The present study was designed to determine the relation between attitudes to death and perceptions of spiritual care in nursing students. It is a descriptive study and included 290 fourth-year nursing students (intern students). Data were collected with a descriptive characteristics form, Frommelt Attitude Towards Care of the Dying Instrument and Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale. SPSS version 21 was used for data analysis. There was a significant positive relation between the mean scores for Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale and Frommelt Attitude Towards Care of the Dying Instrument. It can be recommended that courses about death and spiritual care should be offered and integrated into nursing curricula.
Purpose: Head-to-head comparison of reliability, validity and responsiveness of four patient-reported outcome measures (PROMS) suitable for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in palliative care settings: EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL, FACT-G7, FACIT-Pal and short-form FACIT-Pal-14.
Methods: Secondary analysis of two phase III randomised trials: ketamine for chronic cancer pain, octreotide for vomiting in inoperable malignant bowel obstruction. Sub-groups were defined by Australia-modified Karnofsky performance status (AKPS) and participants’ global impression of change (GIC). Two aspects of reliability were assessed: internal consistency (Cronbach alpha, a); test–retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC)) of patients with stable AKPS and those who self-reported ‘no change’ on GIC. Construct validity was assessed via pre-determined hypotheses about sensitivity of PROM scores to AKPS groups and responsiveness of PROM change scores to GIC groups using analysis of variance.
Results: FACIT-Pal had better internal consistency (a ranged 0.59–0.80, 15/18 = 0.70) than QLQ-C15-PAL (0.51–0.85, 4/8 = 0.70) and FACT-G7 (0.54–0.64, 0/2 = 0.70). FACIT scales had better test–retest reliability (FACIT-Pal 11/27 ICCs = 0.70, FACT-G7 2/3 ICCs = 0.70) than QLQ-C15-PAL (2/30 ICCs = 0.70, 18/30 = 0.5). Four scales demonstrated sensitivity to AKPS: QLQ-PAL-15 Physical Functioning and Global QOL, FACT-G Functional Wellbeing and FACIT-Pal Trial Outcome Index (TOI). Nine scales demonstrated responsiveness: three in the ketamine trial population (QLQ-C15-PAL Pain, FACIT-Pal-14, FACT-G7), six in the octreotide trial population (QLQ-C15-PAL Fatigue; FACIT-Pal PalCare, TOI, Total; FACT-G Physical Wellbeing and Total).
Conclusions: No PROM was clearly superior, confirming that choosing the best PROM requires careful consideration of the research goals, patient population and the domains of HRQOL targeted by the intervention being investigated.
BACKGROUND: Palliative care for older people with life-limiting diseases often involves informal caregivers, but the palliative care literature seldom focuses on the negative and positive aspects of informal caregiving.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of proximity to end of life (EOL) and dementia caregiving with informal caregivers' burden of care and positive experiences and explain differences in outcomes.
DESIGN: Data on 1267 informal caregivers of community-dwelling older people were selected from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey and analyzed using analysis of variance and multivariable regression analyses.
MEASUREMENTS: The Self-Perceived Pressure from Informal Care Scale and the Positive Experiences Scale were administered to assess caregiver burden and positive experiences with providing care.
RESULTS: Dementia care, both at EOL and not at EOL, was associated with the most caregiver burden relative to regular care. Dementia care not at EOL was associated with the fewest positive experiences, and EOL care not in dementia with the most positive experiences. Only the differences in burden of care could be explained by variables related to stressors based on Pearlin stress-coping model.
CONCLUSIONS: Informal caregivers of people with dementia are at risk not only of high caregiver burden but also of missing out on positive experiences associated with caregiving at EOL. Future research should examine how dementia-related factors reduce positive caregiving experiences, in order to make palliative care a positive reality for those providing informal care to community-dwelling persons with dementia.
CONTEXT: The Bereaved Family Survey (BFS) is used to evaluate the quality of end-of-life (EOL) care in VA inpatient settings. The BFS consists of a global Performance Measure (BFS-PM) and three factors that relate to specific aspects of EOL care.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify empirically-based target scores on each BFS factor that are most strongly related to a rating of "excellent" on the BFS-PM.
METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of BFS and Veteran clinical data from January 2012 to January 2016. Logistic regression models were constructed for each potential cut-point on the three BFS factors and accounted for facility case-mix and nonresponse bias. Model fit was assessed primarily using the Liu Index, Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and classification accuracy values.
RESULTS: Our analytic sample included 40,180 Veterans whose next-of-kin completed a BFS. The mean BFS response rate across study years was 58%. A score of 14 or higher on the Respectful Care and Communication factor (range 0-15) had the lowest BIC (121355) and highest percent correctly classified (81.2%). The Emotional and Spiritual Support factor (range 0-9) had an optimal score of 8 or higher (BIC=133685; % correctly classified=77.1%). An optimal cut-point on the Benefits factor was not identified.
CONCLUSION: The identification of data-driven targets make BFS factor scores more useful to clinicians and administrators focused on improving quality of EOL care in their facilities. Our results lend support for prioritizing quality improvement efforts related to respectful care and communication.
BACKGROUND: Newer models of palliative and supportive cancer care view the person as an active agent in managing physical and psychosocial challenges. Therefore, personal efficacy is an integral part of this model. Due to the lack of instruments in Italian to assess coping self-efficacy, the present study included the translation and validation of the Italian version of the Cancer Behavior Inventory-Brief (CBI-B/I) and an initial analysis of the utility of self-efficacy for coping in an Italian sample of palliative care patients.
METHODS: 216 advanced cancer patients who attended palliative care clinics were enrolled. The CBI-B/I was administered along with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), the Mini Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (Mini-MAC), the Cancer Concerns Checklist (CCL), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG-PS) ratings of functional capacity were completed by physicians.
RESULTS: Factor analysis confirmed that the structure of the CBI-B/I was consistent with the English version. Internal consistency reliability and significant correlations with the EORTC QLQ-C30, Mini-MAC, and HADS supported the concurrent validity of the CBI-B/I. Differences in CBI-B/I scores for high versus low levels of the CCL and ECOG-PS supported the clinical utility of the CBI-B/I.
CONCLUSIONS: The CBI-B/I has strong psychometric properties and represents an important addition to newer model of palliative and supportive care. In order to improve clinical practice, the CBI-B/I could be useful in identifying specific self-efficacy goals for coping in structured psychosocial interventions.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Clinical management for terminal patients should consider various aspects, particularly the patient's functional assessment, which correlates well with the short-term prognosis. The prognosis could improve if the presence of symptoms strongly associated with a poorer progression were included. The study's main objective was to assess whether the prognosis according to the Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) improved with the presence/absence of pain-dyspnoea-delirium symptoms. The secondary objective was to determine caregiver satisfaction with the transfer to medium-stay palliative care units (MSPCUs), which are prepared for medium stays of approximately one month.
PATIENTS AND METHOD: We conducted a prospective, observational, multicentre (regional) study that analysed survival in MSPCUs according to the PPS dichotomized to > 20% and = 20%. We estimated the mean survival functions using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared them according to the Cox proportional hazards ratios (HR). Caregiver satisfaction was studied using an anonymous self-administered Likert questionnaire.
RESULTS: The study included 130 patients. The PPS = 20% and PPS > 20% subgroups had a median survival of 6 (3-13) days and 21 (11-42) days, respectively, with an unadjusted mortality HR 3.1-fold greater in the PPS = 20% subgroup. The HR did not change when adjusted for the symptoms. Eighty-three percent of the caregivers found the transfer beneficial, and 40% observed better patient care.
CONCLUSIONS: For patients transferred from general hospitals to MSPCUs, PPS scores = 20% were associated with survival shorter than one week, with a 3-fold higher mortality HR than patients with PPS scores > 20%, without the analysis adjusted for the presence of pain-dyspnoea-delirium providing greater prognostic accuracy. The caregivers found benefits mainly in the convenience of the facilities and distance.
PURPOSE: Previous findings have shown that depression in advanced stages of cancer is associated with hopelessness and frequently with wishes for hastened death. The current study tries to investigate the relationship between hopelessness and desire for hastened death and if depression may be a moderator and/or mediator role in patients with advanced cancer.
METHOD: The participants were 102 patients with advanced cancer which they completed the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), the Greek Schedule of Attitudes towards Hastened Death (G-SAHD), and the Greek Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).
RESULTS: Depression was highly correlated with hopelessness and desire for hastened death. Mediation analyses revealed that hopelessness influenced desire for hastened death as well as indirectly by its effect on depression. Similarly, depression was found as moderator in the relationship between hopelessness with desire for hastened death.
CONCLUSIONS: Hopelessness and desire for hastened death in patients with advanced cancer should be diagnosed and treated by taking into consideration the optimum care of depression as a priority in palliative care.
Long-term neurological conditions (LTNCs) often cause debilitating symptoms. Better understanding of symptom dimensions in LTNCs is needed to support health professionals and improve care. This can be achieved by exploring the factor structure of a standardised measure of symptoms in LTNC patients. The symptom subscale of the Integrated Palliative Outcome Scale for LTNCs (IPOS Neuro-S24) comprises 24 items measuring symptom severity. Descriptive statistics and psychometric properties of the scale were assessed, followed by differential item functioning (DIF), exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Data from N = 238 patients were analysed. The mean IPOS Neuro S-24 score was 27.0 (possible range 0–96) and floor effects were found for 21 items. The scale had good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.77). Weak evidence of DIF was found for nine items. All but one item (falls) loaded onto four factors with loadings > 0.3. The factors represented four clinically meaningful symptom dimensions: fatigue, motor symptoms, oral problems and non-motor symptoms. We identified a reliable four-factor structure of symptom experience in LTNC patients. The results suggest that symptom dimensions are common across LTNCs. The IPOS Neuro S-24 is an appropriate tool to measure symptoms in LTNC patients, which may improve care.
Cancer pain is an unrelenting symptom with the potential to alter the quality of life of patients. To adequately manage pain, nurses caring for cancer patients need to fully understand each patient's pain experience. The purpose of this study was to identify the intensity, distress, frequency, or constancy of pain in patients treated for cancer or cancer symptoms and to better understand patient barriers to pain management. This cross-sectional study included patients (N = 105) treated for cancer or cancer symptoms at 2 outpatient medical centers. Assessments included the Pain Barriers Scale, the Cancer Symptom Scale, and the Multidimensional QOL Scale–Cancer. Descriptive statistics and Spearman correlations were used to analyze the data. Sixty-nine percent of patients reported present pain of moderate to severe intensity that caused distress, was frequent/constant, or interfered with their lives. Patients with the greatest pain distress reported the greatest intensity of pain (r = 0.77) and the greatest interference (r = 0.78) with daily lives. Cancer pain was associated with significant distress and interference with life activities and occurred frequently or constantly for many study patients.
This study develops and examines the validity and reliability of 2 scales, respectively, for evaluating nursing care and the experience of difficulties providing nursing care for dying patients with cancer and their families. A cross-sectional anonymous questionnaire was administered to nursing staff caring for dying patients with cancer and their families in 4 general hospitals and a university hospital in Japan. The instruments assessed were the Nursing Care Scale for Dying Patients and Their Families (NCD) and the Nurse’s Difficulty Scale for Dying Patients and Their Families (NDD). Of the 497 questionnaires sent to nurses, 401 responses (80%) were analyzed. Factor analyses revealed that the NCD and NDD consisted of 12 items with 4 subscales: "symptom management," "reassessment of current treatment and nursing care," "explanation to family," and "respect for the patient and family’s dignity before and after death." These scales had sufficient convergent and discriminative validity, sufficient internal consistency (a of subscales: NCD, 0.71-0.87; NDD, 0.74-0.93), and sufficient test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient of subscales: NCD, 0.59-0.81; NDD, 0.67-0.82) to be used as self-assessments and evaluation tools in education programs to improve the quality of nursing care for the dying patients and their families.
Research conducted using the Haley Transcultural Strengths Assessment Interview Guide used in several studies has identified 11 sources of strength routinely utilized by parents caring for their child with intensive needs and child in hospice/palliative care. Results of past studies demonstrated this Strengths Guide (SG) interview to be an intervention bringing a heightened realization of the importance and utilization of one's inner strengths. The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term impact of this SG with a population of parents who participated in a previous study using the SG. This descriptive study was conducted using a quantitative tool, the Personal Strength Rating Scale, comparing the post-SG interview results with those results obtained 3 years later. Participants in this study were parents caring for a child receiving palliative/hospice care at home in Kenya. Results revealed the long-term retention of strengths following the SG interview 3 years previously was, for most sources of strength, equal to or greater than those obtained immediately following the SG.
BACKGROUND: The integration of palliative care into standard oncology care is supported by research to improve quality of life and symptom distress in patients with advanced cancer. In 2016, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) released practice guidelines for oncology palliative care that emphasized interprofessional assessment and management of this patient population.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of clinical guidelines on symptom distress in patients with advanced cancer.
METHODS: In two oncology palliative care clinics, the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) scores for pain, fatigue, and anxiety were measured prior to consultation (T1) and at two subsequent visits (T2 and T3). A standardized documentation template was used to measure fidelity for key guideline components.
FINDINGS: Pain, fatigue, and anxiety ESAS scores were statistically lower from T1 to T3. The frequency of patients having a decrease of 2 or more points for all symptoms increased compared to baseline data. There was 100% compliance to the documentation template during the guideline implementation.
INTRODUCTION: In palliative care, family caregivers are often faced with experiences of grief in anticipation of the loss of a close person. An instrument designed to measure this form of grief is the Anticipatory Grief Scale, which includes 27 items and has been used in several studies in various contexts. However, the instrument has not been validated.
AIM: The aim was to evaluate the psychometric properties, focusing on the factor structure, of the Anticipatory Grief Scale in a sample of family caregivers in palliative care.
METHODS: The study had a cross-sectional design. Data were collected from an intervention study in palliative home care that took place between 2013 and 2014. In total, 270 family caregivers in palliative care completed a baseline questionnaire, including the Anticipatory Grief Scale. The factor structure of the scale was evaluated using exploratory factor analysis.
RESULTS: The initial factor analysis suggested a four-factor solution, but, due to weak communalities, extensive crossloadings, and item inconsistencies, the model was problematic. Further analysis supported that the scale should be reduced to 13 items and two factors. The two subscales captured the behavioral and emotional reactions of grief in family caregivers in palliative care and were named Behavioral reactions and Emotional reactions. This modified version will hereafter be named AGS-13.
CONCLUSIONS: This validation study of the Anticipatory Grief Scale resulted in a revised two-factor model, AGS-13, that appears to be promising for use in palliative care but needs to be tested further.
Background: Accurate pain assessment in elderly population is essential for pain management and nurses have a pivotal role. The 11-face Faces Pain Scale (FPS-11) is a well-established pain assessment measure that has not been validated in the Iranian elderly.
Aim: The aim was to study the property assessment of the Iranian version of FPS-11 (FPS-11-IR) among elderly outpatients with chronic pain.
Methods: This is a cross-sectional validation study that conducted in three outpatient clinics in Tehran, Iran, in 2017. Older people aged = 60 years (n = 217) with chronic knee pain due to degenerative joint disease were participated. The construct validity was examined by applying contrast constructs, and the face validity was determined by rank-ordering test. To assess concurrent validity, the Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated between the scores of 11-point Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) and FPS-11-IR. Test-retest reliability was determined in 1-week interval.
Results: Most of elderly participants (72%) agreed that pain construct displays in faces of the FPS-11-IR and participants" agreement on face rank ordering were vary for each face, ranging from 80% to 100%. Spearman's correlation coefficient between FPS-11-IR and NRS scores was very strong (r = 0.91, P < 0.01). Intraclass correlation coefficient between test-retest scores was 0.96 that indicates excellent reliability.
Conclusions: The FPS-11-IR is a reliable and valid pain assessment scale to use in geriatric patients chronic pain.
Context: Nurses play an inevitable role in providing compassionate care and support to dying patients and their families. However, it has been a bone of contention that whether the nursing curriculum is sufficiently set to achieve this goal.
Aims: The primary objective of this study is to assess the attitude of nursing students attending a private nursing school in Central Travancore region toward the care of dying using the Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale Form-B (FATCOD-B).
Methodology: FATCOD-B was introduced among 146 participants and an arbitrary cutoff of 65% of the total score were chosen with those scoring more than that were assumed to have a positive attitude. A principal component analysis was done to identify the key constructs and mean score of the items within these identified constructs were calculated.
Results: The positive attitude toward dying was shown by 39% of participants. Most of the students' responses were averaging toward the option uncertain. A statistically significant increase in mean score by 3.15 (P = 0.02) was noticed among those who completed palliative care postings. The keys constructs identified included perception toward the end-of-life care, emotional engagement with the dying, and perceptions with respect to professional engagement with subgroup analysis showing an average mean score (standard deviation) of 4.36 (0.144), 2.25 (0.874), and 3.39 (0.85), respectively.
Conclusion: The revision of the current curriculum incorporating more palliative care postings with specific attention toward handling emotional engagement with the dying may help in developing a positive attitude.
Aim: The aim of the study is to assess which factors are associated with self-efficacy for making these decisions in surrogates of end-stage kidney disease patients.
Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted in the hemodialysis clinic of a private hospital in Mexico City. A total of 124 surrogates of patients in hemodialysis were included in the study. Self-efficacy for decision-making was assessed with the Family Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale. As factors related to decision-making self-efficacy, sociodemographic data, health information, and professional help received for dealing with end-of-life issues were assessed in both patients and surrogates. Functional status and advanced directives of the patient as well as prior experience in decision-making of the surrogates were also included. Logistic regression models were used to establish the associations.
Results: The mean age of participants was 49.4 years (standard deviation: 14). Factors associated to decision-making self-efficacy were awareness of the surrogate about the terminal disease of the patient (P < 0.001), prior conversation between the surrogate and the patient about end-of-life preferences (P = 0.037), time between the patient was told dialysis was required and accepting it inferior to 1 month (P = 0.016), and visual impairment of the patient (0.040).
Conclusions: This study provides information of which factors are associated with self-effectiveness in surrogates of terminally ill renal patients so that strategies based on these considerations might be implemented in the future.
BACKGROUND: Spiritual care competencies are among the primary professional skills that enable best practices in nursing. Assessing these competencies and identifying those that are insufficient are important tasks. The traditional Chinese version of the Palliative Care Spiritual Care Competency Scale (PCSCCS) used in Taiwan is a well-validated tool to measure palliative caregivers' competencies in providing spiritual care. However, whether this scale is valid and reliable for use with nurses in other health-care contexts is unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine this version's validity and reliability for use with nurses in mainland China.
METHODS: The PCSCCS was first converted into a simplified Chinese version (PCSCCS-M) from the traditional Chinese version used in Taiwan such that mainland nurses could read and understand it easily. Then, the validity and reliability of the PCSCCS-M was evaluated with 400 Chinese nurses recruited using convenience sampling from three university-affiliated comprehensive hospitals, two cancer hospitals, one psychiatric hospital, two traditional Chinese medicine hospitals, one marital and child service care center, and one community health service center. Concurrent validity was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficients of the PCSCCS-M and the Chinese version of the Spiritual Care-Giving Scale (C-SCGS). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to determine the construct validity. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted using another sample of 351 nurses to verify the quality of the factor structures of the PCSCCS-M. An internal consistency test based on Cronbach's alpha coefficient and a stability test based on the Guttman split-half coefficient were also conducted.
RESULTS: Useful data were obtained from 356 participants (response rate: 89%). EFA confirmed a three-dimensional structure of the scale after one item was deleted, and the three factors explained 63.839% of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficients of the three subscales were 0.811, 0.889 and 0.896, and the Guttman split-half coefficient for the PCSCCS-M was 0.862. Modified CFA indicated a well-fitting model. The correlation between the PCSCCS-M and C-SCGS was 0.340 (p < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: The PCSCCS-M is a brief, easy-to-understand, and psychometrically sound measurement tool to evaluate spiritual care competencies in nurses from mainland China.
BACKGROUND: Studies postulate that certain religious beliefs related to medical care influence the end-of-life (EOL) medical decision making and care of patients with advanced cancer. Because to the best of the authors' knowledge no current measure explicitly assesses such beliefs, in the current study the authors introduced and evaluated the Religious Beliefs in EOL Medical Care (RBEC) scale, a new measure designed to assess religious beliefs within the context of EOL cancer care.
METHODS: The RBEC scale consists of 7 items designed to reflect religious beliefs in EOL medical care. Its psychometric properties were evaluated in a sample of 275 patients with advanced cancer from the Coping With Cancer II study, a National Cancer Institute-funded, multisite, longitudinal, observational study of communication processes and outcomes in EOL cancer care.
RESULTS: he RBEC scale proved to be internally consistent (Cronbach a, .81), unidimensional, positively associated with other indicators of patients' religiousness and spirituality (establishing its convergent validity), and inversely associated with patients' terminal illness understanding and acceptance (establishing its criterion validity), suggesting its potential clinical usefulness in promoting informed EOL decision making. The majority of patients (87%) reported some (“somewhat,” “quite a bit,” or “a great deal”) endorsement of at least 1 RBEC item and a majority (62%) endorsed =3 RBEC items.
CONCLUSIONS: The RBEC scale is a reliable and valid tool with which to assess religious beliefs within the context of EOL medical care, beliefs that frequently are endorsed and inversely associated with terminal illness understanding.
BACKGROUND: Currently available indicators of quality pediatric palliative care tend to focus on care provided during the end-of-life period rather than care provided throughout the disease trajectory. We adapted a previously developed instrument focused on mothers' perspectives on the quality of end-of-life care and assessed its psychometric properties with mothers and fathers of children with cancer at any stage of the illness.
METHODS: Four subscales were included in the analysis: Connect with Families, Involve Parents, Share Information Among Health Professionals, Support Siblings. The number of items across the four subscales was reduced from 31 to 15. We conducted confirmatory factor analysis, composite reliability, internal consistency, and tests of correlation between the overall scale and subscale totals and a separate question inquiring about overall quality of care. Measurement invariance between mothers and fathers was assessed.
RESULTS: A total of 533 mothers and fathers completed the survey. The four-factor model was confirmed and there were significant correlations between each subscale score and responses to the overall item on care quality. Cronbach's alpha was adequate for the scale as a whole and for each subscale ranging from 0.78 to 0.90. We also found the factor structure, means, and intercepts were similar across mothers and fathers, suggesting the tool can be used by both groups.
CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence for a four-factor structure within a new Quality of Children's Palliative Care Instrument (QCPCI) with demonstrated reliability when used with mothers and fathers of children with cancer. Ongoing assessment of the psychometric properties is needed, including testing in additional populations. However, our initial findings suggest that the QCPCI may be a helpful tool for assessing the quality of palliative care for pediatric patients anywhere along the disease trajectory from the perspective of parents.
AIMS: Estimating survival is challenging in the terminal phase of advanced heart failure. Patients, families, and health-care organizations would benefit from more reliable prognostic tools. The Palliative Performance Scale Version 2 (PPSv2) is a reliable and validated tool used to measure functional performance; higher scores indicate higher functionality. It has been widely used to estimate survival in patients with cancer but rarely used in patients with heart failure. The aim of this study was to identify prognostic cut-points of the PPSv2 for predicting survival among patients with heart failure receiving home hospice care.
METHODS AND RESULTS: This retrospective cohort study included 1114 adult patients with a primary diagnosis of heart failure from a not-for-profit hospice agency between January 2013 and May 2017. The primary outcome was survival time. A Cox proportional-hazards model and sensitivity analyses were used to examine the association between PPSv2 scores and survival time, controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted to quantify the diagnostic performance of PPSv2 scores by survival time. Lower PPSv2 scores on admission to hospice were associated with decreased median (interquartile range, IQR) survival time [PPSv2 10 = 2 IQR: 1-5 days; PPSv2 20 = 3 IQR: 2-8 days] IQR: 55-207. The discrimination of the PPSv2 at baseline for predicting death was highest at 7 days [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.802], followed by an AUC of 0.774 at 14 days, an AUC of 0.736 at 30 days, and an AUC of 0.705 at 90 days.
CONCLUSIONS: The PPSv2 tool can be used by health-care providers for prognostication of hospice-enrolled patients with heart failure who are at high risk of near-term death. It has the greatest utility in patients who have the most functional impairment.