D'un projet de formation, nous avons abouti à la création d'un outil pédagogique interactif de simulation de situations cliniques, le jeu "Kipal". Nous avons découvert que notre création était une méthode d'enseignement ludopédagogique. Mais au-delà d'un simple partage de connaissances, ce jeu a montré l'avantage inattendu d'un fort potentiel d'interdisciplinarité.
It is an international consensus that health care workers should be well trained to promote care for seriously ill and dying patients. Nursing students have reported that they feel inadequately prepared for palliative care. Simulation exercises have been described as increasing knowledge, skills, and competence, and participants have reported that they are more confident and prepared for palliative care with this learning approach than without. So far, there has not been much reported on how simulation contributes to learning in clinical practice. Therefore, this study explored whether learning outcomes from palliative care simulation further developed in practice. Second-year bachelor's-prepared nursing students voluntarily participated in a simulation activity as part of their hospital practice. Eleven students were interviewed about their learning experiences. The findings indicate that a prerequisite for further learning was to actively choose palliative care. Relationships with nurses, patients, and relatives and factors in themselves served as gatekeepers for attending learning situations. Becoming a nurse who can provide palliative care was described as an emotionally challenging experience. Elements that promoted learning outcomes in palliative care were simulation experience, clarified expectations, support, and a good dialog with the nurse before and after the learning situation.
Caring for the dying patient can be stressful for nursing students. The purpose of this study was to describe a multimodal educational intervention designed to improve nursing students' attitude toward care of the dying patient and the family. Sophomore nursing students participated in an interactive end-of-life (EOL) lecture and simulation. A quasi-experimental, pretest/posttest design with a convenience sample was used for this study. Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying version A was used to measure attitudes toward care of the dying patient before and after educational intervention. In addition, students were given an open-ended questionnaire to reflect on their perceptions of the EOL experience and a demographic questionnaire. A paired t test revealed a statistically significant difference between the pretest and posttest (t50 = 3.1, P = .003) on the Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying, suggesting that students gained a more positive attitude toward caring for the dying patient. Three themes emerged from the content analysis and included knowing what to say and how to offer presence, becoming emotionally prepared, and learning skills to comfort. The use of lecture and simulation allowed students to assimilate the knowledge and affective skills needed to provide quality EOL care.
Effective team communication is necessary for the provision of high-quality health care. Yet, recent graduates from diverse health-care disciplines report inadequate training in communication skills and end-of-life care. This study explored the impact of a withdrawal of life-sustaining measures interprofessional simulation on team communication skills of students representing medicine, nursing, and social work. The 3-phase simulation required teams to communicate with the patient, family, and one another in the care of a seriously ill patient at the end of life. Team communication in the filmed simulations was analyzed via the Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Checklist. Results revealed fair to good communication across the 9 communication domains. Overall team communication was strongest in “shares information” and lowest in “understands the patient’s and family’s perspective” domains. Field notes revealed 5 primary themes—Team Dynamics, Awkwardness, Empathy is Everything, Build a Relationship, and Communicating Knowledge When You Have It—in the course of the data analysis. Logistical challenges encountered in simulation development and implementation are presented, along with proposed solutions that were effective for this study. This simulation provided an opportunity for interprofessional health-care provider students to learn team communication skills within an end-of-life care context.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To synthesise and map the literature on the psychological outcomes reported following debriefing of healthcare providers who experience expected and unexpected patient death in either clinical practice or simulation setting.
BACKGROUND: Patient death occurs in both the clinical and simulation environments and can result in psychological stress in healthcare providers and students. While debriefing following patient death has demonstrated the ability to promote positive psychological outcomes, addressing the psychological or emotional stress of the event is inconsistently addressed.
DESIGN: A scoping review was conducted using the Arksey and O'Malley framework.
METHOD: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, JBI and Scopus databases were searched with English language constraints and no limit on publication date. The Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) Checklist was used (Annals of Internal Medicine, 2018, 169, 467) (see Appendix S1).
RESULTS: Eighteen articles (16 research papers and 2 review papers) met the inclusion criteria. Of the 16 research papers, 9 reported on debriefing models in the simulation environment and 7 in the clinical setting. The types of debriefing models found in the simulation setting tended to focus on healthcare providers' learning, while those in the clinical setting typically focused on healthcare providers' emotional reactions and resulted in positive psychological effects.
CONCLUSION: Debriefing has the potential to positively affect psychological outcomes of healthcare providers who experience patient death. The type of debriefing that is selected is a key component to achieving these positive outcomes.
RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This scoping review identified the debriefing frameworks used in both simulation and clinical environments following patient death events, and any associated psychological outcomes. There is a need for debriefing to occur after each death in either environment; however, there is a lack of evidence-based debriefing frameworks that can be used in both the clinical and simulation environments to promote positive psychological outcomes.
Studies have shown that registered nurses are inadequately prepared to care for patients requiring hospice and palliative care. Reasons include inadequate curriculum, along with a lack of structured education related to hospice/palliative care and symptom management, which includes inadequate education on delivering home-based hospice/palliative case management. Challenges at the Southwestern Hospice Organization are consistent with industry standards, evidenced by a high level of afterhours triage phone calls related to ineffective case management setup and delivery upon patient admission to hospice service. Many of these triage inquires could be prevented with improved registered nurse case management education and subsequent execution. Through analyzing Southwestern Hospice Organization afterhours triage phone data, a deficiency in effective patient case management setup and delivery was defined. Best practices in hospice/palliative case management were then identified, and a quality improvement plan in the form of a nurse driven, hands-on, home hospice/palliative case management simulation was generated. Quality improvement for patient case management at the Southwestern Hospice Organization was the end goal.
Simulation is a growing model of education in many medical disciplines. Withdrawal of mechanical ventilation is an important skillset for palliative medicine practitioners who must be facile with a variety of end-of-life scenarios and is well suited to the simulation laboratory. We describe a novel approach using high fidelity simulation to design a curriculum to teach Hospice & Palliative Medicine (HPM) fellows the practical aspects of managing a compassionate terminal extubation. This simulation session aims to equip palliative fellows with a knowledge base of respiratory physiology and mechanical ventilation as well as the practical experience of performing a terminal extubation. We designed a 3 hour simulation session which includes a one hour didactic followed by 2 hours of simulation, with 4 cases that focus on different teaching points regarding symptom management and practical aspects of removing the endotracheal tube . The session was designed as an annual session for HPM fellows in our region during a collaborative educational conference. Based on feedback, the session is scheduled for the beginning of the academic year and each fellow is given the opportunity to physically remove the endotracheal tube. Simulation can be effectively used to teach practical and complex bedside skills such as withdrawal of mechanical ventilation to palliative medicine trainees. This method of teaching could be expanded to teach other advanced hospice and palliative care skills.
INTRODUCTION: Positive pressure ventilation (PPV) with T-Piece and self-inflating bag (SIB) during neonatal resuscitation after birth is associated with variability in ventilation. The use of a ventilator with respiratory function monitoring (RFM) for PPV, however, has not been evaluated.
OBJECTIVE: To determine if ventilator + RFM can reduce ventilation variability compared to T-Piece and SIB in a preterm manikin at different combinations of target tidal volume (VT) and lung compliance (CL).
METHODS: Twenty clinicians provided PPV via mask and endotracheal tube (ETT) using SIB, T-Piece, T-Piece + RFM and Ventilator + RFM to a manikin with adjustable lung CL. Three combinations of CL and target VT: Low CL-Low VT, Low CL-High VT and High CL-Low VT were used in a random order.
RESULTS: The use of ventilator + RFM for PPV via ETT during High CL-Low VT period reduced the proportion of breaths with expiratory VT above target when compared to the other 3 devices (56 ± 35%, 85 ± 20%, 90 ± 25%, 92 ± 12% for ventilator + RFM, T-Piece + RFM, T-Piece, SIB, respectively; p < 0.05). During PPV via both mask and ETT, ventilator + RFM maintained the set Ti and rate, whereas SIB and T-Piece use resulted in higher rates, and T-Piece in higher proportion of breaths with prolonged Ti. During PPV via mask, ventilator + RFM reduced gas leakage compared to other devices.
CONCLUSION: In this simulation study, use of a mechanical ventilator with RFM led to an overall improvement in volume targeting at different settings of CL and reduced the gas leak during mask ventilation. The efficacy and safety of using this strategy to neonatal resuscitation in the delivery room needs to be evaluated.
BACKGROUND: Palliative simulation is a beneficial bridge between theory and practice; however, it can be emotionally laden. Often overlooked during a debrief session of a palliative simulation is ensuring that participants have the skills to process the feelings they may experience.
METHOD: The purpose of this mixed-methods concurrent triangulation study was to understand the perceived value and usefulness of debriefing in palliative simulation process feelings and emotions.
RESULTS: The simulation modality affects the intensity of feelings. A debriefer who is skilled in both debriefing simulation and coping with emotionally stressful situations allowed students to feel prepared to cope with their own feelings about palliative care. Having other students talk about their feelings in debriefing helped students to normalize their feelings.
CONCLUSION: The debriefing in palliative-based simulations requires additional considerations regarding modality and the skill set of the debriefer to adequately assist students to process feelings and emotions.
Background: Many people with advanced dementia live in residential aged care homes. Care home staff need the knowledge and skills to provide high-quality end-of-life (EOL) dementia care. However, several studies have found EOL dementia care to be suboptimal, and care staff have reported they would benefit from training in palliative care and dementia. Simulation offers an immersive learning environment and has been shown to improve learners’ knowledge and skills. However, there is little research on simulation training for residential care staff.
This article presents the development and evaluation protocol of IMproving Palliative care Education and Training Using Simulation in Dementia (IMPETUS-D) - a screen-based simulation training program on palliative dementia care, targeted at residential care staff. IMPETUS-D aims to improve the quality of palliative care provided to people living with dementia in residential care homes, including avoiding unnecessary transfers to hospital.
Methods: A cluster RCT will assess the effect of IMPETUS-D. Twenty-four care homes (clusters) in three Australian cities will be randomised to receive either the IMPETUS-D intervention or usual training opportunities (control). The primary outcome is to reduce transfers to hospital and deaths in hospital by 20% over 6-months in the intervention compared to the control group. Secondary outcomes include uptake of goals of care plans over 6 and 12 months, change in staff knowledge and attitudes towards palliative dementia care over 6 months, change in transfers to hospital and deaths in hospital over 12 months. For the primary analysis logistic regression models will be used with standard errors weighted by the cluster effects. A mixed methods process evaluation will be conducted alongside the cluster RCT to assess the mechanisms of impact, the implementation processes and contextual factors that may influence the delivery and effects of the intervention.
Discussion: In Australia, the need for high-quality advanced dementia care delivered in residential aged care is growing. This study will assess the effect of IMPETUS-D a new simulation-based training program on dementia palliative and EOL care. This large multisite trial will provide robust evidence about the impact of the intervention. If successful, it will be distributed to the broader residential care sector.
BACKGROUND: Undergraduate teaching currently fails to adequately prepare doctors to deliver 'end-of-life' care. Despite much evidence supporting simulation-based teaching, its use in medical undergraduate palliative and 'end-of-life' care curricula remain low.
AIM: This study assesses whether simulation can improve the confidence and preparedness of medical students to provide holistic care to dying patients and their families, from clinical assessment to symptom management, communication and care after death.
METHODS: Six fourth-year medical students undertook individual simulations involving a dying patient (high-fidelity simulator) and family member (actor). Intentional patient death occurred in four of the six scenarios (although unexpected by students). Pre-simulation/post-simulation thanatophobia questionnaires measured student attitudes towards providing care to dying patients. Thematic analysis of post-simulation focus group transcripts generated qualitative data regarding student preparedness, confidence and value of the simulations.
RESULTS: Thematic analysis revealed that students felt the simulations were realistic, and left them better prepared to care for dying patients. Students coveted the 'safe' exposure to dying patient scenarios afforded by the simulations. Observed post-simulation reduction in mean thanatophobia scores was not found to be statistically significant (p=0.07).
CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest a feasible potential for simulations to influence undergraduate medical student teaching on the care of a dying patient and their family. We believe that this study adds to the limited body of literature exploring the value of simulation in improving the confidence and preparedness of medical students to provide 'end-of-life' care. Further research into the cost-effectiveness of simulation is required to further support its application in this setting.
BACKGROUND: This article outlines the rationale of developing a DVD using a simulated patient to show students how to perform the last offices in the UK and what they can expect when a patient dies.
AIM: This is an aspect of the curriculum that students felt was not adequately covered and they were anxious about experiencing the death of a patient for the first time. The DVD allowed a large number of students to receive extra teaching on this topic and was a time-effective way of introducing more teaching into the curriculum.
CONCLUSION: Students felt more prepared for the death of a patient during their first clinical placement.
Background: Opportunities to provide competent and compassionate End-of Life (EOL) care to patients and families are limited for nursing students.
Method: A mixed methods approach was used to explore the students' attitudes towards caring for an EOL patient in two groups: an on-line-module only group and an on-line module plus simulation group.
Results: :Statistically significant effect of time was found across the two conditions (F [1, 69] = 7.83, p = .007), indicating that scores on the FATCOD-B significantly improved regardless of the condition over time. The qualitative responses indicated that the simulation experience was more impactful than the on-line module.
Conclusions: Innovative education modalities described in the study may assist in preparing the future workforce for the myriad of demands related to health, life, and death.