The current novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic will likely strain Canada’s health care system beyond capacity, and many people are expected to die as a result. In this article, we review the challenges involved in providing palliative care in a pandemic.
Background: The number of medical undergraduate and postgraduate students completing palliative care clinical rotations in Canadian medical schools is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the proportion of Canadian medical trainees completing clinical rotations in palliative care and to determine whether changes took place between 2008 and 2018.
Methods: In this descriptive study, all Canadian medical schools (n = 17) were invited to provide data at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels (2007/08–2015/16 and 2007/08–2017/18, respectively). Information collected included the number, type and length of palliative care clinical rotations offered and the total number of medical trainees or residents enrolled at each school.
Results: All 17 Canadian medical schools responded to the request for information. At the undergraduate level, palliative care clinical rotations were not offered in 2 schools, mandatory in 2 and optional in 13. Three schools that offered optional rotations were unable to provide complete data and were therefore excluded from further analyses. In 2015/16, only 29.7% of undergraduate medical students completed palliative care clinical rotations, yet this was a significant improvement compared to 2011/12 (13.6%, p = 0.02). At the postgraduate level, on average, 57.9% of family medicine trainees completed such rotations between 2007/08 and 2016/17. During the same period, palliative care clinical rotations were completed by trainees in specialty or subspecialty programs in anesthesiology (34.2%), geriatric medicine (64.4%), internal medicine (30.9%), neurology (28.2%) and psychiatry (64.5%).
Interpretation: Between 2008 and 2018, a large proportion of Canadian medical trainees graduated without the benefit of a clinical rotation in palliative care. Without dedicated clinical exposure to palliative care, many physicians will enter practice without vital palliative care competencies.
Anticipatory grief is a concept commonly used by researchers and clinicians when talking about the experience before the death of a loved one. This article offers a critical perspective on the disciplinary, theoretical and philosophical foundations of three distinct and frequently used conceptualisations of anticipatory grief: Lindemann's, Rando's and one derived from sociology. Lindemann's perspective conceived anticipatory grief as an inevitable component of the grieving experience in the situation of impending death. Rando's perspective views anticipatory grief as a multidimensional that facilitates post-mortem mourning. The third perspective, offered by sociologists, defines anticipatory grief as an experience highly influenced by the social context of the individual. This review explains how these different perspectives influence research and concludes with a reflection for potential future research.
BACKGROUND: Ethnicity may be associated with important aspects of end-of-life care, such as what treatments are received, access to palliative care and where people die. However, most studies have focused on end-of-life care of white, Hispanic and black patients. We sought to compare end-of-life care delivered to people of Chinese and South Asian ethnicity with that delivered to others from the general population, in Ontario, Canada.
METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, we included all people who died in Ontario, Canada, between Apr. 1, 2004, and Mar. 31, 2015. People were identified as having Chinese or South Asian ethnicity on the basis of a validated surname algorithm. We used modified Poisson regression analyses to assess location of death and care received in the last 6 months of life.
RESULTS: We analyzed 967 339 decedents, including 18 959 (2.0%) of Chinese and 11 406 (1.2%) of South Asian ethnicity. Chinese (13.6%) and South Asian (18.5%) decedents were more likely than decedents from the general population (10.1%) to die in the intensive care unit (ICU). The adjusted relative risk of dying in intensive care was 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15 to 1.27) for Chinese and 1.25 (95% CI 1.20 to 1.30) for South Asian decedents. In their last 6 months of life, decedents of Chinese and South Asian ethnicity experienced significantly more ICU admission, hospital admission, mechanical ventilation, dialysis, percutaneous feeding tube placement, tracheostomy and cardiopulmonary resuscitation than the general population.
INTERPRETATION: Decedents of Chinese and South Asian ethnicity in Ontario were more likely than decedents from the general population to receive aggressive care and to die in an ICU. These findings may be due to communication difficulties between patients and clinicians, differences in preferences about end-of-life care or differences in access to palliative care services.
PURPOSE: This study evaluates whether an intervention to identify Canadian patients eligible for a palliative approach changes the use of health care resources and costs within the final month of life.
METHODS: Between 2014 and 2017, physicians identified 1,187 patients in family practice units and cancer centers who were likely to die within 1 year based on diagnosis, symptom assessment, and performance status. A multidisciplinary intervention that included activation of community resources and initiation of palliative planning was started. By using propensity-score matching, patients in the intervention group were matched 1:1 with nonintervention controls selected from provincial administrative data. We compared health care use and costs (using 2017 Canadian dollars) for 30 days before death between patients who died within the 1-year follow-up and matched controls.
RESULTS: Groups (n = 629 in each group) were well-balanced in sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, and previous health care use. In the last 30 days, there was no differences in proportions between the two groups of patients regarding emergency department visits, intensive care unit admissions, or inpatient hospitalizations. However, patients in the intervention group had greater use of palliative physician encounters, community home care visits, and/or physician home visits (92.8% v 88.4%; P = .007). In the 507 pairs with cancer, more patients in the intervention group underwent chemotherapy (44% v 33%; P < .001) and radiation (18.7% v 3.2%; P = .043) in the last 30 days. Mean cost per patient was similar for the intervention group (mean, $17,231; 95% CI, $16,027 to $18,436) and for the control group (mean, $16,951; 95% CI, $15,899 to $18,004).
CONCLUSION: Even with the limitations in our observational study design, identification of palliative patients did not significantly change overall costs but may shift resources toward palliative services.
Canada’s government has tabled new legislation that would remove some of the restrictions placed on medical aid in dying, most notably the requirement that applicants suffer from a terminal condition which makes their death “reasonably foreseeable.”
The new bill will also permit eligible patients to ask for a medically assisted death in advance directives—and to have that wish respected even if they are no longer mentally able to give informed consent at time of death.
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Background: Medical Assistance in Dying (MAiD) was legalized in Canada in June, 2016. The Canadian government's decision to legislate assisted dying, an approach that requires a high degree of obligation, precision, and delegation, has resulted in unique challenges for health care and for nursing practice. The purpose of this study was to better understand the implications of a legislated approach to assisted death for nurses' experiences and nursing practice.
Methods: The study used a qualitative approach guided by Interpretive Description. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 59 registered nurses and nurse practitioners. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and managed using qualitative analysis software. Analysis followed a procedure of data immersion, open coding, constant comparative analysis, and the construction of a thematic and interpretive account.
Results: Nurses in this study described great variability in how MAiD had been enacted in their work context and the practice supports available to guide their practice. The development of systems to support MAiD, or lack thereof, was largely driven by persons in influential leadership positions. Workplaces that supported a range of nurses' moral responses to MAiD were most effective in supporting nurses' well-being during this impactful change in practice. Participants cited the importance of teamwork in providing high quality MAiD-related care; although, many worked without the benefit of a team. Nursing work related to MAiD was highly complex, largely because of the need for patient-centered care in systems that were not always organized to support such care. In the absence of adequate practice supports, some nurses were choosing to limit their involvement in MAiD.
Conclusions: Data obtained in this study suggested that some workplace contexts still lack the necessary supports for nurses to confidently meet the precision required of a legislated approach to MAiD. Without accessible palliative care, sufficient providers, a supportive team, practice supports, and a context that allowed nurses to have a range of responses to MAiD, nurses felt they were legally and morally at risk. Nurses seeking to provide the compassionate care consistent with such a momentous moment in patients' lives, without suitable supports, find themselves caught between the proverbial rock and hard place.
Background: Hospice care can improve quality of life for persons nearing end of life, yet little is known about utilization of hospice care among persons residing in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Given the increasing number of deaths that occur in LTCFs, it is important to examine hospice care practices in LTCFs.
Aim: The aim of the cross-sectional study was to describe residents who received hospice care in LTCFs and explore factors that can predict hospice use in LTCFs across Canada. This study included 185 715 residents aged 19 years or older in LTCFs in Canada in 2015.
Results: Of all residents, 2.7% (n = 4973) received hospice care and 6.8% (n = 12 684) were profiled as having an end-stage disease. Among those who received hospice care, most were noted as end stage (89.5%) and had severe physical impairment (Activities of Daily Living Hierarchy Scale = 5, 74.3%), mild-to-severe pain (Pain Scale = 1, 76.0%), and moderate-to-severe health instability (Changes in Health, End-Stage Disease, Signs, and Symptoms Scale =3, 82.9%). Residents who received hospice care were in more severe and complex clinical conditions than those who did not receive hospice care.
Conclusion: Only a small proportion of residents in LTCFs received hospice care. Further investigation of standardized assessment of terminal status is needed as accuracy of end-stage diagnosis continues to be challenging and criteria for hospice eligibility are narrow. Special attention should be paid to improve access to hospice care among residents with dementia or other progressive chronic diseases with severe and complex clinical needs.
BACKGROUND: In Canada, access to palliative care is a growing concern, particularly in rural communities. These communities have constrained health care services and accessing local palliative care can be challenging. The Site Suitability Model (SSM) was developed to identify rural "candidate" communities with need for palliative care services and existing health service capacity that could be enhanced to support a secondary palliative care hub. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of implementing the SSM in Ontario by generating a ranked summary of rural "candidate" communities as potential secondary palliative care hubs.
METHODS: Using Census data combined with community-level data, the SSM was applied to assess the suitability of 12 communities as rural secondary palliative care hubs. Scores from 0 to 1 were generated for four equally-weighted components: (1) population as the total population living within a 1-h drive of a candidate community; (2) isolation as travel time from that community to the nearest community with palliative care services; (3) vulnerability as community need based on a palliative care index score; and (4) community readiness as five dimensions of fit between a candidate community and a secondary palliative care hub. Component scores were summed for the SSM score and adjusted to range from 0 to 1.
RESULTS: Population scores for the 12 communities ranged widely (0.19-1.00), as did isolation scores (0.16-0.94). Vulnerability scores ranged more narrowly (0.27-0.35), while community readiness scores ranged from 0.4-1.0. These component scores revealed information about each community's particular strengths and weaknesses. Final SSM scores ranged from a low of 0.33 to a high of 0.76.
CONCLUSIONS: The SSM was readily implemented in Ontario. Final scores generated a ranked list based on the relative suitability of candidate communities to become secondary palliative care hubs. This list provides information for policy makers to make allocation decisions regarding rural palliative services. The calculation of each community's scores also generates information for local policy makers about how best to provide these services within their communities. The multi-factorial structure of the model enables decision makers to adapt the relative weights of its components.
PURPOSE: Online programs may help to engage patients in advance care planning in outpatient settings. We sought to implement an online advance care planning program, PREPARE (Prepare for Your Care; http://www.prepareforyourcare.org), at home and evaluate the changes in advance care planning engagement among patients attending outpatient clinics.
METHODS: We undertook a prospective before-and-after study in 15 primary care clinics and 2 outpatient cancer centers in Canada. Patients were aged 50 years or older (primary care) or 18 years or older (cancer care) and free of cognitive impairment. They used the PREPARE website over 6 weeks, with reminders sent at 2 or 4 weeks. We used the 55-item Advance Care Planning Engagement Survey, which measures behavior change processes (knowledge, contemplation, self-efficacy, readiness) on 5-point scales and actions relating to substitute decision makers, quality of life, flexibility for the decision maker, and asking doctors questions on an overall scale from 0 to 21; higher scores indicate greater engagement.
RESULTS: In total, 315 patients were screened and 172 enrolled, of whom 75% completed the study (mean age = 65.6 years, 51% female, 35% had cancer). The mean behavior change process score was 2.9 (SD 0.8) at baseline and 3.5 (SD 0.8) at follow-up (mean change = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.49-0.73); the mean action measure score was 4.0 (SD 4.9) at baseline and 5.2 (SD 5.4) at follow-up (mean change = 1.2; 95% CI, 0.54-1.77). The effect size was moderate (0.75) for the former and small (0.23) for the latter. Findings were similar in both primary care and cancer care populations.
CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of the online PREPARE program in primary care and cancer care clinics increased advance care planning engagement among patients.
The need to improve access to palliative care across multiple settings and disease groups has been identified. This requires equipping health care professionals from many different professions, including physicians and nurses, among others, with basic palliative care competencies to provide a palliative care approach. Pallium Canada's Curriculum Development Framework supports the development, deployment, and dissemination, on a large scale, of multiple courses targeting health care professionals across multiple settings of care and disease groups. The Framework is made up of eight phases: (1) Concept, (2) Decision, (3) Curriculum Planning, (4) Prototype Development, (5) Piloting, (6) Dissemination, (7) Language and Cultural Adaptation, and (8) Ongoing Maintenance and Updates. Several of these phases include iterative cyclical activities. The framework allows multiple courses to be developed simultaneously, staggered in a production line with each phase and their corresponding activities requiring different levels of resources and stakeholder engagement. The framework has allowed Pallium Canada to develop, launch, and maintain numerous versions of its Learning Essential Approaches to Palliative Care (LEAP) courses concurrently. It leverages existing LEAP courses and curriculum materials to produce new LEAP courses, allowing significant efficiencies and maximizing output. This article describes the framework and its various activities, which we believe could be very useful for other jurisdictions undertaking the work of developing education programs to spread the palliative care approach across multiple settings, specialties, and disease groups.
Background: Residents living and dying in long-term care (LTC) homes represent one of society's most frail and marginalized populations of older adults, particularly those residents with advanced dementia who are often excluded from activities that promote quality of life in their last months of life. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of Namaste Care: an innovative program to improve end-of-life care for people with advanced dementia.
Methods: This study used a mixed-method survey design to evaluate the Namaste Care program in two LTC homes in Canada. Pain, quality of life, and medication costs were assessed for 31 residents before and 6 months after they participated in Namaste Care. The program consisted of two 2-h sessions per day for 5 days per week. Namaste Care staff provided high sensory care to residents in a calm, therapeutic environment in a small group setting. Feasibility was assessed in terms of recruitment rate, number of sessions attended, retention rate, and any adverse events. Acceptability was assessed using qualitative interviews with staff and family.
Results: The feasibility of Namaste Care was acceptable with a participation rate of 89%. However, participants received only 72% of the sessions delivered and only 78% stayed in the program for at least 3 months due to mortality. After attending Namaste Care, participants' pain and quality of life improved and medication costs decreased. Family members and staff perceived the program to be beneficial, noting positive changes in residents. The majority of participants were very satisfied with the program, providing suggestions for ongoing engagement throughout the implementation process.
Conclusions: These study findings support the implementation of the Namaste Care program in Canadian LTC homes to improve the quality of life for residents. However, further testing is needed on a larger scale.
Background: Palliative care is associated with improved symptom control and quality of life in people with heart failure. There is conflicting evidence as to whether it is associated with a greater likelihood of death at home in this population. The objective of this study was to describe the delivery of newly initiated palliative care services in adults who die with heart failure and measure the association between receipt of palliative care and death at home compared with those who did not receive palliative care.
Methods and Results: We performed a population-based cohort study using linked health administrative data in Ontario, Canada of 74 986 community-dwelling adults with heart failure who died between 2010 and 2015. Seventy-five percent of community-dwelling adults with heart failure died in a hospital. Patients who received any palliative care were twice as likely to die at home compared with those who did not receive it (adjusted odds ratio 2.12 [95% CI, 2.03–2.20]; P<0.01). Delivery of home-based palliative care had a higher association with death at home (adjusted odds ratio 11.88 [95% CI, 9.34–15.11]; P<0.01), as did delivery during transitions of care between inpatient and outpatient care settings (adjusted odds ratio 8.12 [95% CI, 6.41–10.27]; P<0.01). Palliative care was most commonly initiated late in the course of a person's disease (=30 days before death, 45.2% of subjects) and led by nonspecialist palliative care physicians 61% of the time.
Conclusions: Most adults with heart failure die in a hospital. Providing palliative care near the end-of-life was associated with an increased likelihood of dying at home. These findings suggest that scaling existing palliative care programs to increase access may improve end-of-ife care in people dying with chronic noncancer illness.
Background: Research shows that access to palliative care can help patients avoid dying in hospital. However, access to palliative care services during the terminal hospitalization, specifically, has not been well studied.
Objective: To determine whether access to palliative care varied by disease trajectory among terminal hospitalizations.
Design, Setting, Subjects: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of decedents who died in hospital in Ontario, Canada between 2012 and 2015 by using linked administrative databases.
Measurements: Using hospital and physician billing codes, we classified access to palliative care in three mutually exclusive groups of patients with terminal hospitalization: (1) main diagnosis for admission was palliative care; (2) main diagnosis was not palliative care, but the patient received palliative care specialist consultation; and (3) the patient did not receive any specialist palliative care. We conducted a logistic regression on odds of never receiving palliative care.
Results: We identified 140,475 decedents who died in an inpatient hospital unit, which represents 42% of deaths. Among inpatient hospital deaths, 23% (n = 32,168) had palliative care listed as the main diagnosis for admission, 41% (n = 58,210) received specialist palliative care consultation, and 36% (n = 50,097) never had access to specialist palliative care. In our regression, dying of organ failure or frailty compared with cancer increased the odds of never receiving palliative care by 4.07 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.95–4.20) and 4.51 (95% CI: 4.35–4.68) times, respectively.
onclusions: A third of hospital deaths had no palliative care involvement. Access to specialist palliative care is particularly lower for noncancer decedents. Inpatient units play an important role in providing end-of-life care.
PURPOSE: The 3 Wishes Project (3WP) promotes holistic end-of-life care in the intensive care unit (ICU) to honor dying patients, support families, and encourage clinician compassion. Organ donation is a wish that is sometimes made by, or on behalf of, critically ill patients. Our objective was to describe the interface between the 3WP and organ donation as experienced by families, clinicians, and organ donation coordinators.
METHODS: In a multicenter evaluation of the 3WP in 4 Canadian ICUs, we conducted a thematic analysis of transcripts from interviews and focus groups with clinicians, organ donation coordinators, and families of dying or died patients for whom donation was considered.
RESULTS: We analyzed transcripts from 26 interviews and 2 focus groups with 18 family members, 17 clinicians, and 6 organ donation coordinators. The central theme describes the mutual goals of the 3WP and organ donation-emphasizing personhood and agency across the temporal continuum of care. During family decision-making, conversations encouraged by the 3WP can facilitate preliminary discussions about donation. During preparation for donation, memory-making activities supported by the 3WP redirect focus toward personhood. During postmortem family care, the 3WP supports families, including when donation is unsuccessful, and highlights aspirational pursuits of donation while encouraging reflections on other fulfilled wishes.
CONCLUSIONS: Organ donation and the 3WP provide complementary opportunities to engage in value-based conversations during the dying process. The shared values of these programs may help to incorporate organ donation and death into a person's life narrative and incorporate new life into a person's death narrative.
OBJECTIVE: This study captured the end-of-life care experiences across various settings from bereaved caregivers of individuals who died in residential hospice.
METHODS: A retrospective, observational design using the CaregiverVoice survey with bereaved caregivers of patients in 22 hospices in Ontario, Canada. The survey assessed various dimensions of the patient's care experiences across multiple care settings in the last 3 months of life.
RESULTS: A total of 1153 caregivers responded to the survey (44% response rate). In addition to hospice care, caregivers reported that 74% of patients received home care, 61% had a hospitalization, 42% received care at a cancer center, and 10% lived in a nursing home. Most caregivers (84%-89%) rated the addressing of each support domain (relief of physical pain, relief of other symptoms, spiritual support, and emotional support) by hospice as either "excellent" or "very good." These proportions were less favorable for home care (40%-47%), cancer center (46%-54%), and hospital (37%-48%). Significantly, better experiences were reported for the last week of life where hospice was considered the main setting of care, opposed to other settings ( P < .0001 across domains). Overall, across settings pain management tended to be the highest-rated domain and spiritual support the lowest.
CONCLUSION: This is one of few quantitative examinations of the care experience of patients who accessed multiple care settings in the last months of life and died in a specialized setting such as residential hospice. These findings emphasize the importance of replicating the hospice approach in institutional and home settings, including greater attention to emotional and spiritual dimensions of care.
Background: Given a slow course of disease, end-of-life issues are understudied in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). To date, there are no data regarding symptoms at the end of life. This study examined symptom trajectories and factors associated with high symptom burden in NETs at the end of life.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of NET patients diagnosed from 2004 to 2015 and who died between 2007 and 2016, in Ontario, Canada. Prospectively collected patient-reported Edmonton Symptom Assessment System scores were linked to administrative healthcare datasets. Moderate-to-severe symptom scores (= 4 out of 10) in the 6 months before death were analyzed, with multivariable modified Poisson regression identifying factors associated with moderate-to-severe symptoms scores.
Results: Among 677 NET decedents, 2579 symptom assessments were recorded. Overall, moderate-to-severe scores were most common for tiredness (86%), wellbeing (81%), lack of appetite (75%), and drowsiness (68%), with these proportions increasing as death approached. For symptoms of lack of appetite, drowsiness, and shortness of breath, the increase was steepest in the 8 weeks before death. On multivariable analyses, the risk of moderate-to-severe symptoms was significantly higher in the last 2 months before death and for patients with shorter survival (< 6 months). Women had higher risks of anxiety, nausea, and pain.
Conclusion: A high prevalence of moderate-to-severe symptoms was observed for NETs at the end of life, not previously described. The proportion of moderate-to-severe symptoms increases steeply as death nears, highlighting an opportunity for improved management. Combined with identified factors associated with moderate-to-severe symptoms, this information is important to improve patient-centred and personalized supportive care for NETs at the end of life.
Après avoir essayé les divers outils disponibles, une maison de soins palliatifs de Québec de 15 lits souhaitait améliorer l'évaluation du risque de développer des lésions de pression, en tenant compte des recommandations d'Agrément Canada. En 2016, elle a donc développé puis implanté un formulaire combinant l'Echelle de Braden, 22 facteurs de risque identifiés lors d'une revue de littérature et l'Echelle de Performance Palliative (EPP) (traduction de Palliative Performance Scale) (Anderson, Downing, Hill, Casorso et Lerch, 1996 ; Victoria Hospice Society, 2006).
Dans un souci d'appuyer les pratiques cliniques basées sur les meilleures données scientifiques, et compte tenu de l'absence de données de validation au sujet des différentes composantes du formulaire dans le contexte des soins palliatifs, un projet de recherche a été développé afin d'évaluer la pertinence clinique de ce formulaire.
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Le Phare Enfants et Familles (Phare) est un organisme à but non lucratif qui oeuvre en milieu communautaire depuis vingt ans. Pour tenter d'approfondir les connaissances portant sur la prestation des soins palliatifs et de fin de vie (SPFV) en milieu communautaire, nous avons analysé notre expérience d'équipe. Parmi nos pratiques régulières, nous tenons une rencontre de débreffage à froid, c'est-à-dire de quelques jours à quelques semaines après chaque décès à la maison de soins palliatifs (MSP). Nous avons conduit 23 rencontres de débreffage au cours des quatre dernières années. Nous avons procédé à une analyse globale des thèmes abordés lors de chaque réunion, afin d'examiner l'expérience collective de l'équipe. Les thèmes principaux issus des rencontres des quatre dernières années ont été analysés et regroupés selon les défis et les succès rapportés par les participants.
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Background: Advance care planning (ACP) is a process that enables individuals to describe, in advance, the kind of health care they would want in the future, and has been shown to reduce hospital-based interventions at the end of life. Our goal was to describe the current state of ACP in a home-based primary care program for frail homebound older people in Vancouver, Canada. We did this by identifying four key elements that should be essential to ACP in this program: frailty stage, documentation of substitute decision-makers, and decision-making with regard to both resuscitation (i.e., do not resuscitate (DNR)) and hospitalization (i.e., do not hospitalize (DNH)). While these elements are an important part of the ACP process, they are often excluded from common practice.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional, observational study of data abstracted from 200 randomly selected patient electronic medical records between July 1 and September 30, 2017. We describe the association between demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and four key elements of ACP documentation and decision-making as documented in the clinical record using bivariate comparison, a logistic regression model and multiple logistic regression analysis.
Results: In 73% (n=146) of the patient records, there was no explicit documentation of frailty stage. Sixty-four per cent had documentation of a substitute decision-maker. Of those who had their preferences documented, 90.6% (n=144/159) indicated a preference for DNR, and 23.6% (n=29/123) indicated a preference for DNH. In multiple regression modeling, a diagnosis of dementia and older age were associated with documentation of a DNR preference, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 4.79 (95% CI 1.37, 16.71) and AOR = 1.14 (95% CI 1.05, 1.24), respectively. Older age, male sex, and English identified as the main language spoken were associated with a DNH preference. AOR = 1.17 (95% CI 1.06, 1.28), AOR = 4.19 (95% CI 1.41, 12.42), and AOR = 3.42 (95% CI 1.14, 10.20), respectively.
Conclusions: Clinician documentation of some elements of ACP, such as identification of a substitute decision-maker and resuscitation status, have been widely adopted, while other elements that should be considered essential components of ACP, such as frailty staging and preferences around hospitalization, are infrequent and provide an opportunity for practice improvement initiatives. The significant association between language and ACP decisions suggests an important role for supporting cross-cultural fluency in the ACP process.