BACKGROUND: Little is known about the attitudes and practices of intensivists working in Lebanon regarding withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatments (LSTs). The objectives of the study were to assess the points of view and practices of intensivists in Lebanon along with the opinions of medical, legal and religious leaders regarding withholding withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments in Lebanese intensive care units (ICU).
METHODS: A web-based survey was conducted among intensivists working in Lebanese adult ICUs. Interviews were also done with Lebanese medical, legal and religious leaders.
RESULTS: Of the 229 survey recipients, 83 intensivists completed it, i.e. a response rate of (36.3%). Most respondents were between 30 and 49 years old (72%), Catholic Christians (60%), anesthesiologists (63%), working in Beirut (47%). Ninety-two percent of them were familiar with the withholding and withdrawal concepts and 80% applied them. Poor prognosis of the acute and chronic disease and futile therapy were the main reasons to consider withholding and withdrawal of treatments. Ninety-five percent of intensivists agreed with the "Principle of Double Effect" (i.e. adding analgesia and or sedation to patients after the withholding/withdrawal decisions in order to prevent their suffering and allow their comfort, even though it might hasten the dying process). The main withheld therapies were vasopressors, respiratory assistance and CPR. Most of the respondents reported the decision was often to always multidisciplinary (92%), involving the family (68%), and the patient (65%), or his advance directives (77%) or his surrogate (81%) and the nurses (78%). The interviewees agreed there was a law governing withholding and withdrawal decisions/practices in Lebanon. Christians and Muslim Sunni leaders declared accepting those practices (withholding or withdrawing LSTs from patients when appropriate).
CONCLUSION: Withholding and withdrawal of LSTs in the ICU are known concepts among intensivists working in Lebanon and are being practiced. Our results could be used to inform and optimize therapeutic limitation in ICUs in the country.
BACKGROUND: Nurses have a primary role in providing palliative and end-of-life (EOL) care. Their knowledge of EOL care, attitudes toward care of the dying, and palliative care self-efficacy are important in care delivery. Little is known regarding palliative care preparedness among Mongolian nurses. This study examines palliative care knowledge, attitude towards death and dying, and self-efficacy among Mongolian nurses, and examines predictors of self-efficacy.
METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. Participants were 141 nurses employed at the National Cancer Center in Mongolia. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire.
RESULTS: The median score for the knowledge of palliative care was 8.0/20. "Psychosocial and spiritual care" was the lowest score on the palliative care knowledge subscale. The mean score for attitude toward care of the dying was 69.1%, indicating positive attitudes. The mean score for the palliative care self-efficacy was 33.8/48. Nurses reported low self-efficacy toward communicating with dying patients and their families, and managing delirium. Palliative care knowledge and duration of experience as an oncology nurse significantly predicted self-efficacy toward palliative care, accounting for 14.0% of the variance.
CONCLUSIONS: Palliative education for nurses should address the knowledge gaps in EOL care and focus in increasing palliative care self-efficacy. Considering palliative care knowledge and nursing experience as an oncology nurse were significant predictors of self-efficacy toward palliative care, more effort is needed to fill the knowledge gaps in EOL care among nurses, especially for less experienced nurses.
The current study explores the end-of-life (EOL) preferences of a national representative sample of adults aged 55 and older in Switzerland and shows how these preferences vary by respondents' sociodemographic characteristics and the linguistic region in which they live. Many of the presented EOL attributes are considered as (very) important by a large majority of the older population in Switzerland with significant variations across sociodemographic groups. Specifically, gender is related to psychosocial aspects of EOL, age to the importance attached to avoiding being a burden on the society, and education levels to preferences regarding overtreatment and advance care planning. The results highlight the importance of a personalized, holistic and interdisciplinary approach to EOL and EOL care, since social, psychological, organizational and physical aspects of EOL are rated as (very) important with significant differences in EOL preferences across sociodemographic groups.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to elucidate the attitudes and knowledge of nursing home (NH) staff involved in the decision-making process surrounding tube feeding for people with advanced dementia, and regarding palliative care and eating difficulties in this population.
BACKGROUND: Dementia's final stage is associated with eating difficulties. "Comfort feeding" is the approach endorsed by the American Geriatrics society for those with advanced dementia and eating difficulties. Despite this, tube feeding remains a persisting practice in NHs in Israel.
DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive study.
METHODS: 27 NH employees from different sectors employed by seven NHs in Northern Israel underwent semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. The COREQ checklist was used to aid with reporting and analysis of results.
RESULTS: In Israel, there is an emerging palliative care discourse in caring for people with advanced dementia living in the NH setting. However, many interviewed didn't demonstrate an accurate understanding of this term or of the term "comfort feeding". Several barriers toward implementation of palliative care were identified and include a lack of formal education regarding nutrition in advanced dementia, socio-economic factors and their association with the two types of NHs operating in Israel (those with exclusively private funding, and those reimbursed by the Ministry of Health).
CONCLUSIONS: Interviews with NH staff regarding eating difficulties in advanced dementia shed light on the palliative care discourse, which is in a liminal stage in many countries. The themes which emerged may help inform future recommendations regarding palliative care in general and more specifically in NH residents with advanced dementia, in countries where policy is still being developed and refined.
RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Understanding barriers toward implementation of a palliative approach and comfort feeding specifically could improve the care for people with advanced dementia in the NH setting.
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine how often patients who choose voluntary stopping of eating and drinking (VSED) are accompanied by Swiss family physicians, how physicians classify this process, and physicians' attitudes and professional stance toward VSED.
METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study between August 2017 and July 2018 among 751 practicing family physicians in Switzerland (response rate 74%; 70.7% men; average age 58 (±9) years). We used a standardized evidence-based questionnaire for the survey.
RESULTS: VSED is well-known among family physicians (81.9%), and more than one-third (42.8%) had accompanied at least one patient during VSED. In 2017, 1.1% of all deaths that occurred in Swiss nursing homes or in a private home were owing to VSED. This phenomenon was classified as a natural dying process (59.3%), passive euthanasia (32.0%), or suicide (5.3%).
CONCLUSIONS: Although about one in three Swiss family physicians have accompanied a person during VSED, family physicians lack sufficient in-depth knowledge to address patients and their relatives in an appropriate manner during the process. Further training and development of practice recommendations are needed to achieve more standardized accompaniment of VSED.
Background: This study is the first to document knowledge-base and knowledge attitudes about cultural competence and religious literacy in hospice and palliative care in Cyprus.
Objective: The aim of this article is to investigate and document the knowledge-base and attitudes toward advancing knowledge and expertise of hospice and palliative care professionals in Cyprus.
Measurements: A cross-sectional self-administered online survey, which reached 80 hospice and palliative care professionals employed in the sector, was used. The response rate was 64%, which increases the generalizability of the results. Forty-one surveys were completed fully and included in the study. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Frederick University in Cyprus (EEBK EP 2019.01.28).
Results: This study shows that self-awareness, reflexivity, and respect toward the other and other people's culture and religion are associated with the current knowledge-base of the professionals, as well as attitudes toward future learning opportunities, lifelong learning, and initiating learning between professionals and agencies. The results present three themes: knowledge development, knowledge empowerment, and knowledge exchange.
Conclusions: Professionals and organizations need to nurture and promote lifelong learning, supervision, and enable individual practitioners to engage with activities that will enhance their self-awareness, reflexivity, and attitude toward the unique identities of others.
Studies on end-of-life care reveal different practices regarding withholding and/or withdrawing life-sustaining treatments between countries and regions. Available data about physicians' practices regarding end-of-life care in ICUs in Egypt is scarce. This study aimed to investigate physicians' attitudes toward end-of-life care and the reported practice in adult ICUs in Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt. 100 physicians currently working in several ICU settings in Ain Shams University Hospitals were included. A self-administered questionnaire was used for collection of data. Most of the participants agreed to implementation of "do not resuscitate" (DNR) orders and applying pre-written DNR orders (61% and 65% consecutively), while only 13% almost always/often order DNR for terminally-ill patients. 52% of the participants agreed to usefulness of limiting life-sustaining therapy in some cases, but they expressed fear of legal consequences. 47% found withholding life-sustaining treatment is more ethical than its withdrawal. 16% almost always/often withheld further active treatment but continued current ones while only 6% almost always/often withdrew active therapy for terminally-ill patients. The absence of legislation and guidelines for end-of-life care in ICUs at Ain Shams University Hospitals was the main influential factor for the dissociation between participants' attitudes and their practices. Therefore, development of a consensus for end-of-life care in ICUs in Egypt is mandatory. Also, training of physicians in ICUs on effective communication with patients' families and surrogates is important for planning of limitation of life-sustaining treatments.
BACKGROUND: Palliative care is an essential part of medical practice but it remains limited, inaccessible, or even absent in low and middle income countries.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the general knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Mozambican physicians on palliative care.
METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted between August 2018 and January 2019 in the 3 main hospitals of Mozambique, in addition to the only hospital with a standalone palliative care service. Data was collected from a self-administered survey directed to physicians in services with oncology patients.
RESULTS: Two hundred and seven out of 306 physicians surveyed answered the questionnaire. The median physician age was 38 years. Fifty-five percent were males, and 49.8% residents. The most common medical specialty was surgery with 26.1%. Eighty percent of physicians answered that palliative care should be provided to patients when no curative treatments are available; 87% believed that early integration of palliative care can improve patients' quality of life; 73% regularly inform patients of a cancer diagnosis; 60% prefer to inform the diagnosis and prognosis to the family/caregivers. Fifty percent knew what a "do-not-resuscitate" order is, and 51% knew what palliative sedation is. Only 25% of the participants answered correctly all questions on palliative care general knowledge, and only 24% of the participants knew all answers about euthanasia.
CONCLUSIONS: Mozambican physicians in the main hospitals of Mozambique have cursory knowledge about palliative care. Paternalism and the family-centered model are the most prevalent. More interventions and training of professionals are needed to improve palliative care knowledge and practice in the country.
BACKGROUND: While the majority of research assesses the impact of end-of-life dreams and visions (ELDVs) on patients, more recent research has begun to explore their impact on family caregivers (FCG).
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the relationship between general attitudes about dreams, perspectives of ELDV and their role the bereaved FCG experience.
DESIGN: Mixed-methods using a cross-sectional survey and five focus groups.
SETTINGS/SUBJECTS: A total of 500 FCGs of patients who died under hospice care were recruited for the survey. Focus group members were self-selected through identified interest from the survey.
MEASUREMENTS: In addition to demographics and ELDV prevalence, general attitude toward dreams, ELDV perspectives, and impact on grief were assessed using ad hoc surveys.
RESULTS: Participants reporting ELDVs were significantly more validating of everyday dreams (p < .001). Positive attitudes toward dreams strongly correlated with comfort from ELDVs for both patients and FCGs. Openness correlated positively with comfort from the ELDV for both the patient (r = .149, p = .038) and FCG (r = .217, p = 0.002) and negatively with fear/anxiety (r = -.141, p = 0.050). Negative ELDV perceptions (ex. ELDVs were caused by medications) affected grief in areas such as accepting the loss (r = -.235, p = .010) or maintaining connection (r = -.255, p = .010) with the deceased. Focus group discussions were thematically analyzed resulting in 4 themes: ELDV narrative, Connection, Reflection, and Other Experiences.
CONCLUSIONS: Positive general attitudes toward dreams and positive ELDV perceptions are correlated with better bereavement outcomes. Therefore, patient and family education on ELDVs that focuses on awareness and understanding of ELDVs may enhance clinical outcomes for both family and patients.
BACKGROUND: End-of-life care is provided in a variety of healthcare settings, not just palliative care hospitals. This is one reason why it is very important to assess all barriers to end-of-life care and to provide safe and quality services to patients. This study was aimed at describing nurses' attitudes in providing end-of-life care and exploring barriers and facilitating behaviors of nurses in multi-profile hospitals in Eastern Europe.
METHODS: A descriptive, correlational design was applied in this study, using a cross-sectional survey of 1320 registered nurses within 7 hospitals in Lithuania.
RESULTS: Registered nurses working in the three different profiles emphasized safe and effective care and the importance of meeting the patient's spiritual needs at the end of life. The main barriers assigned by nurses caring for patients at the end of life were angry family members, inadequate understanding of nursing care by the patient's relatives; lack of time to talk to patients, lack of nursing knowledge to deal with the bereaved patient's family, lack of evaluation of nurses' opinions, and the evasion by physicians to talk about the diagnosis and their over-optimistic view of the situation. The main facilitating behaviors to improve nursing care were end-of-life training, volunteering, and family involvement.
CONCLUSIONS: Spiritual needs were identified by nurses as the primary needs of patients at the end of life. Family-related barriers remain one of the main barriers to end-of-life care. Also, the behavior of physicians and their relationship with nurses remains one of the most sensitive issues in end-of-life care.
BACKGROUND: Many Intensive Care Unit (ICU) deaths include patient and family suffering. While there is a need to include palliative care in the ICU, such care is often unavailable.
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a course in ICU Palliative Care was associated with changes in participants' palliative care knowledge, attitudes and practices.
METHODS: Four cohorts of a national Israeli course in ICU palliative care (N = 122) were followed. Data were collected on the first and last day of a six-month course and 2-5 years later.
RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found in palliative care attitudes and practices, with knowledge levels and quality of death and dying stable after course completion. Participants reported obtaining knowledge and skills necessary to introduce palliative care but were thwarted by organizational barriers.
CONCLUSIONS: The course was successful in building participants capacity to provide palliative care however; barriers made introduction of palliative care into the ICU difficult.
OBJECTIVE: Advance request euthanasia and/or assisted suicide (AR-EAS) in persons with dementia is highly controversial. Results of typical public opinion surveys may not reflect the ethical and practical issues involved in the practice. We tested the impact of incorporating such issues in the assessment of public attitudes toward legalization of AR-EAS.
DESIGN: Online survey (April 27-30, 2020) of 1,711 adults recruited via CloudResearch PrimePanel, matched to U.S. population in age, sex, race and/or ethnicity, education, household income, and political affiliation. After assessing initial attitudes toward legalization of AR-EAS, respondents viewed one of six randomly assigned scenarios depicting an ethical or practical issue in AR-EAS; acceptability of EAS in each scenario as well as general attitudes toward AR-EAS legalization were then elicited.
RESULTS: Approximately 54.4% initially agreed/strongly agreed with AR-EAS legalization; agreement was associated with lower dementia quality-of-life rating, younger age, not being religious, liberal politics, and $75,000–$99,999 income range. After viewing the scenarios, a minority in each scenario arm found the AR-EAS depicted acceptable (20.7%–39.1%; p<0.0001 for all six arms, in comparison with initial legalization question response). Support (agree/strongly agree) for AR-EAS legalization after reading specific scenarios was generally lower (range 36.5%–49.3%; p=0.0002); change in support for legalization was associated with initial support for legalization, acceptability of AR-EAS in the scenarios, dementia quality-of-life ratings, and race.
CONCLUSION: Informing the public of the ethical and practical complexities in AR-EAS may have significant effects on their attitudes toward legalization. Future surveys should ensure that the public's views reflect sufficient exposure to these complexities.
Context: In Portugal assisted death was approved in February 2020 by the Parliament, although the law is not yet in force.
Objectives: To find out what doctors think about those practices.
Methods: A link to a questionnaire was sent by email three times, at intervals of one week, to the doctors registered in the Northern Section of the Portuguese Medical Association, before the Parliamentary approval.
Results: The questionnaire was returned by 1148 (9%) physicians. A minority of doctors would practice a form of assisted death under the present law or if it was legalized, but a higher percentage think that euthanasia should be legalized, and more would like to have that option if they themselves were in a terminal phase of a disease. Religion has a strong influence on the attitudes of doctors, so too does their contact with patients in a terminal phase, as doctors who deal with more patients with far advanced diseases are more likely to be unfavorable to assisted death. On the other hand, younger doctors are more in favor of these practices.
Conclusion: The small percentage of questionnaires sent back is a weakness in this study and casts doubts on the generalizability of the conclusions. However, this is, so far, the best approximation to the opinions of Portuguese doctors on assisted death.
BACKGROUND: Although the Belgian assessment pathway for legal euthanasia requires the engagement of at least one psychiatrist, little is known about psychiatrists' attitudes towards euthanasia for adults with psychiatric conditions (APC). This study aims to gauge psychiatrists' attitudes towards and readiness to engage in euthanasia assessment and/or performance procedures in APC.
METHODS: This cross-sectional survey study was performed between November 2018 and April 2019. The survey was sent to a sample of 499 eligible psychiatrists affiliated to the Flemish Association for Psychiatry, a professional association that aims to unite and represent all psychiatrists working in Flanders, the Dutch-speaking, northern part of Belgium. The Association's members comprise an estimated 80-90% of all psychiatrists active in Flanders. Only psychiatrists working with APC (83% of the association's total membership) were included. Factorial Anova and Chi Square tests were performed to examine if and to what extent psychiatrists' backgrounds were associated with, respectively, their attitudes and their readiness to play a role in euthanasia procedures concerning APC.
RESULTS: One hundred eighty-four psychiatrists completed the questionnaire (response rate 40.2%); 74.5% agree that euthanasia should remain permissible for APC. However, 68.9% question some of the approaches taken by other physicians during the euthanasia assessment and only half consider euthanasia assessment procedures compatible with the psychiatric care relationship. Where active engagement is concerned, an informal referral (68%) or preliminary advisory role (43.8%) is preferred to a formal role as a legally required advising physician (30.3%), let alone as performing physician (<10%).
CONCLUSION: Although three quarters agree with maintaining the legal option of euthanasia for APC, their readiness to take a formal role in euthanasia procedures appears to be limited. More insight is required into the barriers preventing engagement and what psychiatrists need, be it education or clarification of the legal requirements, to ensure that patients can have their euthanasia requests assessed adequately.
OBJECTIVE: Hospice interdisciplinary team (IDT) providers' attitudes toward sexual and gender minority (SGM) patients and family caregivers impacts quality of care and end-of-life outcomes. This study assessed hospice IDT provider attitudes toward SGM patients and caregivers and identified demographic predictors.
METHODS: Hospice IDT providers (N = 122) completed an adapted 11-item scale measuring attitudes toward SGM hospice patients and caregivers. Descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis, and regression models were conducted.
RESULTS: The hospice-adapted Attitudes Toward LGBT Patients Scale (ATLPS) demonstrated acceptable Cronbach's alpha (0.707). Total scores ranged from 32 to 55 (M = 47.04, SD = 5.64) showing that attitudes were generally positive. Being religious (B=-3.169, p = 0.008) was associated with more negative attitudes, while higher education (B = 1.951, p = 0.002) and time employed in hospice agency (B = 0.600, p = 0.028) were associated with more positive attitudes.
CONCLUSION: This is among the first studies to assess SGM-specific hospice IDT attitudes. Participants had relatively positive attitudes, influenced by religious beliefs, clinical experience, and education. CFA results suggest the need for better instruments to measure this complex construct.
PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Education incorporating evidence of disparities, life-course perspectives, and end-of-life experiences of diverse cohorts of SGM patients and families may build on hospice IDT members' experience and training by influencing attitudes, reducing bias and improving competency.
Background: Palliative care is a patient-centred, integrated approach for improving quality of life for both patients facing life-threatening illnesses and for their families. Although there has been increased interest in palliative care for non-cancer patients, the palliative care competency of nurses who care for non-cancer patients has rarely been investigated. This study described the palliative care knowledge, attitude, confidence, and educational needs in nurses who care for patients with congestive heart failure, stroke, end-stage renal disease, and end-stage liver disease; explored the relationships between those variables; and identified factors affecting nurses’ palliative care confidence.
Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational design was employed; data collection was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Seoul, Korea. Nurses who were working in general wards and intensive care units (N = 102) completed valid and reliable self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, frequencies, independent t-tests, one-way ANOVA, Pearson’s correlations, and multiple regression were conducted to analyse the data.
Results: Nurses’ palliative care knowledge level was low (9.73 ± 2.10; range = 0–20) and their attitude toward palliative care was moderate (87.97 ± 6.93, range: 30–120). Knowledge was significantly correlated with attitude (r = .29, p = .003). Nurses were highly confident in pain and symptom management but demonstrated high educational needs for managing human and material resources to provide palliative care. Previous training in hospice, palliative, and EOL care was a significant and modifiable factor that affected nurses’ confidence (std. ß = 0.25, p = .010).
Conclusions: To facilitate high-quality palliative care for non-cancer patients and families, nursing education programs should be developed to address nurses’ knowledge level, confidence level, and educational needs. This study provides relevant information that can be utilised to develop palliative care educational programs for nurses who care for non-cancer patients.
Switzerland has the longest history of the legal practice of non-physician assisted suicide of any country. Assisted suicide is not very tightly regulated in Switzerland, and almost all assisted suicides are supported by a right-to-die organisation. Our study investigates older adults' attitudes and behaviour towards assisted suicide, and the associations of these with the individuals' sociodemographic and cultural characteristics, as well as with their own health status and healthcare-related experiences in Switzerland. We performed weighted prevalence and multivariable logistic regression estimation on a nationally representative sample of adults aged 55 and over from wave 6 (2015) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) in Switzerland (n = 2168). Overall, 81.7% of respondents supported the legality of assisted suicide, as is currently the case in Switzerland, and 60.9% stated that they would potentially consider asking for assisted suicide under certain circumstances; 28.2% of respondents reported either that they are already or that they are likely to become a member of a right-to-die organisation, with 4.9% of respondents reporting to already be a member of such an organisation at the time of the survey. Higher levels of education and previous experience as a healthcare proxy were positively associated with more favourable attitudes and behaviour towards assisted suicide. Compared to individuals aged 55-64, adults aged 65-74 generally showed more favourable attitudes and behaviour towards assisted suicide. By contrast, religious persons displayed more negative attitudes and behaviour towards assisted suicide. Attitudes towards assisted suicide were also more negative in the oldest age group (75+) in comparison to adults aged 55-64, and among persons living in French- and Italian-speaking Switzerland compared to those living in German-speaking Switzerland. While approval for assisted suicide is high overall in Switzerland, more vulnerable population groups, such as older or less educated individuals, have less favourable attitudes towards assisted suicide. In addition, cultural sensitivities to and personal experiences with death and dying are likely to shape the approval or rejection of assisted suicide as it is currently implemented in Switzerland.
Pediatric palliative care (PPC) literature was utilized to identify barriers for early initiation of palliative care at diagnosis among children with life-threatening diseases. Early integration of PPC enhances quality of life and reduces suffering in these children, but many clinicians fail to initiate advanced care planning, establish goals of care, and refer to specialists. Barriers to early PPC initiation include clinician misperceptions, emotional toll on clinicians, and prognostic uncertainty about treatment options and care management strategies. Pediatric nurse practitioners can increase awareness, educate, and support other clinicians to promote early initiation of PPC in children with life-threatening diseases.
BACKGROUND: Nearly 70% of nursing home residents are eligible for palliative care, yet few receive formal palliative care outside of hospice. Little is known about nursing home staff attitudes, knowledge, skills, and behaviors related to palliative care.
METHODS: We administered a modified survey measuring attitudes toward death to 146 nursing home staff members, including both clinical and nonclinical staff, from 14 nursing homes.
RESULTS: Nursing home staff generally reported feeling comfortable caring for the dying, but half believed the end of life is a time of great suffering. Pain control (63%), loneliness (52%), and depression (48%) were the most important issues identified with regard to these patients, and there was ambivalence about the use of strong pain medications and the utility of feeding tubes at the end of life. Top priorities identified for improving palliative care included greater family involvement (43%), education and training in pain control (50%) and in management of other symptoms (37%), and use of a palliative care team (35%) at their facility.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings show there is a need for more palliative care training and education, which should be built on current staff knowledge, skills, and attitudes toward palliative care.
Introduction: Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach which is focused on both the patient and their family. Therefore the objectives of the study is to assess the knowledge and attitude towards palliative care and its associated factors among nurses in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia, 2018.
Methods: An institutional based cross-sectional quantitative study design was carried out using 355 nurses working in selected hospitals in Tigray region from February to March, 2018. Systematic random sampling was used to select six governmental hospitals. We used triangulation in the study method, making use of both Frommelt's Attitude Toward Care of the Dying (FATCOD) scale, and Palliative Care Quiz for Nursing (PCQN) knowledge. SPSS were applied for data entry and analysis. Statistical significance was declared at P<0.05. The goodness of fit the final logistic model was tested by using the Hosmer and Lemeshow test at a value of > 0.05.
Results: All the participants were able to respond. Out of the total study participants, 223 (62.8%) had good knowledge and 200 (56.3%) had a favorable attitude towards Palliative care. A medical ward had (AOR = 3.413, CI = 1.388-8.392, P = 0.019), trained Nurses [AOR = 3.488; CI = 1.735-7.015; P = 0.00) significant associated with nurses knowledge towards palliative care. Nurses working in the lemlem Karl (AOR=2.541; 95% CI; 0.013(1.106-5.835), nurses who had a 20-30 years ago had unfavorable attitude (AOR = 2.660; 95% CI; 0.002(1.386-5.106) were significant.
Conclusion: The nurses had poor knowledge. However, their attitude towards palliative care (PC) was favorable.