Background: Family caregivers of advanced cancer patients are at risk for developing mental disorders. Despite this risk, the majority seem to adapt well, and throughout the caregiving period, their trajectory is characterised by healthy functioning. However, GPs struggle with making timely assessments of caregivers at risk for mental dysfunction, since they often fail to seek medical help for themselves and the appropriate research about resilience in cancer caregivers is scarce. Moreover, research is hampered by the lack of a universal definition or theoretical framework.
Aim: To propose a comprehensive definition and framework for further research in family caregiving for advanced cancer patients.
Method: Inspired by the hermeneutic methodology, reviews and concept analyses on resilience following a potentially traumatic event were searched and analysed. Conforming to the hermeneutic methodology, article collection from PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycInfo was followed by analysis and was stopped when saturation was reached. Elements consistently arising from the definitions of resilience were listed and the theoretical frameworks were compared.
Results: The APA definition: ‘resilience is the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma or threats’ and Bonanno’s framework ‘temporal elements of resilience’ are proposed.
Conclusion: There is a need for studies on resilience in caregivers of advanced cancer patients. Resilience is context-dependent, hence, study results cannot be transferred as such from one clinical situation to another. Furthermore, conceptual ambiguities hinder the interpretation and comparison of study results. For further research on resilience in caregivers of advanced cancer patients, we suggest the APA definition of resilience and Bonanno’s framework.
"Papa, Maman, Faustine, ne vous inquiétez pas pour moi, je n'ai pas peur. Prenez soin de vous. Je vous aime." Ces mots sont ceux d'Emilie. Elle les écrit lorsqu'elle apprend qu'après deux années de combat contre le cancer, plus aucun traitement ne peut prolonger sa vie. A travers ces quelques mots, elle donne une leçon de vie à sa famille et à ses proches : elle fait le choix d'être heureuse pendant le peu de temps qui lui reste à vivre.
Elle souhaite partager son enjouement, son courage et sa force avec ceux qui l'ont toujours aimée et soutenue. Jusqu'où ira-t-elle dans le combat qu'elle mène contre la maladie ? Comment vivra-t-elle ses derniers instants ? Ses proches réussiront-ils à accepter la situation et à surmonter cette douloureuse épreuve ?
Hospice volunteers are a high-risk group for anxiety and depression owing to their frequent exposure to patients at the end of life and their subsequent deaths. Resilience is known to be a powerful factor that affects the occurrence of anxiety and depression; however, research on this subject is scarce. We investigated the relationship of resilience with anxiety or depression in hospice volunteers. A total of 145 volunteers were included in the analysis. Participants completed self-reported scales, including the Korean version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Professional Quality of Life Scale version 5. Pearson correlation coefficients were analyzed to identify the relationship of compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue with anxiety or depression. A PROCESS macro mediation analysis was used to investigate the mediation effects of compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue on the relationship between resilience and anxiety or depression. There were significant associations of compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue with anxiety and depression. The relationship between resilience and anxiety/depression was mediated by compassion fatigue, which had indirect effects on anxiety and depression. Efforts to reduce compassion fatigue and increase resilience could help prevent anxiety and depression in hospice volunteers.
Lorsque son papi disparaît, Hugo se sent terriblement triste et perdu. Jamais plus il ne reverra son grand-père adoré... Mais une nuit, dans un rêve, le petit garçon retrouve son cher papi qui a quelque chose d'important à lui révéler. Un grand secret à propos d'une merveilleuse méduse, d'un hibou très bien vêtu et de l'amour qui, lui, ne meurt jamais.
Dans le vert feuillage de Grand-Pommier, vivent deux jeunes hiboux. L'un s'appelle Tibou, l'autre Brindille. Grand-Pommier veille sur eux depuis que leurs parents ont été tués par l'épervier.
Grand-Pommier, témoin de leur histoire, prend soin des deux petits hiboux et les aide à grandir, répond à leurs questions. Les deux petits hiboux parlent de leurs parents qui leur manquent, des dangers qu'ils courent à cause de l'épervier, de l'envie de s'envoler loin du nid. Beaucoup de sujets sont abordés pour apporter de multiples réponses aux petits lecteurs de ce livre.
Mamie Babka et Petite Ourse, deux voyageuses ourses, cheminent ensemble. Un jour, Mamie Babka s'allonge et dit qu'elle est arrivée. Petite Ourse la veille un moment et reprend son chemin, pousée par le vent (ou le souvenir de Mamie Babka ?) qui lui dit de continuer. Petite Ourse entend des rires et rencontre Oumi, autre ourse avec laquelle elle poursuit le chemin.
BACKGROUND: Providing care for patients with advanced cancer is often the responsibility of the partner. Being confronted with an incurable cancer diagnosis can be highly disruptive for the patient's partner and can be considered a potentially traumatic event. However, most caregivers seem to adapt well during the process of providing care. This finding is in line with the concept of resilience in literature: a dynamic process of adapting well, resulting from the interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic resources and risks. Resilience is age-related, with the elderly population being higher in resilience as compared to the younger generation. However, resilience has been understudied in middle-aged caregivers.
AIM: To explore what intrinsic and extrinsic resources facilitate or hamper resilience in the middle-aged partner of a patient with incurable cancer.
METHODS: Nine middle-aged partners of patients who died at home of cancer were selected and interviewed in depth within the first year following the death of their partner. A thematic analysis utilizing an inductive approach was conducted.
FINDINGS: Resilience was challenged by the partner's diagnosis of incurable cancer. All participants made use of a set of interacting, caregiver-specific and context-related resources, facilitating a resilient process and leading to positive feelings and even personal growth. The partners demonstrated individual competences: adaptive flexibility, positivism, a sense of self-initiative and adaptive dependency. Furthermore, they relied on their context: cancer-related professionals and relatives. Context and situation interact continuously. The resulting dynamics were based on the context-availability, meaningful relationships and the patient's role.
CONCLUSION: A resilient trajectory results from an interplay between individual and contextual resources. To build resilience in middle-aged partners of patients with incurable cancer, health care professionals should address all available resources. Moreover, they should be aware of being part of the caregiver's context, a complex adaptive system that can be either resilience-supporting or -threatening.
Working with terminally ill patients is regarded as a stressful or traumatic event and may lead to negative outcomes, including job burnout and secondary traumatic stress (STS). Psychological resilience might protect employees from the negative consequences of stress. The aim of this study was to determine the mediating role of job burnout in the relationship between psychological resilience and STS. The study included 72 nurses aged from 22 to 72 years old (M = 46.01, SD = 10.69), working with terminally ill patients. The recipients completed 3 questionnaires: the Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale, the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, and the Resilience Measurement. The results reveal negative associations between resilience, job burnout, and secondary traumatic stress, and a positive correlation between secondary traumatic stress and job burnout. Mediation analysis showed that job burnout plays a mediating role in the relationship between psychological resilience and secondary traumatic stress. Our findings highlight the role played by job burnout in the manifestation of STS. Professional and nonprofessional interventions for individuals experiencing work-related traumatic stress would benefit from interventions that build personal resources.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Family caregivers of patients with cancer often spend a great deal of effort on physically and emotionally demanding work while taking care of patients. However, the majority of caregivers are not properly equipped for their role as caregivers, which may lead to increased distress in both caregivers and patients. Herein, we reviewed the recent literature (last 3 years) examining online interventions that seek to support caregiver resilience and decrease distress.
RECENT FINDINGS: Our search identified interventions involving three main themes: informational support, positive activities, and social support. These are mostly in the form of web-based tools and mobile apps targeting both usability and quality of life. Social network services are also considered in this review as a new environment for caregivers to connect with other individuals with lived experience in similar circumstances.
SUMMARY: Existing studies on online interventions to support caregivers is still at a formative development stage and pilot tests of feasibility, rather than a substantive body of randomized controlled trials to assess the impact in different user populations, or to determine specific factors that impact caregiver distress level or resilience. More research is needed to further assess the long-term effects of online interventions on caregiver stress and resilience. Also, the role of different types of social network services and new forms of interaction, such as conversational agents, has not yet been fully investigated in caregiver populations. Future research should strive to seek new modes of providing services that may present novel opportunities to enhance caregiver resilience and reduce distress.
BACKGROUND: Resilience is a multidimensional construct that explains why people facing the consequences of adversity and stress can have a positive outcome, emphasizing adjustment to experiences that are perceived as threatening.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to review the construct of resilience and associated variables in caregivers of patients with chronic, advanced illness and at the end of life.
METHODS: The review included studies published between January 2009 and January 2019, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guide reporting. The Medline, ScienceDirect, HINARI, PsychINFO, and SciELO databases were used for bibliographic exploration to identify research studies that examined the impact of resilience on adaptation and overall well-being in caregivers of patients with chronic and advanced illness.
RESULTS: A total of 23 quantitative and qualitative studies were identified whose aim was to describe the role of resilience in adaptation and coping in caregivers. In these studies, resilience was associated with a positive impact on the quality of life and emotional distress. Communication and social support increase resilient coping strategies. In most selected articles, the sampling strategy used was convenience sampling. Data collection used evaluation scales related to resilience and associated variables for quantitative studies, and semistructured interviews were used for qualitative studies.
CONCLUSION: Promoting a resilient coping style in caregivers reduces the distress that normally results from illness-related changes in the biopsychosocial and spiritual dimensions. A resilient coping style can diminish the risk of stress and burden, and promote adaptation in the caregiver.
PURPOSE: Exposure to end-of-life and chronic illness on a daily basis may put palliative healthcare professionals' well-being at risk. Resilience may represent a protective factor against stressful and demanding challenges. Therefore, the aim is to systematically review the quantitative studies on resilience in healthcare professionals providing palliative care to adult patients.
METHODS: A literature search on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and PsycINFO databases was performed. The review process has followed the international PRISMA statement guidelines.
RESULTS: At the initial search, a total of 381 records were identified. Twelve articles were assessed for eligibility and, finally, 6 studies met all the inclusion criteria. Of these, four researches were observational and two interventional pilot studies. From the systematic synthesis, palliative care providers' resilience revealed to be related to other psychological constructs, including secondary traumatic stress, vicarious posttraumatic growth, death anxiety, burnout, compassion satisfaction, hope and perspective taking.
CONCLUSIONS: The current systematic review reported informative data leading to consider resilience as a process modulator and facilitator among palliative care professionals. A model on palliative healthcare providers' experience and the role of resilience was proposed. Further studies may lead to its validation and implementation in assessment and intervention contributing to foster palliative healthcare professionals' well-being.
Background: The “Promoting Resilience in Stress Management” intervention is a skills-based, early palliative care intervention with demonstrated efficacy in adolescents and young adults with cancer.
Aim: Utilizing data from a randomized clinical trial of Promoting Resilience in Stress Management versus Usual Care, we examined whether response to Promoting Resilience in Stress Management differed across key sociodemographic characteristics.
Design: Adolescents and young adults with cancer completed patient-reported outcome measures of resilience, hope, benefit-finding, quality of life, and distress at enrollment and 6 months. Participants were stratified by sex, age, race, and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage based on home address (Area Deprivation Index scores with 8–10 = most disadvantaged). Differences in the magnitude of effect sizes between stratification subgroups were noted using a conservative cutoff of d > 0.5.
Setting/participants: participants were 12 to 25 years old, English-speaking, and receiving cancer care at Seattle Children’s Hospital.
Results: In total, 92 adolescents and young adults (48 Promoting Resilience in Stress Management, 44 Usual Care) completed baseline measures. They were 43% female, 73% 12 to 17 years old, 64% White, and 24% most disadvantaged. Effect sizes stratified by sex, age, and race were in an expected positive direction and of similar magnitude for the majority of outcomes with some exceptions in magnitude of treatment effect. Those who lived in less disadvantaged neighborhoods benefited more from Promoting Resilience in Stress Management, and those living in most disadvantaged neighborhoods benefited less.
Conclusion: The “Promoting Resilience in Stress Management” intervention demonstrated a positive effect for the majority of outcomes regardless of sex, age, and race. It may not be as helpful for adolescents and young adults living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Future studies must confirm its generalizability and integrate opportunities for improvement by targeting individual needs.
Restorative retelling (RR) is an evidence-based procedure for facilitating adaptation following traumatic bereavement. In this paper, we introduce performative retelling (PR), a variation on RR, which fosters healing from personal losses and portrays personal reactions to collective tragedy. We describe our collaboration with an ex-offender reentry program, the Memphis Police Department, and Playback Theatre to use improvisational community theatre to bridge the gap between law enforcement and the citizens they serve. We review program outcomes to-date and illustrate its impact using participant stories. We argue that training police and citizens in PR can potentially transform broken narratives of police-community relations.
This article chronicles the process of reducing the 10 week restorative retelling (RR) group model (Rynearson & Correa, Accommodation to violent dying: A guide to restorative retelling and support, Violent Death Bereavement Society, 2006) into a 3 day retreat for families of homicide loss. Strategies used to address the intensity of the condensed version of the treatment model are described for both the participants and treatment team. The twists and turns of how the therapeutic retreat unfolded are presented through case examples. The authors explicate the risks and rewards of conducting the RR model at speed, identify the challenges they faced, and give impressions for overall treatment efficacy.
Reenactment imagery that remains fixating after violent dying is associated with diminished psychological resilience. The nonresilient teller struggles to maintain an integrative orientation within the recounting. Reestablishing the resilient capacities of pacification (mastery of terror through self-calming), partition (mastery of intrusive thoughts through self-differentiation), and perspective (mastery of self-determination through self-transcendence) is an important preparatory goal with intervention. Without these resilient capacities, premature exposure increases the risk that patients will experience a dysfunctional merger with the possessive reenactment representation. A preliminary model of resilient “offenses” to be reinforced in the traumatized subject as a first stage of intervention is presented.
Un Prince vient se réfugier au fin fond de la forêt. Il est désespéré de tristesse, de honte et de culpabilité de ne pas avoir été là quand tous ses amis et sa famille se sont faits tuer par leurs ennemis. Il ne peut plus parler, le coeur débordant de chagrin. Le chant d'un grand oiseau va le consoler et lui redonner le goût de la vie.
Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Korea. However, there has been no previous nursing literature review on the phenomenon of resilience among cancer patients in Korea. The purpose of this study was to identify information about theories, instruments, correlates, and outcomes of resilience in the cancer experiences of Korean adults. This was a scoping review that searched Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, Google Scholar, DBpia, and the Korean Studies Information Service System between 2000 and 2016 in order to identify English and Korean research reports. The review yielded 17 quantitative studies, including 2 resilience theories and 6 resilience-specific instruments. The factors self-efficacy, hope, social supports, self-esteem, anxiety, and depression were associated with resilience, regardless of the type of cancer. Quality of life and coping were commonly investigated outcome variables for resilience. This review suggests that a nursing theory reflecting Korean culture and qualitative research concerning the phenomenon of resilience should be conducted as research priorities as the foundation for developing culturally appropriate tools for resilience. This will lead to enhanced quality of life among Korean cancer patients, which is the core of palliative nursing care.
Widowhood researchers have been increasingly interested in the construct of resilience and identifying factors which contribute to adaptive responses to conjugal loss. Available measures of general resilience were validated on nonwidowed samples and broadly lack face validity for use with widowed people. This article reports the development and validation of a resilience scale specific to widowhood, the Widowhood Resilience Scale. Initially, qualitative responses from 744 widowed people were analyzed and cross-referenced with existing literature on resilience to develop 49 items. The 49 items were tested on a sample of 1,188 widowed people, resulting in a 6-factor, 25-item scale.
CONTENT: Burnout is common amongst palliative care clinicians. Resilience helps to reduce burnout, compassion fatigue and is associated with longevity in palliative care.
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study palliative care clinicians who have remained in the field for longer than 10 years to deepen our understanding on their views on burnout and resilience.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and purposive sampling on 18 palliative care clinicians - 5 doctors, 10 nurses and 3 social workers who worked in various palliative care settings (hospital palliative care team, home hospice and inpatient hospice). The mean age of the interviewees was 52 years old and the mean number of years practicing palliative care was 15.7 years (ranging from 10 -25 years). The interviews were recorded verbatim, transcribed and analysed using a grounded theory approach.
RESULTS: 4 major themes emerged from our analysis - Struggling, Changing Mindset, Adapting and Resilience (SCAR). Intervening conditions such as self-awareness, reflection, and evolution were also important factors. The core phenomenon of our study was that of 'Transformational Growth' - a process which palliative care clinicians have to go through before they achieve resilience. We also further classified resilience into both personal and collective resilience.
CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the evolving process of transformational growth which palliative care clinicians must repeatedly undergo as they strive towards sustained resilience and longevity. It also stresses the importance of taking individual and collective responsibility towards building a culture of personal and team resilience.