Background: Adolescents with brain stem dysfunction may undergo many invasive treatments, and parents are often faced with making the decision to withdraw treatment. However, in the face of their child's death, the spiritual practices of parents dealing with end-of-life decision-making remain under investigated.
Purpose: This study explores the spiritual practices in parents making end-of-life decisions for adolescents on life support with brain stem dysfunction.
Method: A descriptive phenomenological study was conducted through in-depth interviews with three parents of two adolescents in Taiwan. Data were analysed using Colaizzi's seven-step protocol.
Results: Three main themes emerged: (1) faith during decision-making, (2) struggles during decision-making, (3) transformation during decision-making. The findings indicate that "transforming the nature of hope" is the essence of the experience.
Conclusion: Family-centred care, gaining insight into parental spiritual practices, and developing culturally-appropriate care are recommended.
This article will focus on the following objectives specific to end-of-life care for professional case management:
Discuss recent industry topics that influence care processes.
Explore the opioid epidemic's impact on pain management.
Identify terms associated with end-of-life and life-limiting care.
Understand types of advance directives and care defining tools.
Define the purpose of psychiatric advance directives.
Discuss the shifting diagnostic face.
Discuss how inclusion manifests for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning (LGBTQ) population.
Explore challenges working through adolescent decision making and treatment.
Review regulation and reimbursement shifts across the industry.
Identify the use of artificial intelligence.
Discuss the value of ethics committees in health care organizations.
Define the Four Cs of Care Considerations.
Identify ethical principles for consideration by the workforce.
Le livre est indéniablement associé à l’enfance, au rituel du coucher où les parents commencent souvent par un « Il était une fois ». L’objectif de cet article est de montrer le rôle que la littérature de jeunesse peut jouer auprès des enfants de tout âge, hospitalisés, gravement malades ou en fin de vie ainsi qu’auprès de leur fratrie. L’enfant s’approprie le livre différemment selon son âge : si un nourrisson aura un rapport sensoriel au livre (essentiellement le toucher et l’ouïe), l’enfant se laissera emporter par l’histoire, oubliant pour un temps la douleur liée aux soins. Quant aux adolescents et jeunes adultes, leur identification à un personnage qui les comprend, qui vit la même chose, pourra leur permettre de faire face à la fin de vie à un âge de tous les possibles.
Cette manifestation consacrée aux enfants, adolescents et jeunes adultes orphelins est une opportunité de mettre la lumière sur leur situation sociale et leur vécu. Placé sous le signe de l’action, cet événement est l’occasion de prendre connaissance des résultats inédits des sept projets de recherche soutenus par la Fondation OCIRP, du partenariat initié avec l'Institut national d'études démographiques (INED) et de l'enquête « École et orphelins », programme interne du pôle Études et recherche de la fondation. Cet événement est enfin l’occasion d’ouvrir un espace de débat entre chercheurs-es et acteurs mobilisés et concernés : praticiens, professionnels de l’action sociale et de la santé, enseignants et personnels de l’éducation, chercheurs, acteurs associatifs, responsables politiques, journalistes, représentants d’institutions publiques et d’organismes privés, et en particulier parents, enfants, adolescents et jeunes adultes orphelins et leurs proches.
C'est l'histoire d'un jeune homme de 17 ans, Parker Santé. Depuis le décès de son père il y a 5 ans, il n'a pas prononcé un mot. Pendant que ses camarades de classe postulent à l'université, lui sèche les cours du lycée et traîne dans les hôtels chics de San Francisco pour parfaire sa technique de pickpocket. Un jour, il rencontre Zelda Toth aux cheveux argentés. Il dérobe de l'argent dans son sac à main. Mais il est très surpris, elle ne le dénonce pas et lui dit qu'elle n'en aura bientôt plus l'utilité. Le livre décrit leur cheminement commun pour redonner goût à la vie l'un à l'autre.
PURPOSE: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs; age 15-39 years) with advanced cancer are a population in whom quality of life is uniquely affected because of their stage of life. However, training focused on palliative care for AYAs is not routinely provided for health care providers (HCPs) in oncology. This study aims to explore the experiences of HCPs involved in introducing and providing palliative care caring for AYAs with advanced cancer and their families to understand the unique challenges HCPs experience.
METHODS: Using a qualitative descriptive design, semistructured interviews were conducted with medical and radiation oncologists, palliative care physicians, psychiatrists, and advanced practice nurses involved in caring for AYAs diagnosed with advanced cancer (N = 19). Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis in combination with constant comparative analysis and theoretical sampling.
RESULTS: There were 19 participants, 9 men and 10 women, with a median age of 45 years (range, 24-67 years). Six were palliative care physicians, 5 medical oncologists, 4 nurse practitioners, and 2 each radiation oncologists and psychiatrists. Overall, participants perceived the provision of palliative care for AYAs to be more difficult compared with older adults. Four themes emerged: (1) challenges helping AYAs/families to engage in and accept palliative care, (2) uncertainty regarding how to involve the family, (3) HCP sense of tragedy, and (4) HCP sense of emotional proximity.
CONCLUSION: Findings from this study support the development of dedicated training for HCPs involved in palliative care for AYA.
Background: To the authors' knowledge, end-of-life (EOL) care outcomes among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer who are living in poverty remain poorly understood. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the effect of poverty on EOL care for AYA patients with cancer.
Methods: The authors conducted a multisite, retrospective study of AYA patients with cancer aged 15 to 39 years who died between January 2013 and December 2016 at 3 academic sites. Medical record-based EOL care outcomes included hospice referral, palliative care (PC) consultation, cancer treatment within the last month of life, and location of death. Two measures of poverty were applied: 1) zip code with a median income =200% of the federal poverty level; and 2) public insurance or lack of insurance. Logistic regression analyses were conducted.
Results: A total of 252 AYA cancer decedents were identified. Approximately 41% lived in a high-poverty zip code and 48% had public insurance or lacked insurance; approximately 70% had at least 1 poverty indicator. Nearly 40% had a hospice referral, 60% had a PC consultation (76% on an inpatient basis), 38% received EOL cancer treatment, and 39% died in the hospital. In bivariable analyses, AYA patients living in low-income zip codes were found to be less likely to enroll in hospice (P = .01), have an early PC referral (P = .01), or receive EOL cancer treatment (P = .03), although only EOL cancer treatment met statistical significance in multivariable models. No differences with regard to location of death (P = .99) were observed.
Conclusions: AYA patients with cancer experience low rates of hospice referral and high rates of in-hospital death regardless of socioeconomic status. Future studies should evaluate early inpatient PC referrals as a possible method for improving EOL care.
Background: The “Promoting Resilience in Stress Management” intervention is a skills-based, early palliative care intervention with demonstrated efficacy in adolescents and young adults with cancer.
Aim: Utilizing data from a randomized clinical trial of Promoting Resilience in Stress Management versus Usual Care, we examined whether response to Promoting Resilience in Stress Management differed across key sociodemographic characteristics.
Design: Adolescents and young adults with cancer completed patient-reported outcome measures of resilience, hope, benefit-finding, quality of life, and distress at enrollment and 6 months. Participants were stratified by sex, age, race, and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage based on home address (Area Deprivation Index scores with 8–10 = most disadvantaged). Differences in the magnitude of effect sizes between stratification subgroups were noted using a conservative cutoff of d > 0.5.
Setting/participants: participants were 12 to 25 years old, English-speaking, and receiving cancer care at Seattle Children’s Hospital.
Results: In total, 92 adolescents and young adults (48 Promoting Resilience in Stress Management, 44 Usual Care) completed baseline measures. They were 43% female, 73% 12 to 17 years old, 64% White, and 24% most disadvantaged. Effect sizes stratified by sex, age, and race were in an expected positive direction and of similar magnitude for the majority of outcomes with some exceptions in magnitude of treatment effect. Those who lived in less disadvantaged neighborhoods benefited more from Promoting Resilience in Stress Management, and those living in most disadvantaged neighborhoods benefited less.
Conclusion: The “Promoting Resilience in Stress Management” intervention demonstrated a positive effect for the majority of outcomes regardless of sex, age, and race. It may not be as helpful for adolescents and young adults living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Future studies must confirm its generalizability and integrate opportunities for improvement by targeting individual needs.
BACKGROUND: Adolescent and young adult advance care planning is beneficial in improving communication between patients, surrogates, and clinicians. The influences on treatment decisions among adolescents and young adults are underexplored in the literature.
AIM: The aim of this study was to explore and better understand the influences on decision-making for adolescent and young adult bone marrow transplant patients about future medical care.
DESIGN: Clinical case studies and qualitative inductive content analysis of treatment decisions made during the Respecting Choices® Next Steps Pediatric Advance Care Planning conversation as a component of the Family-Centered Advance Care Planning Intervention.
SETTINGS/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 10 adolescent and young adult patients (aged 14–27 years) undergoing bone marrow transplant at an academic Midwest children’s hospital were involved in the study.
CONCLUSION: This study highlights that adolescent and young adult bone marrow transplant patients are capable of meaningful deliberation about future treatment decisions. Influences on decision-making should be incorporated into advance care planning conversations to facilitate communication between patients and their surrogates. Longitudinal research is needed to explore these influences throughout the trajectory of illness.
A growing evidence base highlights the negative impact of poor psychosocial care at end-of-life. Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) 15-39 years of age with cancer face unique medical and psychosocial challenges that make them especially vulnerable when treatment is not successful. Although the importance of age-appropriate medical and psychosocial care is internationally recognized for AYAs across the cancer trajectory, there is little guidance on best-practice care and communication practices with AYAs as they approach the end-of-life. We conducted a narrative review and found evidence points to the potential benefits of introducing palliative care teams early in the care trajectory. Research undertaken to date emphasizes the importance of exploring AYAs' preferences around end-of-life issues in a repeated, consistent manner, and highlighted that AYAs may have strong preferences on a range of issues such as being able to stay in their own home, being comfortable and free from pain, and expressing their wishes to loved ones. We highlight a number of best-practice recommendations to guide clinicians around the critical elements of when, who, what, and how end-of-life conversations may be best facilitated with AYAs. Gaps in the evidence base remain, including research focusing on better understanding barriers and facilitators to timely, age-appropriate end-of-life communication for AYAs with different diagnoses, where discordance between AYA-parent preferences exists, and when AYAs die at home versus in hospital. We have proposed a new model to support clinicians and researchers to better conceptualize how interacting individual, familial, and sociocultural factors impact end-of-life communication with AYAs in clinical settings.
Ce livre regroupe l'ensemble des informations nécessaires à la pratique des soins palliatifs pédiatriques : cadre réglementaire, concepts théoriques et projet de soin. Ayant pour fil conducteur les questions auxquelles le praticien et les équipes sont confrontés au quotidien, l'ouvrage prend en compte les interactions pluridisciplinaires.
Le présent article, sous forme de dialogue, est issu de la réflexion commune entre différents soignants (oncologue, deux psychologues et infirmière de l’équipe de soins de liaison) de l’unité d’hémato-oncologie d’un hôpital universitaire pédiatrique situé au sein de l’Union européenne à propos du suivi d’O. O. était une jeune fille âgée de 15 ans au moment du diagnostic ; elle était atteinte d'une tumeur maligne pelvienne avec infiltration génitale. L’objet de cet article est le partage d’expérience autour de cette situation qui nous a fortement impliqués et a demandé un ajustement permanent de nos pratiques, de nos croyances, nous obligeant ainsi à bousculer nos codes.
BACKGROUND: Adolescents and young adults undergoing heart transplantation experience risks of morbidity and mortality both pre- and post-transplant. To improve end-of-life care for this population, it is necessary to understand their medical and end-of-life decision-making preferences.
AIM: (1) To examine adolescent/young adult decision-making involvement specific to heart transplant listing, and (2) to characterize their preferences specific to medical and end-of-life decision making.
DESIGN: This cross-sectional research study utilized survey methods. Data were collected from October 2016 to March 2018.
SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Twelve adolescent and young adult patients listed for heart transplant (ages = 12-19 years) and one parent for each were enrolled at a single-center, US children's hospital.
RESULTS: Consistent with their preferences, the majority of adolescent/young adult participants (82%) perceived a high level of involvement in the decision to be listed for transplant. Patient involvement in this decision was primarily by way of seeking advice or information from their parents and being asked to express their opinion from parents. Despite a preference among patients to discuss their prognosis and be involved in end-of-life decision making if seriously ill, only 42% of patients had discussed their end-of-life wishes with anyone. Few parents recounted having such discussions. Preferences regarding the timing and nature of end-of-life decision-making discussions varied.
CONCLUSIONS: Although young people are involved in the decision to pursue heart transplantation, little attention is paid to involving them in discussions regarding end-of-life decision making in a manner that is consistent with individual preferences.
Si pour la plupart des gens Noël représente les fêtes en famille, les yeux des enfants qui pétillent en ouvrant les cadeaux, les repas festifs, il n’en est rien pour Lyse. Ce jour-là, son monde s’est effondré, Parti en éclat en une fraction de seconde.
La perte subite et inattendue de la personne qui comptait le plus au monde la laisse anéantie.
Mais il faut continuer à vivre. Reprendre le cours de la vie malgré la douleur.
Par un matin humide de janvier, Lyse reprend le chemin du lycée comme si de rien n’était.
Même si elle ne laisse rien paraître de son mal-être, la souffrance et la culpabilité la rongent petit à petit de l’intérieur.
Se recueillir le long des sentiers littoraux varois et contempler la mer l’apaisent. Mais comment faire face à ce deuil impossible ? Comment se reconstruire ? Ou trouver la force de continuer à vivre ?
Une rencontre accidentelle va bouleverser sa vie et remettre en question toutes ses certitudes.
Interventions for bereaved children and families range from supportive counseling, designed to promote social connectedness and expression of feelings and thoughts about the deceased, to intensive trauma/grief-specific therapy, designed to ameliorate symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. That said, professionals have few brief assessment instruments to match response and functioning to appropriate interventions. To expedite the screening and referral process for bereaved families, Brown, Goodman, and Swiecicki (2008) developed the PTSD and Depression Screener for Bereaved Youth, a 19-item measure of bereavement-related history and symptoms of PTSD and depression. The current study is a psychometric evaluation of the Screener for Bereaved Youth. Data were collected from 284 bereaved children, 6–17 years of age (M = 12.4; SD = 2.9). A factor analysis revealed distinct subscales for PTSD (eight items) and depression (four items). The PTSD and depression subscales showed both concurrent and discriminant validity. Endorsement of four items on either subscale was associated with meeting full criteria on more extensive measures of PTSD and depression. These findings are discussed with specific consideration to the multiple systems in which the measure could be used and applications to clinical services.
Despite the potentially devastating effects of a death on the lives of adolescents, little is known about their help-seeking experiences. We interviewed by telephone 39 bereaved adolescents on their help-seeking experiences. Thematic analysis resulted in three themes: Formal support, Informal support and School-related support. Participants provided a critical appraisal of positive and negative experiences, and noted barriers and facilitators for help-seeking. As adolescents bereaved through suicide may receive less social support, professional help is a much-needed auxiliary. Parental encouragement is important in accessing adequate professional help.
This meta-analysis synthesizes the results of 14 independent studies conducted in the U.S. (N = 6979 participants) that examined sex differences in internalized, externalized, and PTSD symptoms associated with grief during adolescence. The mean age of participants was 12.22 years (SD = 2.31) with 50% male and 50% female sex assigned at birth. While no mean-level differences were found between adolescent females and males in externalizing behaviors associated with grief (d = 0.03), on average, females reported higher levels of internalized grief responses (d = 0.18) and higher levels of PTSD symptoms (d = 0.36) than their male counterparts. Findings suggest the need for additional, more nuanced research to investigate possible sex differences in externalized behaviors relating to grief. In addition, research should examine whether tailored therapeutic and intervention measures and resources are needed for adolescents experiencing internalized grief and PTSD symptoms given sex differences in these reactions.
BACKGROUND: Maltreated youth are at an elevated risk for the development of problem behaviors. Coping with the death of a family member or close friend during adolescence, referred to as bereavement, is a stressful event that could potentiate risk linked to maltreatment. However, developmental research suggests that youth adjustment is a product of multiple risk and protective factors. Although maltreated youth who experience loss may be particularly vulnerable to behavior problems, personal and contextual factors may attenuate or exacerbate youths' risk for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology.
OBJECTIVE: The overarching goal of this study is to examine individual, family, and community-level protective factors for maltreated youth who experience bereavement. Specifically, we aim to examine the effect of age 12 bereavement on age 16 internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, and to investigate the moderating role of multi-level protective factors at ages 14 and 16.
METHODS: The study consisted of a sample of 800 youth (52.4% female, 45.1% African-American) drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN), collected from 1998 to 2011.
RESULTS: Maltreated youth who experienced significant loss were at increased risk for externalizing symptoms, compared to non-bereaved maltreated youth (ß = 0.085, p < .05). Individual future orientation (ß = 0.103, p < .05) family future orientation (ß = -0.120, p < .05), parental monitoring (ß = -0.123, p< .01), and neighborhood collective efficacy (ß = -0.126, p < .01) each significantly moderated the association between bereavement and externalizing symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS: These results have implications for future interventions aimed towards reducing problem behaviors in adolescents with a history of child maltreatment and who experience bereavement.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the availability and efficacy of interventions open to adolescents and young adults (AYAs; 15-25 years) bereaved by a parent's or sibling's cancer.
METHODS: A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature on interventions available to AYAs bereaved by a parent's or sibling's cancer was conducted through searches of six online databases (PsycINFO, Medline, Scopus, Embase, SWAB and Web of Science Core Collection).
RESULTS: Database and reference searches yielded 2985 articles, 40 of which were included in the review. Twenty-two interventions were identified that were available for bereaved young people. However, only three were specific to young people bereaved by familial cancer, and none were specific to AYAs. Interventions primarily provided opportunities for participants to have fun, share their experiences and/or memorialise the deceased; psychoeducation about bereavement, grief and coping was less common. Only six interventions had been satisfactorily evaluated, and no intervention targeted or analysed data for AYAs separately. Overall, some evidence suggested that interventions (especially those that were theoretically grounded) had positive effects for bereaved young people. However, benefits were inconsistently evidenced in participants' self-reports and often only applied to subgroups of participants (eg, older youths and those with better psychological well-being at baseline).
CONCLUSIONS: Considering the very limited number of interventions specific to bereavement by familial cancer and the lack of interventions targeting AYAs specifically, it is unclear whether currently available interventions would benefit this population. The population of AYAs bereaved by familial cancer is clearly under-serviced; further development and evaluation of interventions is needed.