact futility perception. The treatment was acceptable for a loved one in 53% of cases for physicians, 43% for advanced practice providers, and 48% for ICURNs (P < .05). Interobserver agreement for futility was 0.469 (CK), and pairwise agreement was 71%. Interobserver agreement for treatment acceptable for a loved one was 0.568 (CK), and pairwise agreement was 78%.
CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians consider NSICU care futile in one-third of patients, but correlation among them is moderate; no specific variable is associated with such perception.