Background: End-of-life cancer care involves multidisciplinary teams working in various settings. Evaluating the quality of care and the feedback from such processes is an important aspect of health care quality improvement. Our retrospective cohort study reviewed health care use by lung cancer patients at end of life, their reasons for visiting the emergency department (ed), and feedback from regional health care professionals.
Methods: We assessed 162 Ontario patients with small-cell and relapsed or advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Demographics, disease characteristics, and resource use were collected, and the consenting caregivers for patients with ed visits were interviewed. Study results were disseminated, and feedback about barriers to care was sought.
Results: Median patient age was 69 years; 73% of the group had non-small-cell lung cancer; and 39% and 69% had received chemotherapy and radiation therapy respectively. Median overall survival was 5.6 months. In the last 3 months of life, 93% of the study patients had visited an oncologist, 67% had telephoned their oncology team, 86% had received homecare, and 73% had visited the ed. Death occurred for 55% of the patients in hospital; 23%, at home; and 22%, in hospice. Goals of care had been documented for 68% of the patients. Homecare for longer than 3 months was associated with fewer ed visits (80.3% vs. 62.1%, p = 0.022). Key themes from stakeholders included the need for more resources and for effective communication between care teams.
Conclusions: Use of acute-care services and rates of death in an acute-care facility are both high for lung cancer patients approaching end of life. In our study, interprofessional and patient-provider communication, earlier connection to homecare services, and improved access to community care were highlighted as having the potential to lower the need for acute-care resources.
Purpose: Among individuals with COPD and/or lung cancer, to describe end-of-life health service utilization, costs, and place of death; to identify predictors of home palliative care use, and to assess benefits associated with palliative care use.
Patients and methods: We conducted a retrospective population-based study using provincial linked health administrative data (Ontario, Canada) between 2010 and 2015. We examined health care use in the last 90 days of life in adults 35 years and older with physician-diagnosed COPD and/or lung cancer identified using a validated algorithm and the Ontario Cancer Registry, respectively. Four mutually exclusive groups were considered: (i) COPD only, (ii) lung cancer only, (iii) COPD and lung cancer, and (iv) neither COPD nor lung cancer. Multivariable generalized linear models were employed.
Results: Of 445,488 eligible deaths, 34% had COPD only, 4% had lung cancer only, 5% had both and 57% had neither. Individuals with COPD only received less palliative care (20% vs 57%) than those with lung cancer only. After adjustment, people with lung cancer only were far more likely to receive palliative care (OR=4.22, 4.08-4.37) compared to those with neither diagnosis, while individuals with COPD only were less likely to receive palliative care (OR=0.82, 0.81-0.84). Home palliative care use was associated with reduced death and fewer days in acute care, and less cost, regardless of the diagnosis.
Conclusion: Although individuals with lung cancer were much more likely to receive palliative care than those with COPD, both populations were underserviced. Results suggest greater involvement of palliative care may improve the dying experience of these populations and reduce costs.
Importance: Palliative care is a patient-centered approach associated with improvements in quality of life; however, results regarding its association with a survival benefit have been mixed, which may be a factor in its underuse.
Objective: To assess whether early palliative care is associated with a survival benefit among patients with advanced lung cancer.
Design, Setting, and Participants This retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted among patients with lung cancer who were diagnosed with cancer between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2013, with follow-up until January 23, 2017. Participants comprised 23 154 patients with advanced lung cancer (stage IIIB and stage IV) who received care in the Veterans Affairs health care system. Data were analyzed from February 15, 2019, to April 28, 2019.
Exposure: Palliative care defined as a specialist-delivered palliative care encounter received after lung cancer diagnosis.
Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was survival. The association between palliative care and place of death was also examined. Propensity score and time-varying covariate methods were used to calculate Cox proportional hazards and to perform regression modeling.
Results: Of the 23 154 patients enrolled in the study, 57% received palliative care. The mean (SD) age of participants was 68 (9.5) years, and 98% of participants were men. An examination of the timing of palliative care receipt relative to cancer diagnosis found that palliative care received 0 to 30 days after diagnosis was associated with decreases in survival (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.13; 95% CI, 1.97-2.30), palliative care received 31 to 365 days after diagnosis was associated with increases in survival (aHR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.45-0.49), and palliative care received more than 365 days after diagnosis was associated with no difference in survival (aHR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.94-1.07) compared with nonreceipt of palliative care. Receipt of palliative care was also associated with a reduced risk of death in an acute care setting (adjusted odds ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.52-0.64) compared with nonreceipt of palliative care.
Conclusions and Relevance: The results suggest that palliative care was associated with a survival benefit among patients with advanced lung cancer. Palliative care should be considered a complementary approach to disease-modifying therapy in patients with advanced lung cancer.
The goal of this study was to explore quality of life in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in an attempt to single out features that could help predict the possibility of non-completion of chemotherapy. The survey tool was the Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30) with the module Lung Cancer 13 (LC-13) developed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. The assessment of quality of life (QoL) was performed in 58 patients with advanced NSCLC before palliative chemotherapy and it was repeated in 43 patients who completed at least three cycles of chemotherapy. We found that the patients who failed to complete the chemotherapy course distinctly showed, in contradistinction to those who completed it, poor physical functioning in (67.6 ± 16.3 vs. 78.3 ± 21.3 points, respectively, p < 0.05) and the lack of appetite (27.1 ± 38.0 vs. 48.9 ± 37.5 points, respectively p < 0.05). At the end of palliative chemotherapy alopecia, sore throat, and constipation significantly worsened QoL, but global health status remained unchanged. In conclusion, poor physical functioning and loss of appetite seem to harbinger a risk of non-completion of chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC.
BACKGROUND: The end-of-life period is a crucial time in lung cancer care. To have a better understanding of the racial-ethnic disparities in health care expenditures, access, and quality, we evaluated these disparities specifically in the end-of-life period for patients with lung cancer in the U.S.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database to analyze characteristics of lung cancer care among those diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011. Linear and logistic regression models were constructed to measure racial-ethnic disparities in end-of-life care cost and utilization among non-Hispanic (NH) Asian, NH black, Hispanic, and NH white patients while controlling for other risk factors such as age, sex, and SEER geographic region.
RESULTS: Total costs and hospital utilization were, on average, greater among racial-ethnic minorities compared with NH white patients in the last month of life. Among patients with NSCLC, the relative total costs were 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.33) for NH black patients, 1.36 (95% CI, 1.25-1.49) for NH Asian patients, and 1.21 (95% CI, 1.07-1.38) for Hispanic patients. Additionally, the odds of being admitted to a hospital for NH black, NH Asian, and Hispanic patients were 1.22 (95% CI, 1.15-1.30), 1.47 (95% CI, 1.32-1.63), and 1.18 (95% CI, 1.01-1.38) times that of NH white patients, respectively. Similar results were found for patients with SCLC.
CONCLUSION: Minority patients with lung cancer have significantly higher end-of-life medical expenditures than NH white patients, which may be explained by a greater intensity of care in the end-of-life period.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This study investigated racial-ethnic disparities in the cost and utilization of medical care among lung cancer patients during the end-of-life period. Compared with non-Hispanic white patients, racial-ethnic minority patients were more likely to receive intensive care in their final month of life and had statistically significantly higher end-of-life care costs. The findings of this study may lead to a better understanding of the racial-ethnic disparities in end-of-life care, which can better inform future end-of-life interventions and help health care providers develop less intensive and more equitable care, such as culturally competent advanced care planning programs, for all patients.
Introduction: Early palliative care (PC) integrated with oncology care improves quality of life (QOL), depression symptoms, illness understanding, and end-of-life (EOL) care for patients with advanced lung cancer. The aims of this trial are to compare the effect of delivering early integrated PC through telehealth versus in-person on patient and caregiver outcomes. We hypothesize that both modalities for delivering early PC would be equivalent for improving patient QOL, communication about EOL care preferences with their oncologist, and length of stay in hospice.
Methods: For this comparative effectiveness trial, we will enroll and randomize 1250 adult patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who are not being treated with curative intent, to receive either early integrated telehealth or in-person PC at 20 cancer centers throughout the United States. Patients may also invite a family caregiver to participate in the study. Patients and their caregivers in both study groups meet at least every four weeks with a PC clinician from within 12 weeks of patient diagnosis of advanced NSCLC until death. Participants complete measures of QOL, mood, and quality of communication with oncologists at baseline before randomization and at 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks. Information on health care utilization, including length of stay in hospice, will be collected from patients' health records. To test equivalence in outcomes between study groups, we will compute analysis of covariance and mixed linear models, controlling for baseline scores and study site.
Study Implementation and Stakeholder Engagement: To ensure that this comparative effectiveness trial and findings are as patient centered and meaningful as possible, we have incorporated a robust patient and stakeholder engagement plan. Our stakeholder partners include (1) patients/families, (2) PC clinicians, (3) telehealth experts and clinician users, (4) representatives from health care systems and medical insurance providers, and (5) health care policy makers and advocates. These stakeholders will inform and provide feedback about every phase of study implementation.
OBJECTIVES: Despite recent advances in thoracic oncology, most patients with metastatic lung cancer die within months of diagnosis. Aggressiveness of their end-of-life (EOL) care has been the subject of numerous studies. This study was undertaken to evaluate the literature on aggressive inpatient EOL care for lung cancer and analyse the evolution of its aggressiveness over time.
METHODS: A systematic international literature search restricted to English-language publications used terms associated with aggressiveness of care, EOL and their synonyms. Two independent researchers screened for eligibility and extracted all data and another a random 10% sample of the abstracts. Electronic Medline and Embase databases were searched (2000-20 September 2018). EOL-care aggressiveness was defined as follows: 1) chemotherapy administered during the last 14 days of life (DOL) or new chemotherapy regimen during the last 30 DOL; 2) >2 emergency department visits; 3) >1 hospitalisation during the last 30 DOL; 4) ICU admission during the last 30 DOL and 5) palliative care started <3 days before death.
RESULTS: Among the 150 articles identified, 42 were retained for review: 1 clinical trial, 3 observational cohorts, 21 retrospective analyses and 17 administrative data-based studies. The percentage of patients subjected to aggressive therapy seems to have increased over time. Early management by palliative care teams seems to limit aggressive care.
CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis indicated very frequent aggressive EOL care for patients with lung cancer, regardless of the definition used. The extent of that aggressiveness and its impact on healthcare costs warrant further studies.
BACKGROUND: The American Society of Clinical Oncology recently recommends patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) should be offered palliative care services earlier. We sought to investigate the timing of palliative care referral of Chinese patients with NSCLC in our center.
METHOD: Retrospective medical data including demographic characteristics and referral information were collected for analysis. Overall survival (OS) was calculated as the time since cancer diagnosis till patient's death. The time interval from palliative care (PC) referral to a patient's death (PC-D) was calculated. The PC-D/OS ratio was calculated to illustrate the comparison of the duration of PC in the overall length of disease.
RESULTS: The mean age of 155 patients with advanced NSCLC was 62.83 years. Before referral to PC, 128 patients received anticancer treatment including surgeon (46.5%). Sixty-three (40.6%) patients died in palliative care unit. The median OS of 144 patients with end cutoff was 19 months (mean = 31.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 25.86-37.12). The median PC-D was 41 days (mean = 73.84, 95% CI = 60.37-87.40). The mean interval of PC-D/OS of 144 patients with definitely death time was 0.22 (SD: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.17-0.26). The median interval was 0.089. More than half of patients (n = 75, 51.8%) underwent PC less than 1% time (PC-D/OS < 0.1) of their whole disease course. Patients who were indigenous to Shanghai (P = .013) and who had brain metastasis (P = .072) had the potential longer PC-D/OS ratio. A high proportion of patients reported loss of appetite (92.8%) and fatigue (91.4%) at the initial of referral to PC.
CONCLUSION: This retrospective study, in a population of patients with advanced NSCLC, gave detailed information about PC services in a tertiary cancer center.
BACKGROUND: Although the benefits of palliative care for patients with cancer has been well established, the current utilization pattern remains largely unknown. The authors investigated the temporal trends and service settings of palliative care among Medicare beneficiaries with newly diagnosed, metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
METHODS: In total, 69,414 patients with NSCLC were identified between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2013 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare-linked database. Temporal trends in palliative care use and the temporal shift in palliative care service settings were assessed using the Cochran-Armitage test. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify predictors for the receipt of palliative care, controlling for patients' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics.
RESULTS: Fifteen percent (10,359) of patients with NSCLC received palliative care within 1 year of a diagnosis of metastatic NSCLC. The proportion of beneficiaries receiving palliative care increased from 3.6% in 2001 to 31.9% in 2013 (P for trend <.001). Multivariable analyses demonstrated that receipt of palliative care varied significantly by sex, race, and region. Most patients (53.5%) had their first receipt of palliative care in a hospital. Less than one-third of patients (27.6%) received palliative care in an outpatient setting or received palliative care in more than 1 service setting (26.3%) in 2013.
CONCLUSIONS: The number of patients with metastatic NSCLC receiving palliative care has increased substantially. Although the hospital-based program is still the main form of palliative care delivery, more patients in recent years have received palliative care services in multiple locations.
Background: Limited evidence exists on the impact of palliative rehabilitation during systemic treatment of advanced cancer.
Aim: To explore the experiences and perceptions of patients and healthcare professionals on the feasibility and acceptability of palliative rehabilitation during advanced lung cancer treatment.
Design: Qualitative design using individual semi-structured interviews transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically.
Setting/participants: Eight patients and six healthcare professionals were recruited from a regional cancer centre in the United Kingdom following completion of a 6-week individualised behaviour change study which combined physical activity and nutritional guidance.
Results: Palliative rehabilitation and study participation were positively viewed by both participants and healthcare professionals. Five themes were identified from patient interviews within an overarching theme of living with and beyond an advanced cancer diagnosis: (1) challenges of living with incurable cancer, (2) personal and altruistic reasons for participating in rehabilitation, (3) applicability of palliative rehabilitation content, (4) barriers and facilitators to adherence and (5) positive impact on self and others. Three themes were identified from healthcare professionals, within an overarching theme of palliative rehabilitation: exploring the concept (1) pre-study-mixed perceptions of palliative rehabilitation, (2) perceived benefits for patients and families and (3) lessons for future research.
Conclusion: Patients described personal benefits associated with setting their own goals for physical activity and dietary intake. Healthcare professionals who initially expressed a negative or indifferent stance towards palliative rehabilitation, displayed a mind-set change and were keen to explore further opportunities to expand the evidence base.
This dissertation provided population-based insights in the use and timing of palliative home care for end-stage COPD in Belgium and tested the applicability of a model of early-integrated palliative home care for end-stage COPD in the Flemish health care setting.
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Cough is a common problem among cancer patients, especially lung cancer patients. Gabapentin has been shown to be effective in reducing cough number and severity in patients with idiopathic refractory cough. The authors report here the successful use of gabapentin at usual doses to treat cough in cancer patients, including two with lung cancer, with minimal side effects. Gabapentin may be a useful addition to the symptom management toolbox for palliation of cancer symptoms.
INTRODUCTION: Metastatic lung cancer is an incurable disease which results in a high burden of symptoms, a poor quality of life and an expected prognosis of less than 1 year after diagnosis. Treatment shortly before death may result in potential burdensome and inappropriate hospital admissions and hospital deaths. Dying at home is, at a population level, considered a quality for good end-of-life care.
AIM: We examined what percentage of patients with metastatic lung cancer died inside the hospital and if hospital death, or other characteristics of the patient, oncologist or healthcare, were associated with treatment in the last month of life.
METHODS: This retrospective cohort study evaluated the medical records of 1322 patients with metastatic lung cancer who received care at one of 10 hospitals across the Netherlands and died between 1-6-2013 and 31-7-2015. Demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained from the medical records.
RESULTS: In total, 18% of the patients died during a hospital admission. This percentage was higher for patients who received chemotherapy (42%) or targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (25%) in the last month of life. Patients younger than 60 years of age, patients who received chemotherapy in the last month of life and patients in whom TKIs were started in the last month of life were more likely to die inside the hospital.
DISCUSSION: In the Netherlands, fewer than one in five patients with metastatic lung cancer died in the hospital and in-hospital death was associated with the relatively late use of chemotherapy or targeted therapy. Careful selection of patients for disease-modifying therapy might enhance the opportunity for patients to die at their preferred place.
Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths in developed nations. The past decade has seen the approval of numerous systemic therapies for RCC, most recently immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Nivolumab, an anti-programmed cell death 1 antibody, was superior to everolimus in a large phase 3 trial in clear-cell RCC (ccRCC), and is now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for metastatic RCC after progression on prior anti-antiangiogenic therapy. The overall response rate is 25%, and there is a subset of patients who demonstrate pseudoprogression where initial tumor growth is followed by decreased tumor burden. Differentiating between progression and pseudoprogression has been chanllenging.
Herein we report the case of a patient with metastatic ccRCC with clinical deterioration and progression after 3 doses of nivolumab who went to hospice, only to come back 6 months later with less disease.
Purpose: Baseline use of corticosteroids is associated with poor outcomes in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with programmed cell death-1 axis inhibition. To approach the question of causation versus correlation for this association, we examined outcomes in patients treated with immunotherapy depending on whether corticosteroids were administered for cancer-related palliative reasons or cancer-unrelated indications.
Patients and methods: Clinical outcomes in patients with NSCLC treated with immunotherapy who received >= 10 mg prednisone were compared with outcomes in patients who received 0 to < 10 mg of prednisone.
RESULTS: Of 650 patients, the 93 patients (14.3%) who received >= 10 mg of prednisone at the time of immunotherapy initiation had shorter median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) times than patients who received 0 to < 10 mg of prednisone (mPFS, 2.0 v 3.4 months, respectively; P = .01; mOS, 4.9 v 11.2 months, respectively; P < .001). When analyzed by reason for corticosteroid administration, mPFS and mOS were significantly shorter only among patients who received >= 10 mg prednisone for palliative indications compared with patients who received >= 10 mg prednisone for cancer-unrelated reasons and with patients receiving 0 to < 10 mg of prednisone (mPFS, 1.4 v 4.6 v 3.4 months, respectively; log-rank P < .001 across the three groups; mOS, 2.2 v 10.7 v 11.2 months, respectively; log-rank P < .001 across the three groups). There was no significant difference in mPFS or mOS in patients receiving >= 10 mg of prednisone for cancer-unrelated indications compared with patients receiving 0 to < 10 mg of prednisone.
CONCLUSION: Although patients with NSCLC treated with >= 10 mg of prednisone at the time of immunotherapy initiation have worse outcomes than patients who received 0 to < 10 mg of prednisone, this difference seems to be driven by a poor-prognosis subgroup of patients who receive corticosteroids for palliative indications.
BACKGROUND/AIM: Because aggressive oncological management just prior to death constitutes a substantial proportion of end-of-life (EOL) costs, we investigated patterns of EOL oncologic care for stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in USA to better determine at which point in the patient's management new treatments were being initiated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The National Cancer Database was queried for stage IV NSCLC patients who received any cancer-directed therapy with known timing thereof.
RESULTS: A total of 281,990 stage IV NSCLC patients were analyzed. Of all patients, 10.8% commenced any first-course cancer therapy within four weeks of death, and 24.5% within eight weeks of death.
CONCLUSION: 10-15% of stage IV NSCLC patients start cancer therapy within four weeks of death, and 25-30% within eight weeks. This represents a population for whom cancer therapy may not be required, which has implications on reducing EOL healthcare costs.
Understanding the overuse and underuse of health-care services in the end-of-life (EoL) phase for patients with lung cancer (LC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) is important, but knowledge is limited. To help identify inappropriate care, we present the health-care utilization profiles for hospital care at the EoL of patients with LC (N = 25 553) and CRC (N = 14 911) in the Netherlands between 2013 and 2015. An administrative database containing all in-hospital health-care activities was analyzed to investigate the association between the number of days patients spent in the emergency department (ED) or intensive care unit (ICU) and their exposure to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Fewer patients received hospital care as death neared, but their intensity of care increased. In the last month of life, the average numbers of hospital bed days, ICU days, and ER contacts were 9.0, 5.5, and 1.2 for patients with CRC, and 8.9, 6.2 and 1.2 for patients with LC in 2015. On the other hand, the occurrence of palliative consultations ranged from 1% to 4%. Patients receiving chemotherapy 6 months before death spent fewer days in ICU than those who did not receive this treatment (odds ratios: CRC = 0.6 [95% confidence interval: 0.4-0.8] and LC = 0.7 [0.5-0.9]), while those receiving chemotherapy 1 month before death had more ED visits (odds ratios: CRC = 17.2 [11.8-25.0] and LC = 15.8 [12.0-20.9]). Our results showed that patients who were still receiving hospital care when death was near had a high intensity of care, yet palliative consultations were low. Receiving chemotherapy or radiotherapy in the final month of life was significantly associated with more ED and ICU contacts in patients with LC.
Background:: Palliative care services and life-sustaining treatments are provided to dying patients with lung cancer in the United States. However, data on the utilization trends of palliative care services and life-sustaining treatments of dying patients with lung cancer are not available.
Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of the National Inpatient Sample data (2005-2014) and included patients with lung cancer, aged = 18 years, who died in the hospitals. Claims data of palliative care services and life-sustaining treatments that contained systemic procedures, local procedures, or surgeries were extracted. Compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) using Rao-Scott correction for 2 tests were used to determine the statistical significance of temporal utilization trends of palliative care services and life-sustaining treatments and their hospital costs. Multilevel multivariate regressions were performed to identify factors associated with hospital costs.
Results: A total of 120 144 weighted patients with lung cancer died in the hospitals and 41.9% of them received palliative care services. The CAGRs of systemic procedures, local procedures, surgeries, palliative care services, and hospital cost were 3.42%, 3.48%, 6.08%, 18.5%, and 5.0% (all P < .001), respectively. Increased hospital cost was attributed to systemic procedures (50.6%), local procedures (74.4%), and surgeries (68.5%; all P < .001), respectively. Palliative care services were related to decreasing hospital costs by 28.6% (P < .001).
Conclusion: The temporal trends of palliative care services indicate that their utilization has increased gradually. Palliative care services were associated with reduced hospital costs. However, life-sustaining treatments were associated with increased hospital costs.
Introduction: Lung cancer exerts a significant societal and health-care-related economic burden and chemotherapy drugs constitute a major factor of total direct cost. The aim of the present study was to assess the direct health-care cost of lung cancer in Greece by conducting a retrospective analysis on the last 6 months of life.
Methods: The present study was based on both the medical data and costs of treatment of deceased adult patients who suffered from terminal stage IIIB/IV lung cancer (non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer) during the last 6 months of their life. The study's protocol was approved by the Hospital's Research Ethics Committee. Costs included outpatient (outpatient services) and inpatient (inpatient services) costs. Descriptive statistics were mainly used for statistical analysis.
Results: The files of 144 patients were analyzed. The total cost of health-care services for the study population during the last 6 months of life was attributed by 57% to inpatient services, whereas chemotherapy costs (74%) comprised the largest proportion of the total inpatient cost. The highest expenditure for outpatient services was attributed to concomitant medication (59%), followed by the cost of tests (21%) and radiotherapy (20%).
Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that both inpatient and outpatient costs were substantial. The main inpatient and outpatient cost drivers were chemotherapy and concomitant medication, respectively. A more comprehensive nationwide study would be useful to validate our results and to include also indirect costs of cancer care in Greece.
Few data are available regarding treatment outcomes in lung cancer patients with metastasis who initiated mechanical ventilation in the emergency department (ED). We aimed to evaluate 28-day mortality in lung cancer patients with metastasis who initiated mechanical ventilation in the ED. Patients with solid malignancy who initiated mechanical ventilation in the ED of a tertiary hospital were retrospectively identified and stratified into four groups according to the presence of lung cancer and metastasis. Among 212 included patients, the mortality rates by the 28th hospital day were as follows: 44.2% (19/43) in non-lung cancer patients without metastasis, 63.2% (43/68) in non-lung cancer patients with metastasis, 52.4% (11/21) in lung cancer patients without metastasis, and 66.2% (53/80) in lung cancer patients with metastasis. In multivariable analysis, lung cancer patients with metastasis had significantly higher odds ratio for 28-day mortality than non-lung cancer patients without metastasis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 7.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.14–24.01). Sepsis-related respiratory failure (adjusted OR = 2.60, 95% CI = 1.16–5.84) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (adjusted OR = 13.34, 95% CI = 4.45–39.95) over respiratory failure without sepsis and acute organ dysfunction process measured by sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score (adjusted OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.05–12.6) were independently associated with an increase in mortality rate. In conclusion, the treatment outcomes in lung cancer patients with metastasis who initiated mechanical ventilation in the ED were poor. Aggressive resuscitation versus end-of-life care in advance of an unexpected medical crisis should be considered in lung cancer patients with metastasis via a multidisciplinary approach with a consideration of underlying comorbid illnesses in the acute organ dysfunction processes.