Naissance d'un petit frère ou d'une petite soeur, séparation des parents, deuil d'un grand-parent... les enfants sont souvent confrontés à des situations déstabilisantes ; sans parler de l'actualité qui aborde des sujets sensibles tels que le chômage, le harcèlement, la guerre ou les attentats. Un moyen de trouver les mots Les parents se sentent bien maladroits pour aider leurs enfants à appréhender une réalité qui les bouleverse.
Comment expliquer en rassurant ? Comment trouver le ton juste et les paroles appropriées ? Une méthode pour communiquer sur tous les sujets délicats La psychologue Florence Millot propose de pratiquer ce qu'elle appelle la "méthode des sept portes" . Son principe ? Le dialogue, quel que soit l'âge de l'enfant.
Ethel, 7 ans, tente de faire le deuil de sa mère à l'aide de son imagination et se réfugie souvent sur sa tombe. Un jour, elle y croise Victor, 10 ans, venu assister à l'enterrement d'un grand-oncle qu'il n'a pas connu. Une amitié profonde débute entre les deux enfants et les fait basculer entre réalité et merveilleux.
La vie d'Elise bascule lorsque son grand amour, Yves, décède tragiquement. Elle s'enferme dans son passé et ses souvenirs. Eprouvée par le deuil et la tristesse, elle entreprend une thérapie avec le docteur Julian Miles. Ce dernier est touché par la fragilité de la jeune femme.
Elisa, grièvement blessée dans un accident de voiture sur la route des vacances, assiste impuissante à la mort de son bébé, brûlé vif dans l'explosion du véhicule. Après des mois de rééducation, ne parvenant pas à surmonter la douleur et la souffrance de l'absence, elle décide d'en finir. Mais elle ne parvient pas à ses fins et part en Finlande pour tenter de fuir ses démons.
Le médium Alain Joseph Bellet partage ses réflexions sur la mort, qu'il considère comme un retour du défunt à son véritable foyer. Il rapporte les propos des esprits avec lesquels il dit avoir communiqué afin de comprendre l'organisation du monde spirituel. Le deuil, la maladie, l'euthanasie, l'inhumation et l'incinération sont abordés.
Background: The high burden of bereavement in sub-Saharan Africa is largely attributable to HIV, cancer, and other non-communicable diseases. However, interventions to improve grief and bereavement are rare. Given high rates of mortality in the context of weak health systems, community lay members are well placed to provide peer bereavement support. The 9-cell bereavement tool was developed in Zimbabwe to improve community members' capacity to support the bereaved. This study aims to determine the feasibility of implementing the 9-cell bereavement tool and recruitment to experimental evaluation.
Methods/design: This feasibility cluster randomized trial with embedded qualitative interviews will be conducted in two comparable neighborhoods in Zimbabwe. Community leaders from each neighborhood will identify 25 potential community lay bereavement supporters, each of whom will recruit 2–3 bereaved community members into the trial. The intervention will be randomly allocated to one community, and the second community will form a wait-list control (n = 75 in each community cluster). Recruitment is estimated to take place over 3 weeks. Measures at T0 (baseline, i.e., week 0), T1 (midline, i.e., week 14 or 3 months post-baseline) and T2 (endline, i.e., week 27 or 3 months post-midline) will address mental health, social support, and levels of grief per individual. Qualitative data will describe lay supporters’ views of intervention training and delivery, and participants’ experience of bereavement support.
Discussion: This is the first documented trial evaluating a bereavement intervention in sub-Saharan Africa. Recruitment, retention, and measurement data will determine the feasibility of a full trial.
Trial registration: ISRCTN, ISRCTN16484746. Registered 6 February 2018.
BACKGROUND: A child's death affects not only family members but also healthcare professionals involved in patient care. However, the education system for bereavement care in Japan is not systematically established, and care provided is based on healthcare professionals' experiences. We aimed to investigate pediatricians' recognition of and actual circumstances involved in bereavement care in Japan.
METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted at four facilities in Japan. Data collected with semi-structured interviews of 11 pediatricians were assessed using inductive qualitative analysis.
RESULTS: Pediatricians' recognition of bereavement care was categorized as follows: (1) developing relationships with families before a child's death is important in bereavement care; (2) after the child dies, family involvement is left to the doctor's discretion; (3) coping with a child's death myself through past experience is essential; (4) doctors involved in a child's death also experience mental burden; and (5) a system for the family's bereavement care must be established. Two categories were established according to actual circumstances involved in bereavement care: (1) attention must be given to the emotions of the families who lost a child; (2) doctors' involvement with bereaved families depends on doctors' recognition and expertise.
CONCLUSION: Japanese pediatricians provided bereavement care to families who lost their children in a non-systemized manner. This is necessitates improvement of the self-care of healthcare professionals for grief by improving bereavement care-related education. Additionally, healthcare professionals must be trained, and a national-level provision system must be established to provide high-quality bereavement care for families who lose a child.
This longitudinal nonheroic narrative study allows familiarity with personal and societal transitions in the self-identity of individuals with life-threatening cancer. The theoretical anchor is Bion's container-contained theory. Five interviews with a terminally ill hospitalized male in his 30s were conducted along intervals of between 6 and 8 weeks, up to 2 months before his death. Data were analyzed using the selection mechanisms method. Findings provide insights about the hospitalization experience, his grief, and disenfranchised grief. A rigid mode of container-contained relationships with clinicians created disenfranchised grief. Reflection and coherence among self-identities lead to inner strength and emotional growth despite the body's deterioration. Clinicians have a role in holistic identity transitions of individuals with cancer. Findings illuminate practical recommendations that clinicians may adopt to improve the experience of individuals suffering from cancer at the chronic and terminal phase of illness.
OBJECTIVE: To describe children's anxiety, depression, behaviors, and school performance at 2-13 months after sibling neonatal/pediatric intensive care unit (NICU/PICU) or emergency department (ED) death and compare these outcomes by child age, sex, race/ethnicity, whether the child saw their sibling in the NICU/PICU/ED, and attended the sibling's funeral.
STUDY DESIGN: Children in 71 families were recruited for this longitudinal study from 4 children's hospitals and 14 other Florida hospitals. Children rated anxiety (Spence Children's Anxiety Scale) and depression (Children's Depression Inventory); parents rated child behaviors (Child Behavior Checklist) and reported school performance (detentions, suspensions, requested parent-teacher meetings) at 2, 4, 6, and 13 months post-sibling death. Analyses included repeated measures-ANOVA, t-tests, and 1-way ANOVA.
RESULTS: In total, 132 children and 96 parents participated. More children were female (58%), black (50%), and school-age (72%). Of the children, 43% had elevated anxiety and 6% had elevated depression over 13 months post-sibling death. Child-rated anxiety was higher for girls and black vs white children. Child-rated anxiety and depression were lower if they saw their sibling in the NICU/PICU/ED before and/or after the death, and/or attended the funeral. Teens were more withdrawn than school-age children at all time points. Children who did not see their deceased sibling in the NICU/PICU/ED after death had more requests for parent-teacher conferences.
CONCLUSIONS: Children's anxiety was more common than depression, especially in girls and black children. Children who saw their siblings in the NICU/PICU/ED before/after death and/or attended funeral services had lower anxiety and depression over the first 13 months after sibling death.
This article is an autoethnographic exploration of college faculty grief. Over a career, a college teacher is likely to encounter deaths of current and former students. The rich connections that can develop in a faculty-student relationship can make for strong grief. Issues that can complicate faculty grief include regrets that might be unique to faculty-student relationships and information about the deceased that the faculty member feels obligated to keep confidential and cannot mention while processing their grief with others. Faculty members may rarely have the benefit of attending funeral or memorial services for students and former students, but with the deaths of current or recent students, a faculty member is likely to have colleagues and students who knew the deceased with whom to talk. With deaths of students from long ago, a faculty member is likely to be limited to processing grief with people who never knew the deceased.
Background: Bereavement is associated with impaired mental health, increases in adverse health behaviors, and heightened risk of suicidal ideation, attempts, and death by suicide. The purpose of this literature review was to explore associations between cause of death and suicidal thoughts among bereaved individuals. Our aim was to compare incidence of suicidal ideation by cause of death and identify gaps in this literature to guide future research and clinical intervention.
Methods: PRISMA-P guidelines were used to structure an electronic literature search in the PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and Web of Science databases. The search focused on English language studies that were published before February 2019 and sought to compare rates of suicidal ideation among bereaved people who lost a loved one to suicide, accidental overdose, cancer, dementia, cardiovascular disease, and HIV/AIDs.
Results: Ten articles were identified with suicide as cause of death, zero articles for accidental overdose, zero articles for cardiovascular disease, eight articles for cancer, one article for dementia, and one article for HIV/AIDs. Given the limited number of articles generated by our search, a formal meta-analysis was not appropriate. However, a comparison of results did suggest that suicide bereavement was associated with the highest rates of suicide ideation (14.1% to 49%). Stigma, isolation, avoidance behaviors, and psychological distress were associated with suicidal thoughts among bereaved individuals, regardless of the deceased's cause of death.
Conclusions: Findings of this literature search revealed significant gaps in the literature, especially regarding thoughts of suicide in bereaved survivors of accidental overdose and cardiovascular disease. Results suggest that multiple causes of death are associated with suicidal ideation in bereavement, but that suicide bereavement may be the cause of death associated with the highest risk of suicidal ideation. More research is needed to understand the ways in which cause of death influences prevalence, risk, and protective factors associated with suicidal thoughts among bereaved individuals.
People bereaved by suicide have an increased risk of suicide and suicide attempt, yet report receiving less support than people bereaved by other sudden deaths. Reductions in support may contribute to suicide risk, yet their nature is unclear. We explored the impact of suicide bereavement on the interpersonal relationships of young adults in the UK using an online survey to collect qualitative data. We conducted thematic analysis of free-text responses from 499 adults to questions capturing the impact of bereavement on relationships with partners, close friends, close family, extended family, and other contacts. We identified four main themes describing the changes in relationships following the suicide: (1) Social discomfort over the death (stigma and taboo; painfulness for self or others to discuss; socially prescribed grief reactions); (2) social withdrawal (loss of social confidence; withdrawal as a coping mechanism); (3) shared bereavement experience creating closeness and avoidance; (4) attachments influenced by fear of further losses (overprotectiveness towards others; avoiding attachments as protective). These findings contribute to understanding deficits in support and pathways to suicidality after suicide bereavement. Such disrupted attachments add to the burden of grief and could be addressed by public education on how to support those bereaved by suicide.
Religion and spirituality often become relevant after the death of a loved one. In light of the multidimensionality of religion and spirituality, we investigate the role of communal religiosity in predicting associations between personal religiosity and bereavement outcomes. A mixed-methods analysis of interviews and questionnaires from 33 bereaved adults was conducted. Interview mentions of personal and communal religiosity, and their associations with self-reported religious coping and grief symptoms, were assessed. Personal (ß = 0.55, p < .01) and communal religiosity (ß = 0.50, p < .01) predicted positive religious coping, as well as negative religious coping and grief severity (ß = 0.53, p < .01). In addition, personal religiosity predicted more negative religious coping for participants who expressed low communal religiosity, ß = 1.58, SE = .15, t(28) = 4.08, p < .001. After loss, personal religiosity by itself is not necessarily protective. The presence of personal and communal religiosity contributes to positive religious coping, and reduced negative religious coping. However, the absence of communal religiosity indicates vulnerability.
This essay presents an account of the influence of the researcher's body within qualitative death research. It suggests that appropriate reflection on the researcher's subjectivity should consider his or her own bodily performances and experiences. At the beginning I offer some introductory thoughts in this regard, referring to Plessner's distinction between 'being a body' (Körper-haben) and 'having a body' (Leib-sein). Here, I highlight the importance of autoethnographic approaches for the understanding of bodily experiences, such as sensations, perceptions and their aesthetics. To demonstrate the importance of considering the researcher's body within the research process, I then draw on my own autoethnographic material, discussing how I experienced in my body frightening and disturbing feelings while dealing with the dead. This material was collected during a six-month internship from April to September 2016 at a small funeral home in Thuringia, Germany. I explain how I was socialised regarding my bodily behaviour towards the dead years ago and how I acquired the knowledge that touching a corpse is often taboo; describe my bodily reactions when I saw a dead body for the first time during my internship and how these reactions influenced my fieldwork; relate how my senses and perceptions when first touching a corpse led to extreme responses that drew most of my attention to the haptic and sensual dimension, making me unable to notice other information in the field; and show how these bodily experiences crossed borders and influenced my life beyond my field research.
This paper reports on experiences of dealing with practical matters after death. Semi structured interviews with bereaved individuals were thematically analyzed. Within the theme of coping, dealing with practical matters was a significant stressor and was found to be extremely challenging, time consuming, and to negatively impact on mental and emotional well-being. This study adds new insights on the challenges experienced by the bereaved when attending to practical matters and may help to inform the design of bereavement support, inform standard operating procedures of businesses, and government bereavement leave legislation.
Grief following a death loss is a common experience that all individuals face at some point in life. There, however, are only a few in-depth studies regarding grief in cultures around the world and specific roles that rituals and beliefs related to death may have in the grieving process. Results of interview data from eight grieving Turkish women revealed three themes: (a) metaphors of loss, (b) funeral rituals, and (c) rituals in relation to control and personal factors. Overall, participants' sense of control appeared to influence their grief experiences and perceptions of rituals.
Death of a relative or friend is a potentially disruptive event in the lives of adolescents. To provide targeted help, it is crucial to understand their grief and mental health experiences. Thematic analysis of 39 semistructured telephone interviews yielded two themes: Grieving apart together and Personal growth. High self-reliance and selective sharing were common. Feelings of guilt and "why" questions seemed more pronounced among the suicide bereaved. There was strong evidence of personal growth, increased maturity, and capacity to deal with personal mental health/suicidality. Despite its devastating effects, experiencing a death can be a catalyst for positive mental health.
Grief research has typically centered on one time point, without considering the impact of multiple losses over time. In this study, 546 bereaved emerging adults were divided into three groups: those who experienced a recent loss (0-2 years ago), a past loss (>2 years ago), or a combination of both recent and past losses. Differences between the groups on resilience, depression, and grief symptomatology were examined. Those who had experienced both losses (recent and past) and recent losses endorsed significantly more grief symptoms than those in the past loss group. Findings highlight how multiple losses impact grief.
Researchers have yet to explore suicide survivors activities in social organizations, which was the present purpose. I studied an Israeli organization, Path to Life, by interviewing 16 members, attending 11 events, and examining media, online, and print information. Although mainly comprised of activists whose loss occurred in civilian circumstances, frame analysis revealed that the organization emphasizes connections between suicide and esteemed military-related death. By relying on a legitimate model of dealing with death, the activists provided meaning to suicide and promoted a sociocultural change through drawing attention to a silenced death, upgrading the suicide victims' status, and enfranchising survivors' grief.
Relatively little is known about the experiences of Chinese widows, especially those living outside China. This qualitative study examines the experiences of eight Chinese or Hong Kong-born widows living in the UK. Using a semistructured approach to interviewing, participants were asked about their lives before, during, and after their spousal bereavement. Five major themes emerged: (1) complexity of marital lives; (2) experiences around the time of the death including fate; (3) loneliness and isolation; (4) the challenges of practical tasks; and finally, (5) current life. The implications of the findings for social policy and practice are briefly discussed.