Objectives: Palliative care workers have continuous exposure to the emotionally draining effects of pain, suffering, death, grief, and mourning. Burnout syndrome is common among these individuals who accompany patients on the way to death. This study evaluated burnout, stress, anxiety, and depression among care givers.
Methods: A total of 47 individuals working in palliative care units or internal disease and neurology clinics participated in the study. The participants were divided into 2 groups: palliative care workers (Group P) and workers in internal disease and neurology clinics (Group A). All of the participants completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Beck anxiety and depression scales, and the Stress Appraisal Measure.
Results: A total of 47 healthcare workers agreed to complete the scales. Emotional burnout and desensitization scores were found to be elevated, and personal success scores were low in both groups. The Beck Anxiety Inventory revealed findings of moderate anxiety in both groups, while cognitive-sensorial, physiological, and pain complaints, as well as signs of stress, were more pronounced in Group A.
Conclusion: Burnout is a significant problem among healthcare workers and signs of stress and cognitive-sensorial, physiological, and pain complaints are particularly common among those working in palliative care units. Structural arrangements aimed at addressing the causes of burnout could positively affect the well-being of healthcare workers.
Objective: To investigate the clinical implications of sleep quality, anxiety and depression in patients with advanced lung cancer (LC) and their family caregivers (FCs).
Methods: A total of 98 patients with advanced LC and their FCs (n=98) were recruited from the Oncology Department in Nanfang Hospital. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), consisting of seven components that evaluate subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, duration of sleep, sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, sleep medication usage and daytime dysfunction, was used to assess sleep quality. Using the tool of Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), we tested the patients’ status of anxiety and depression, respectively.
Results: The prevalences of poor sleep quality, anxiety and depression in patients were 56.1%, 48.9% and 56.1%, respectively, while those in FCs were 16.3%, 32.6% and 25.5%, respectively. Patients had higher PSQI, SAS and SDS scores than did FCs (p<0.05). Significant correlations were found between the patients’ and FCs’ scores of PSQI/SAS/SDS (p<0.05). Multivariate Cox regression analyses indicated that sleep disturbances in patients (HR 0.413, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.80, p=0.01) and the global PSQI score of FCs (HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.71, p=0.00) were independent risk factors for patients’ first-line progression-free survival (PFS). Moreover, patients’ sleep latency (HR 2.329, 95% CI 1.36 to 3.96, p=0.00) and epidermal growth factor receptor mutations (HR 1.953, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.38, p=0.01) were significant prognostic factors for their overall survival (OS).
Conclusions: We demonstrated that presence of sleep disturbances in patients with advanced LC and the global PSQI Score of their FCs may be risk predictors for patients’ poor first-line PFS. Patients’ sleep latency was a potential risk factor for their OS.
BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders are common among cancer patients. Ketamine can quickly relieve depression, and its subcutaneous administration appears to be as effective as and probably safer than its standard intravenous administration. Herein, we report a case verifying the antidepressant effect of a subcutaneous esketamine formulation.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 65-year-old male with metastatic abdominal tumor reported sadness, weight loss, fatigue, hopelessness, insomnia, inattention, and reduced motivation. His scores on the visual analogical scale for pain and Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale were 8/10 and 30/60, respectively.
POSSIBLE COURSES OF ACTION: Monoaminergic antidepressants are effective, but their response is slow for end-of-life care.
FORMULATION OF A PLAN: Esketamine was preferred because it possibly contributes to pain relief. It can repeatedly be infused intravenously, but was subcutaneously administered twice a week for safety reasons.
OUTCOME: The patient showed continuous mood improvement, achieving depression remission on day 7. Pain relief was observed but without stability. His vital signs remained stable, and he remained calm, without major complaints.
LESSONS FROM THE CASE: Repeated subcutaneous esketamine injections are possibly safe and effective in pain and depression relief in palliative care cancer patients.
VIEW ON RESEARCH PROBLEMS, OBJECTIVES, OR QUESTIONS GENERATED BY THE CASE: Placebo-controlled studies with similar cases are needed to establish efficacy and safety.
BACKGROUND: A diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) has a significant psychological impact on both the person diagnosed and their loved ones, and can have a negative effect on family relationships. Caring for someone with a long-term progressing illness may cause anticipatory grief, i.e., experienced before a bereavement. This has been widely studied in illnesses such as dementia and cancer, but less so in relation to PD. The study aims were: (I) to demonstrate the occurrence of anticipatory grief experienced by carers of people with PD; (II) to explore how this grief relates to caregiver burden and caregiver depression and demographic variables.
METHODS: Family carers of people with moderate to advanced PD (Hoehn & Yahr stages 3-5) were invited to complete a survey, including demographic questions and three questionnaires: Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI); 16-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS); and Anticipatory Grief Scale (AGS).
RESULTS: Anticipatory grief was common among carers of people with PD [mean AGS score =70.41; standard deviation (SD) =16.93; sample range, 38-102]. Though distinct concepts, carers with higher burden and depression scores also experienced more anticipatory grief symptoms. Carers experiencing higher anticipatory grief tended to be caring for someone of a younger age, displaying more non-motor symptoms, at a more advanced disease stage, and who considered either themselves and/or their loved one as depressed.
CONCLUSIONS: Carers of people with advanced PD experienced anticipatory grief, as well as depression and a high caregiver burden. To improve carer outcomes, our focus should include the period both before and after the death of a loved one, and carers should receive regular psychological assessment and support.
BACKGROUND: Accurate awareness of the prognosis is an important factor in the treatment decision of patients with advanced cancer; however, prognostic disclosure is still subject to debate because it can reduce patient's satisfaction and increase depression.
AIM: The purpose of this study is to assess whether patients' prognostic awareness is associated with decreased quality of life (QoL) or increased depressive mood in patients with advanced cancer.
DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: In this cohort study, 386 patients with advanced cancer were recruited across 3 periods from December 2016 to August 2018. The outcome of this study was a change in QoL and depression according to the patients' prognostic awareness at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months.
RESULTS: This study found significant differences in changes of QoL based on patients' prognostic awareness. From baseline to 3 months, emotional functioning (P = .039), pain (P = .042), existential well-being (P = .025), and social support (P = .038) subscale scores improved significantly more in those with lack of prognostic awareness. Over 6 months, the group without prognostic awareness improved significantly in terms of physical functioning (P = .037), emotional functioning (P = .002), nausea/vomiting (P = .048), and constipation (P = .039) subscale scores and existential well-being scores (P = .025). No significant difference between the groups was found in terms of depression.
CONCLUSION: Accurate prognostic awareness may pose harm and may provide no additional benefits in terms of QoL and mood among patients with advanced cancer for a short period of time.
Advanced cancer patients are at an increased risk of developing depressive symptoms, which can lead to major depressive disorder and a poor quality of life. It is important that symptoms of depression to be addressed early and frequently throughout the trajectory of the disease process. Depression is underdiagnosed and therefore undertreated in advanced cancer patients. Clinicians often fail to perform regular depression screenings as recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Depressive symptoms are overlooked as they tend to overlap with the effects of disease progression and cancer treatments. Patients' complaints of anorexia, chronic pain, and sleep disturbances do not necessarily trigger practitioners to perform depression screenings. African Americans with advanced cancer are at a higher risk of developing depression, but may not identify as depressed due to the stigma of mental health in the black community. Screening tools such as the 2- and 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory II, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Distress Thermometer and Problem List are common brief instruments that can screen for depression. Providing early symptom relief of depressive symptoms through psychotherapy and pharmacologic interventions will benefit the patient, family, and caregivers while improving the quality of life throughout the trajectory of the illness.
Objective: We still don't know if recurrent major depressive disorder (RMDD) may impact the quality of the end-of-life (EOL) cancer care in France. To tackle this knowledge gap, we explored EOL care in RMDD subjects who died from cancer compared to subjects without psychiatric disorder in a 4-year nationwide cohort study.
Design: Nationwide cohort study.
Setting: National hospital database, France.
Participants: All patients aged =15 years who died from cancer in hospital: 4070 RMDD subjects and 222,477 controls, 2013-2016, France.
Main outcome measures: Palliative care in the last 31 days of life and high-intensity EOL care including chemotherapy in the last 14 days of life, artificial nutrition, tracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, gastrostomy, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, dialysis, transfusion, surgery, endoscopy, imaging, intensive care unit and emergency department admission in the last 31 days of life. Multivariate generalized mixed models with log-normal distribution was used to compare RMDD subjects and controls.
Results: Compared to the controls, the RMDD subjects died 3 years younger, had more comorbidities, more thoracic cancers, less metastases and longer time from cancer diagnosis to death. After matching and adjustment, subjects with RMDD were found to receive more palliative care and less high-intensity EOL care, had fewer iterative admissions to acute care unit, and died less often in the intensive care unit and emergency department.
Conclusions: RMDD subjects were more likely to receive palliative care associated with less high-intensity EOL care. Yet the interpretation may be discussed, resulting from either patients’/families’ wishes or difficulties for providers in offering personalized care to RMDD.
Background: Adults with metastatic cancer frequently report anxiety and depression symptoms, which may impact health behaviors such as advance care planning (ACP).
Objective: The study leveraged acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), an evidence-based approach for reducing distress and improving health behaviors, and adapted it into a multimodal intervention (M-ACT) designed to address the psychosocial and ACP needs of anxious and depressed adults with metastatic cancer. The study evaluated M-ACT's acceptability, feasibility, and efficacy potential.
Design: The study was designed as a single-arm intervention development and pilot trial.
Setting/Subjects: The trial enrolled 35 anxious or depressed adults with stage IV cancer in community oncology clinics, with a referred-to-enrolled rate of 69% and eligible-to-enrolled rate of 95%.
Measurements: M-ACT alternated four in-person group sessions with three self-paced online sessions. Acceptability and feasibility were assessed through enrollment, attendance, and satisfaction ratings. Outcomes and theorized intervention mechanisms were evaluated at baseline, midintervention, postintervention, and two-month follow-up.
Results: Participant feedback was used to refine the intervention. Of participants starting the intervention, 92% completed, reporting high satisfaction. One-quarter did not begin M-ACT due to health declines, moving, or death. Completers showed significant reductions in anxiety, depression, and fear of dying and increases in ACP and sense of life meaning. In this pilot, M-ACT showed no significant impact on pain interference. Increases in two of three mechanism measures predicted improvement on 80% of significant outcomes.
Conclusions: The M-ACT intervention is feasible, acceptable, and shows potential for efficacy in community oncology settings; a randomized trial is warranted.
Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal disease that results in poor quality of life due to progressive respiratory symptoms, anxiety, and depression. Palliative care improves quality of life and survival in other progressive diseases. No randomized controlled trials have investigated the impact of palliative care on quality of life, anxiety, or depression in IPF.
Methods: We conducted a randomized, controlled, pilot study to assess the feasibility of measuring the effect of a palliative care clinic referral on quality of life, anxiety, and depression in IPF. Patients were randomized to usual care (UC) or usual care + palliative care (UC + PC) with routine pulmonary follow up at 3 and 6 months. The UC + PC group received a minimum of one PC clinic visit. Primary outcome was change from baseline in quality of life, anxiety, and depression as measured by the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Index (HADS), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) at 6 months.
Results: Twenty-two patients were randomized between September 2017 through July 2018; 11 to UC and 11 to UC + PC. There was no difference in the change in SGRQ score at 3 months or 6 months, however, the symptom score trended towards a significant worsening for UC + PC at both 3 and 6 months (mean change at 3 months for UC and UC + PC was - 7.8 and + 10.7, respectively, p = 0.066; mean change at 6 months for UC and UC + PC was - 6.0 and + 4.6, respectively, p = 0.055). There was no difference in the change in HADS anxiety or depression scores. There was a significant transient worsening in PHQ-9 scores for UC + PC at 3 months (UC: -1.6, UC + PC: + 0.9, p = 0.008); this effect did not persist at 6 months.
Conclusion: This pilot study demonstrated that a randomized controlled trial of palliative care in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients is feasible. Receiving palliative care did not lead to improved quality of life, anxiety, or depression compared to usual care after 6 months. Patients in the UC + PC group trended towards worsening symptoms and a small but statistically significant transient worsening in depression. These findings should be interpreted with caution, and need to be evaluated in adequately powered clinical trials. NCT03981406, June 10, 2019, retrospectively registered.
BACKGROUND: Family caregivers of patients with advanced cancer have been reported to provide long hours of care and be at risk for poor psychological outcomes. Although research has focused on the nature of caregiving burden, little attention has been paid to identifying protective factors that improve caregiver psychological outcomes.
AIM: We examined the relationship between caregivers' time spent caregiving and the following psychological outcomes: anxiety, depression and caregiving esteem. Subsequently, we explored the main and moderating effects of caregiver-perceived self-competency and sense of meaning on caregiver psychological outcomes.
DESIGN/PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using the baseline data from an ongoing cohort study. Family caregivers of advanced cancer patients (n=287) were recruited from two tertiary hospitals in Singapore.
RESULTS: Time spent caregiving was not significantly associated with caregiver anxiety, depression or caregiving esteem. However, significant main effects of self-competency on anxiety and caregiving esteem; and sense of meaning on anxiety, depression and caregiving esteem were observed. Moderator analyses further indicated that self-competency attenuated the positive relationship between time spent caregiving and anxiety, while sense of meaning attenuated the negative relationship between time spent caregiving and caregiving esteem.
CONCLUSION: Greater perceived self-competency and sense of meaning are related to better caregiver psychological outcomes, and protect caregivers from worsening outcomes as caregiving hours increase. Our findings suggest that screening caregivers for distress is an important part of care, and that supportive interventions for caregivers should aim to enhance their perceived caregiving competencies and the ability to make meaning of their caregiving role.
Background: Dignity is a vitally important aspect of the lives of advanced cancer patients. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of dignity therapy in this patient population.
Methods: We searched for randomized controlled trials comparing dignity therapy versus standard care for patients with advanced cancer in five comprehensive databases (March 2019), two clinical trial registries and one gray literature database (August 2019). The quality of the studies was assessed using the risk of bias tool recommended by the Cochrane Handbook Version 5.1.0. We used GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan version 5.3. Outcomes of interest included anxiety, depression, dignity-related distress and quality of life (QoL).
Results: Ten trials evaluating 904 patients (control, 449; experimental, 455) were identified. Six trials included patients with different types of advanced cancer, and four trials included patients with a single advanced cancer (lung cancer [20%], breast cancer [10%], and hepatocellular carcinoma [10%]). Compared with the standard care, dignity therapy decreased the score of anxiety, depression, and dignity-related distress of the advanced cancer patients (SMD = -1.07, 95% CI: [-1.57, -0.58], p < .05; SMD = -1.31, 95% CI: [-1.92, -0.70], p < .05; MD = -7.30, 95% CI: [- 12.04, - 2.56], p < .05). In addition, no significant differences were found in the patient's QoL (p > .05).
Conclusion: Very low certainty evidence demonstrated that dignity therapy might be a promising treatment, especially in reducing anxiety and depression in advanced cancer patients.
Palliative care (PC) providers often prescribe psychotropic medications to address psychological and physical suffering of patients with serious medical illness. Consideration must be given to the significant medical comorbidities of the patients with serious medical illness. This article seeks to provide guidance on how to safety and effectively select a psychotropic agent for depression, anxiety, and other distressing symptoms for patients with serious illness. To do so, we draw upon a team of physicians and a pharmacist with training in psychiatric and PC to highlight the "Top 10" tips for selecting a psychotropic medication to provide relief for patients with serious medical illness.
Palliative care has long recognized the importance of treating the whole person to address a patient's physical, mental, and spiritual suffering. To address psychological suffering, palliative care often draws upon the pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy offered by psychiatry. Several new developments have occurred in the past decade within psychiatry that impact palliative care. For example, the recent updating of the Diagnostic and Stastistical Manual of Mental Disorders has led to renewed discussions on how to best distinguish grief from depression or recognize that both may be present at the same time. In this article, we draw upon a team of psychiatric, palliative care, and dual-trained physicians to highlight the “Top 10” tips from psychiatry to provide relief for patients with chronic disease or at the end of life.
BACKGROUND: This study prospectively evaluated distress, depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as associated factors in family caregivers (FC) of advanced cancer patients at initiation of specialist inpatient palliative care.
METHODS: Within 72 h after the patient's first admission, FCs were asked to complete German versions of the Distress Thermometer, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire depression module 9-item scale (PHQ-9) for outcome measure. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify associated factors.
RESULTS: In 232 FCs (62% spouses/partners), mean level of distress was 7.9 (SD 1.8; range, 2-10) with 95% presenting clinically relevant distress levels. Most frequent problems were sadness (91%), sorrows (90%), anxiety (78%), exhaustion (77%) and sleep disturbances (73%). Prevalence rates of moderate to severe anxiety and depressive symptoms were 47 and 39%, respectively. Only 25% of FCs had used at least one source of support previously. In multivariate regression analysis, being female (OR 2.525), spouse/partner (OR 2.714), exhaustion (OR 10.267), and worse palliative care outcome ratings (OR 1.084) increased the likelihood for moderate to severe anxiety symptom levels. Being female (OR 3.302), low socio-economic status (OR 6.772), prior patient care other than home-based care (OR 0.399), exhaustion (OR 3.068), sleep disturbances (OR 4.183), and worse palliative care outcome ratings (OR 1.100) were associated with moderate to severe depressive symptom levels.
CONCLUSIONS: FCs of patients presenting with indication for specialist palliative care suffer from high distress and relevant depressive and anxiety symptoms, indicating the high need of psychological support not only for patients, but also their FCs. Several socio-demographic and care-related risk-factors influence mental burden of FCs and should be in professional caregivers' focus in daily clinical practice.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Depression impacts quality of life at all life stages, but the epidemiology of depression in the last year of life is unknown. This study's objectives were to document the epidemiology of depressive symptoms in the year prior to death and to assess how the trajectory of depressive symptoms varies by sociodemographic and clinical factors.
DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional, cohort study using the Health and Retirement Study.
SETTING: Population-based survey.
PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3274 individuals who died within 12 months after assessment.
MEASURES: Primary outcome: eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-8). Covariates included sociodemographics, sel-reported illnesses, and activity of daily living (ADL) limitations.
RESULTS: Average CESD-8 score increased over the last year of life, with 59.3% screening positive for depression in the last month before death. Depression symptoms increased gradually from 12 to 4 months before death (increase of 0.05 points/month; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.01-0.08 points/month) and then escalated from 4 to 1 months before death (increase of 0.29 points/month; 95% CI = 0.16-0.39 points/month). Women, younger adults, and nonwhite adults all demonstrated higher rates of depressive symptoms. Individuals with cancer reported escalating rates of depressive symptoms at the end of life, while individuals with lung disease and ADL impairment demonstrated persistently high rates throughout the year before death.
CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed high rates of depressive symptoms in the last year of life as well as differences in the burden of depressive symptoms. A public health approach must be taken to screen for and appropriately treat symptoms of depression across the lifespan.
OBJECTIVES: Psychosocial interventions that mitigate psychosocial distress in cancer patients are important. The primary aim of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of an adaptation of the Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) program among adult cancer patients. A secondary aim was to examine pre-post-program changes in psychosocial wellbeing.
METHOD: The research design was a feasibility and acceptability study, with an examination of pre- to post-intervention changes in psychosocial measures. A study information pack was posted to 173 adult cancer patients 6 months-5 years post-diagnosis, with an invitation to attend an eight-week group-based adaptation of the MSC program.
RESULTS: Thirty-two (19%) consented to the program, with 30 commencing. Twenty-seven completed the program (mean age: 62.93 years, SD 14.04; 17 [63%] female), attending a mean 6.93 (SD 1.11) group sessions. There were no significant differences in medico-demographic factors between program-completers and those who did not consent. However, there was a trend toward shorter time since diagnosis in the program-completers group. Program-completers rated the program highly regarding content, relevance to the concerns of cancer patients, and the likelihood of recommending the program to other cancer patients. Sixty-three percent perceived that their mental wellbeing had improved from pre- to post-program; none perceived a deterioration in mental wellbeing. Small-to-medium effects were observed for depressive symptoms, fear of cancer recurrence, stress, loneliness, body image satisfaction, mindfulness, and self-compassion.
SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: The MSC program appears feasible and acceptable to adults diagnosed with non-advanced cancer. The preliminary estimates of effect sizes in this sample suggest that participation in the program was associated with improvements in psychosocial wellbeing. Collectively, these findings suggest that there may be value in conducting an adequately powered randomized controlled trial to determine the efficacy of the MSC program in enhancing the psychosocial wellbeing of cancer patients.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate prevalence and predictors of postloss distress, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and quality of life among bereaved family caregivers of patients with advanced cancer.
METHODS: Prospective multicenter study. Family caregivers (N = 160, mean age 56.8 years, 66% female) completed validated outcome measures (Distress Thermometer, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale, Patient Health Questionnaire depression module 9-item scale, SF-8 Health Survey Questionnaire) 6 months after patient's discharge or death at specialist inpatient palliative care ward.
RESULTS: Clinically relevant distress was observed in 82% with sadness (89%), exhaustion (74%), sleeping problems (68%), loneliness (53%), and sorrows (52%) being the most common distress-causing problems. Moderate/severe anxiety and depressive symptoms were observed in 27% and 35%, respectively. Compared to an adjusted norm sample, quality of life was significantly impaired with exception of "bodily pain" and physical component score. Preloss caregiving (odds ratio [OR] 2.195) and higher preloss distress (OR 1.345) predicted high postloss distress. Utilization of psychosocial support services (OR 2.936) and higher preloss anxiety symptoms (OR 1.292) predicted moderate/severe anxiety symptoms, lower preloss physical quality of life (OR 0.952), and higher preloss depressive symptoms (OR 1.115) predicted moderate/severe depressive symptoms.
CONCLUSION: Preloss mental burden showed to be a consistent predictor for postloss burden and should be addressed during palliative care. Future research should examine specific caregiver-directed interventions during specialist palliative care.
Context: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of an advance directive (AD) at the time of starting first-line palliative chemotherapy. We investigated changes in emotional distress, quality of life (QoL), and attitudes toward anticancer treatments between before and after AD.
Methods: Patients with advanced cancer who had just started palliative chemotherapy were prospectively enrolled. We assessed attitudes toward chemotherapy, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ) before conducting the AD and subsequently performed the AD after the first cycle of chemotherapy. Follow-up evaluations using same parameters were performed in the next cycle visit.
Results: During the study period, 104 patients started palliative chemotherapy. Among them, 41 patients (11 with cognitive impairment at baseline, 14 with clinical deteriorations after the first cycle of chemotherapy, 6 with follow-up loss, 7 without proxy, 3 with protocol violations) were excluded, and the AD were recommended in the remaining 64 patients (proportion of AD recommendation: 62%). Among the 64 patients, 44 agreed to conduct the AD (proportion of AD consent: 69%). There were no significant changes before and after AD in terms of HADS and EORTC-QLQ. Attitudes regarding chemotherapy were also unchanged (P = .773). A total of 36 (82%) patients followed physician's recommendations, with the exception of 8 patients who terminated chemotherapy due to refusal or loss to follow-up.
Conclusions: Considering our results showing no significant changes in depression and anxiety scores, QoL, and attitudes toward anticancer treatments after the AD, early integration of the AD at initiation of first-line palliative chemotherapy might be feasible.
Interventions for bereaved children and families range from supportive counseling, designed to promote social connectedness and expression of feelings and thoughts about the deceased, to intensive trauma/grief-specific therapy, designed to ameliorate symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. That said, professionals have few brief assessment instruments to match response and functioning to appropriate interventions. To expedite the screening and referral process for bereaved families, Brown, Goodman, and Swiecicki (2008) developed the PTSD and Depression Screener for Bereaved Youth, a 19-item measure of bereavement-related history and symptoms of PTSD and depression. The current study is a psychometric evaluation of the Screener for Bereaved Youth. Data were collected from 284 bereaved children, 6–17 years of age (M = 12.4; SD = 2.9). A factor analysis revealed distinct subscales for PTSD (eight items) and depression (four items). The PTSD and depression subscales showed both concurrent and discriminant validity. Endorsement of four items on either subscale was associated with meeting full criteria on more extensive measures of PTSD and depression. These findings are discussed with specific consideration to the multiple systems in which the measure could be used and applications to clinical services.
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association of supernatural beliefs and sense of coherence with death anxiety and death depression in a Romanian sample of cancer patients. We found support for the terror management theory worldview defence hypothesis postulating the presence of a curvilinear relation between death anxiety and supernatural beliefs among cancer patients. Results conformed to an inverted U-shape quadratic regression, indicating that cancer patients who scored moderately on supernatural beliefs were afraid of death the most, while death anxiety was lowest for the extreme atheists and extreme believers in supernatural entities.