Objectives: Advance care planning (ACP) typically comprises formal preparations (i.e., living will and/or durable power of attorney for health care) and informal discussions with family members and health care providers. However, some people complete formal documents without discussing them with others. If they become incapacitated, their appointed decision makers may lack guidance on how to interpret or enact their formal wishes. We document the prevalence and correlates of this partial approach to ACP.
Method: Using multinomial logistic regression models and data from a U.S. sample of 4,836 older adults in the 2018 wave of the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS), this brief report evaluated associations between social integration indicators and the odds of completing (a) both discussions and formal plans (two-pronged ACP), (b) discussions only, (c) no ACP, and (d) formal ACP only (reference category). We adjust for demographic and health characteristics established as correlates of ACP.
Results: A minority (15%) of NHATS participants reported formal plans without having discussed them. Indicators of social isolation (e.g., smaller social networks and fewer social activities) increased the odds of engaging in formal planning only compared to two-pronged ACP. Socioeconomic disadvantage and probable dementia reduced the odds of having end-of-life conversations, whether as one’s only preparation or in tandem with formal preparations.
Discussion: Socially isolated persons are especially likely to do formal planning only, which is considered less effective than two-pronged ACP. Health care professionals should recognize that older adults with few kin may require additional support and guidance when doing ACP.
I examine: whether specific emotion-focused coping and help-seeking strategies adopted by older widow(er)s 6 months postloss affect depressive, anger, and yearning symptoms 1 year later; whether these effects are accounted for by psychosocial factors which guide the selection of coping strategies; and the extent to which patterns differ by gender. I estimate nested multivariate OLS regression models using data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples, a prospective multiwave survey of spousal bereavement (N = 164). Widows are more likely to use positive reframing, active distraction, help-seeking, and turning to God for strength, whereas widowers tend to use avoidant strategies, and are more likely to seek connection with their late spouse. Avoidant strategies like trying to forget and dulling the pain with alcohol increase depressive and anger symptoms; substance use is particularly consequential for men’s anger symptoms. Positive reframing increases depressive symptoms yet mitigates against anger. Seeking comfort from God also protects against anger. Seeking help from a doctor increases anger and depressive symptoms in baseline models, although effects are accounted for by selection. Maladaptive coping strategies are linked with anger, whereas depression and yearning are relatively immune to coping strategies, reflecting the relatively short-lived time course of these two symptoms. The results carry implications for bereavement theories and mental health interventions targeting older widow(er)s. Older widowers who cope by turning to unhealthy behaviors are especially prone to anger, which has documented physical health effects and may alienate potential sources of social support.
Les résultats de cette étude suggère que les personnes dont la vie économique est confortable s'engagent dans la planification de leur fin de vie : une stratégie à deux volets entraînant des préparations d'ordre sanitaire et financier. Les implications en termes de politique sanitaire, de pratique et de théorie sont également discutées dans l'article.
Origine : BDSP. Notice produite par INIST-CNRS 9sJ8R0xs. Diffusion soumise à autorisation