Background: The most important decision after diagnosing terminal cancer is whether to provide active therapy or withhold treatment.
Objective: To analyze the aggressiveness of care by evaluating systemic anticancer therapy (SACT) given near to death, describing this care and identifying factors that determine its use.
Design: This involves retrospective observational cohorts study.
Setting/Subjects: This involves patients with metastatic tumors who died at a University Hospital in Spain between 2015 and 2016.
Measurements: Data obtained from prescribing oncologists and patients' clinical records, type of cancer, and information on treatment. The dependent variable used was the interval between the date of the last dose and date of death.
Results: Ninety-four (32.60%) of 288 patients received SACT in the last month of life. This cohort had a higher frequency of lung cancer (OR: 1.58; CI 95%: 1.14-2.18), received more care from oncologist 2 (OR: 1.50; CI 95%: 1.08-2.08), had fewer last-line treatment cycles (OR: 1.28; CI 95%: 1.13-1.45), a lower subjective response (OR: 3.13; CI 95%: 1.34-7.29), less clinical benefit (OR: 2.38; CI 95%: 1.04-5.55), more visits to the Emergency Department (OR: 1.59; CI 95%: 1.06-2.38), and less care from the Palliative Care Unit (OR: 4.55; CI 95%: 2.69-7.70). In multivariate analysis, the predictors of having received SACT close to death remained: receiving fewer cycles of treatment (OR: 1.28; CI 95%: 1.12-1.47) and less palliative care (OR: 4.54; CI 95%: 2.56-7.69).
Conclusions: A third of cancer patients received SACT in the last month of life with less efficacy and poorer quality of care than patients not receiving it.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to discover the coping strategies used by Spanish (European) women to cope with a pregnancy loss. Sixteen women with miscarriages and stillbirths were interviewed. All of the women were Spanish European. The mean age of the women was 35 years, and most were university graduates, married, employed, and with living children. Audio-recorded interviews and field notes were transcribed and then subsequently coded and analyzed in individual or team sessions. Construction and confirmation of the categories and related themes derived from the data was a collaborative process. Two themes emerged regarding the coping strategies used by women: talking and avoiding. This study expands the theoretical model "Multicultural Model of Coping after Pregnancy Loss" and guides health providers regarding interventions used in practice.
Between 2014 and 2017, four patients with widespread cancer were referred to a home palliative care team from a hospital in Oviedo (Spain) with subcutaneous elastomeric infusion pump containing 180-260 mg/day of morphine for previously uncontrolled pain. 3-4 rotations were performed over 5-11 days, gradually substituting morphine for oral methadone (three times a day) to minimise the risks of rapid conversion, with a highly variable final subcutaneous morphine:oral methadone ratio (5:1 to 17:1), guided by the absence of pain, and to enhance the patient's functional capacity avoiding device dependence. The final methadone dose varied between 15 and 39 mg/day. There was daily telephone supervision and visits every 2-4 days. Patient demise occurred 56, 111, 168 and 350 days following the opioid conversion, and methadone was maintained until then. In all cases and prior to concluding the rotation, pain was controlled and sleepiness had subsided.
INTRODUCTION: The prevention and relief of suffering are regarded as a goal at the end of life; therefore, suffering assessment at the end of life is essential. In this regard, we need instruments that allow us to evaluate this construct for gathering more evidence, as the assessment of suffering is increasingly used in research and the clinical setting. Many measures have been designed to assess this construct, and the selection of the most appropriate instrument is crucial. The aims of this systematic review are to (1) identify the measures assessing suffering in patients with advanced disease and their psychometric properties and (2) evaluate the methodological quality of studies on measurement properties.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The protocol of this systematic review was developed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols Guidelines. A systematic psychometric review of measures assessing suffering in patients with advanced disease and their psychometric properties will be carried out according to the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN). The search strategy will be performed following the Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies. Searches will be conducted in Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Medline, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, SciELO, Open Grey, Scopus, Web of Science and COSMIN database of systematic reviews, and it will be limited by time (1980-2018) and language (only literature in English and Spanish). Literature will be evaluated by two independent reviewers according to the COSMIN checklist, and measurement properties data of each study that meet the inclusion criteria will be scored independently by two researchers according to COSMIN quality ratings.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not necessary for systematic review protocols. The results will be disseminated by publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at a relevant conference.
BACKGROUND: In palliative care (PC) patients and relatives (P/R) often show their gratitude to the healthcare professionals (HP) who care for them. HP appreciate these displays of gratitude, although the impact of the same has not been examined in detail. Publications analysed tell personal experiences in which HP say that displays of gratitude create sensations of well-being, pride and increased motivation to carry on caring. No systematic examination in PC was found. These aspects related to gratitude may be important in the field of PC, where there is constant exposure to suffering and the preoccupation which arises from wanting to help HP to go on with their work, but it needs closer study and systemisation. The purpose of this study is to understand the significance and the role of the gratitude received from P/R for palliative care health professionals (PCHP).
METHODS: A suitable mixed method will be used. The first phase will be quantitative and will consist of a survey, piloted by experts, whose goal is to explore the current situation in Spain as regards displays of gratitude received by HP at PC services. It will be sent by e-mail. The results from this part will be incorporated into the second part which will be qualitative and whose goal is to understand the significance of the experience of receiving displays of gratitude from the perspective of PCHP, using a phenomenological approach. Interviews will be undertaken amongst PCHP. The interview guide will be designed after taking the survey results into account. The project has been granted ethical approval.
DISCUSSION: These results are set to provide a key contribution within the context of the growing preoccupation on how to care for HP, how to ensure retention and keep them from resigning, as well as preventing burnout, emotional fatigue and boosting their resilience. In order to do this, it is both interesting and ground breaking, to analyse the repercussion of spontaneous gratitude shown by P/R towards PCHP, to see if this is a useful resource to reduce these problems and to encourage the greater presence of dignity and humanisation, for both those receiving care and for those providing it. This gratitude may be one of these strategies.
Objective: Healthcare professionals who work in palliative care units face stressful life events on a daily basis, most notably death. For this reason, these professionals must be equipped with the necessary protective resources to help them cope with professional and personal burnout. Despite the well-recognized importance of the construct "meaning of work," the role of this construct and its relationship with other variables is not well-understood. Our objective is to develop and evaluate a model that examines the mediating role of the meaning of work in a multidisciplinary group of palliative care professionals. Using this model, we sought to assess the relationships between meaning of work, perceived stress, personal protective factors (optimism, self-esteem, life satisfaction, personal growth, subjective vitality), and sociodemographic variables.
Method: Professionals (n = 189) from a wide range of disciplines (physicians, psychologists, nurses, social workers, nursing assistants, physical therapists, and chaplains) working in palliative care units at hospitals in Madrid and the Balearic Islands were recruited. Sociodemographic variables were collected and recorded. The following questionnaires were administered: Meaning of Work Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, Life Orientation Test-Revised, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Subjective Vitality Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Personal Growth Scale.
Result: The explanatory value of the model was high, explaining 49.5% of the variance of life satisfaction, 43% of subjective vitality, and 36% of personal growth. The main findings of this study were as follow: (1) meaning of work and perceived stress were negatively correlated; (2) optimism and self-esteem mediated the effect of stress on the meaning attached to work among palliative care professionals; (3) the meaning of work mediated the effect of stress on subjective vitality, personal growth, and life satisfaction; and (4) vitality and personal growth directly influenced life satisfaction.
Significance of results: The proposed model showed a high explanatory value for the meaning professionals give to their work and also for perceived stress, personal protective factors, and sociodemographic variables. Our findings could have highly relevant practical implications for designing programs to promote the psychological well-being of healthcare professionals.
BACKGROUND: Pediatric palliative care programs aim to improve the quality of life of children with severe life-threatening illnesses, and that of their families. Although rehabilitation and physical therapy provides a valuable tool for the control of symptoms, it has been poorly researched to date. Since the family represents such a fundamental support in these cases, it is important to deepen our understanding regarding the value of implementing rehabilitation programs from the parents' perspective.
AIM: The aim of this paper was to explore parents' experiences regarding the implementation of a physical rehabilitation program in pediatric palliative care.
DESIGN: A qualitative methodology was chosen.
SETTING: The unit of pediatric palliative care at the Hospital Niño Jesús (Madrid, Spain).
POPULATION: The inclusion criteria were: a) parents of children, irrespective of their diagnosis, b) integrated within the program of palliative care at the time of study, c) aged between 0-18 years, c) must be receiving Home-Based Rehabilitation Program by the Pediatric Palliative Care team. Fourteen parents were included.
METHODS: Purposeful sampling method was implemented. Data collection consisted of unstructured and semi-structured interviews. A thematic analysis was performed to interpret transcripts. Guidelines for conducting qualitative studies established by the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research were followed.
RESULTS: Three main themes were identified: a) The meaning of physical rehabilitation to parents, b) Physical rehabilitation as an opportunity for patients to stay in their home environment and c) Home-based physical rehabilitation as part of the families' social environment.
CONCLUSIONS: The main needs of a home physical rehabilitation program are to decrease pain and suffering, together with improving family education and training.
CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: The experience of rehabilitation programs at home is essential in order to improve both the quality of life and the quality of care of affected children and parents.
BACKGROUND: Family caregivers play a key role in the lives of patients with multiple myeloma. However, very little is known about the impact that the disease (its diagnosis, course and prognosis) has on the main family caregiver.
AIM: To achieve a deeper understanding of the lived experience of individuals who are the primary caregiver of a relative with multiple myeloma and to shed light on their needs.
DESIGN: Interpretative phenomenological study.
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 12 individuals who were the main family caregivers of a relative with multiple myeloma who was under outpatient follow-up at a cancer unit in Barcelona were recruited via purposive sampling until data saturation was reached. In semi-structured in-depth interviews, participants described their experiences of caring for their relative with multiple myeloma. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using ATLAS.ti v7.2. The seven steps proposed by Colaizzi were used for data analysis, and the relationships among emerging themes were examined.
FINDINGS: Four main themes emerged: (a) a new life, adapting to the disease, (b) commitment to the patient, (c) the emotional sphere and (d) experiences in relation to the care and support received. The analysis also revealed a core overarching theme: uncertainty.
CONCLUSION: Primary family caregivers experienced intense uncertainty, and they described a strong need to air their feelings. Specific practical initiatives, targeting both health-related and logistical aspects of care, need to be developed in order to support family caregivers of myeloma patients.
Background: Although studies suggest that most people prefer to die at home, not enough is known about place of death patterns by cause of death considering sociodemographic factors. The objective of this study was to determine the place of death in the population and to analyze the sociodemographic variables and causes of death associated with home as the place of death.
Methods: Cross-sectional population-based study. All death certificate data on the residents in Spain aged 15 or over who died in Spain between 2012 and 2015 were included. We employed multinomial logistic regression to explore the relation between place of death, sociodemographic variables and cause of death classified according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, and to conditions needing palliative care.
Results: Over half of all deaths occurred in hospital (57.4%), representing double the frequency of deaths that occurred at home. All the sociodemographic variables (sex, educational level, urbanization level, marital status, age and country of birth) were associated with place of death, although age presented the strongest association. Cause of death was the main predictor with heart disease, neurodegenerative disease, Alzheimer's disease, dementia and senility accounting for the highest percentages of home deaths.
Conclusions: Most people die in hospital. Cause of death presented a stronger association with place of death than sociodemographic variables; of these latter, age, urbanization level and marital status were the main predictors. These results will prove useful in planning end-of-life care that is more closely tailored to people's circumstances and needs.
OBJECTIVES: Generation and dissemination of knowledge is a relevant challenge of palliative care (PC). The Chair Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO)/University of Vic (UVIC) of Palliative Care (CPC) was founded in 2012, as a joint project of the ICO and the University of Vic/Central of Catalonia to promote the development of PC with public health and community-oriented vision and academic perspectives. The initiative brought together professionals from a wide range of disciplines (PC, geriatrics, oncology, primary care and policy) and became the first chair of PC in Spain. We describe the experience of the CPC at its fifth year of implementation.
METHODS: Data collection from annual reports, publications, training and research activities.
RESULTS: Results for period 2012-2017 are classified into three main blocks: (1) Programme: (a) The advanced chronic care model (Palliative needs (NECPAL)); (b) the psychosocial and spiritual domains of care (Psychosocial needs (PSICPAL)); (c) advance care planning and shared decision making (Advance care planning (PDAPAL)); and (d) the compassive communities projects (Society involvement (SOCPAL)). (2) Education and training activities: (a) The master of PC, 13 editions and 550 professionals trained; (b) postgraduate course on psychosocial care, 4 editions and 140 professionals trained; and (c) workshops on specific topics, pregraduate training and online activities with a remarkable impact on the Spanish-speaking community. (3) Knowledge-transfer activities and research projects: (a) Development of 20 PhDs projects; and (b) 59 articles and 6 books published.
CONCLUSION: Being the first initiative of chair in PC in Spain, the CPC has provided a framework of multidisciplinary areas that have generated innovative experiences and projects in PC.
OBJECTIVES: The knowledge of brain death is fundamental for being able to understand the organ donation process and for ensuring its acceptance or rejection. Here, we analyzed the level of knowledge of the concept of brain death among Latin-American individuals who are residents of Spain to determine the factors affecting this knowledge.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our patient group was a sample of 1314 Latin-American residents of Spain, obtained randomly and stratified according to the respondent's nationality, age, and sex. Their attitude was assessed using a validated questionnaire. The survey was self-administered and completed anonymously.
RESULTS: The questionnaire completion rate was 94% (n = 1237). Of total respondents, 25% (n = 313) knew the concept of brain death, which they considered to be an individual's death, 56% (n = 697) did not know the term, and 19% (n = 227) believed that it did not mean death. The variables related to knowledge of the brain death concept included (1) country of origin, with a better knowledge among those with Mexican nationality (P < .001); (2) male sex (30% vs 23%; P = .003); (3) having university-level education (35% vs 23%; P = .044); (4) having discussed the matter within the family (29% vs 23%; P = .044); (5) having a partner with a favorable attitude toward donation (39% vs 21%; P = .001); and (6) the respondent's religion (47% vs 7%; P < .001). The following factors persisted in the multivariate analysis: country of origin (odds ratio of 2.972), sex (odds ratio of 1.416), education level (odds ratio of 2.228), attitude of the respondent's partner (odds ratio of 1.835), and religion (odds ratio of 4.490).
CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of the concept of brain death is limited among Latin-American residents of Spain, with marked differences among country of origin and other socio-personal factors.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to translate into Spanish the Self Competence in Death Work Scale (SC-DWS) and to explore its psychometric properties of validity and reliability.
METHOD: Participants were 106 nursing professionals, who worked in units related to care at the end of life. Participants answered a questionnaire containing the Spanish forms of the Self-Competence in Death Work Scale (SC-DWS), Perceived Life Significance Scale (PLSS), Death Anxiety Inventory-Revised (DAI-R), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and General Self Efficacy Scale (GSE).
RESULTS: A Cronbach's alpha coefficient of .71 was obtained. The factorial analysis yielded five significant factors that accounted for 59.9% of the variance. The scores of the SC-DWS presented a positive and significant coefficient of correlation with Self-efficacy (GSE) and Meaning of life (PLSS) and negative with General anxiety and Depression (HADS) and Death anxiety (DAI-R).
DISCUSSION: The Spanish form of the SC-DWS has acceptable psychometric properties. This instrument could be used for evaluating competences of the professionals that work in environments related to the end of life. Likewise, it could be used to assess the efficiency of interventions directed to the acquisition of skills and coping strategies for suffering and death.
Objectives: To describe the advanced chronic patients admitted to an internal medicine department and to identify whether they meet the criteria for the need for palliative care at the time of hospital discharge according to the NECPAL-CCOMS.ICO® instrument.
Material and methods: Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study performed on patients admitted to the internal medicine department of the Hospital Clínico Universitario Lozano Blesa (Saragossa), with a diagnosis of advanced progressive chronic diseases, from May 1, 2017 to September 1, 2017 Variables: sex, age, advanced chronic disease, reason for admission, primary caregiver, origin (residence, address, etc.), number of readmissions in the previous year, existence of advance directives, disability of the patient, existence of order not to resuscitate, Charlson Index and all the variables contained in the NECPAL Instrument CCOMS-ICO® VERSION 3.0 2016. The data collection was done when the patient was scheduled to be discharged, having resolved the acute circumstance that led to the admission.
Results: the sample size was 142 patients who met the inclusion criteria: diagnosis of disease advanced evolutionary chronic ages, Charlson Index =3 at the time the patient was scheduled to be discharged and signed their informed consent. The average age was 85.80 years and 50.7% were men. The average age of the women was higher than that of the men. The most prevalent advanced chronic disease was chronic heart disease. None of the patients had advance care directives in place. Nutritional, functional, cognitive and severe dependence was determined in more than 50%. In more than 90% there was the presence of geriatric syndromes and persistent symptoms. The presence of emotional distress was also evident, as was the use of resources.
Conclusions: A palliative approach in the care of chronicity would have a very positive impact on the quality of life of the patient and family, would positively influence health systems and would result in cost savings. Implementing the NECPAL CCOMS-ICO® instrument in the health services that serve high proportions of chronically ill patients, accompanied by training measures for health personnel and adaptation of resources, can introduce a qualitative and quantitative change that is very relevant in our the health system.
PURPOSE: To validate the content of the NANDA-I diagnosis "death anxiety" (00147).
METHODS: Descriptive study using the Fehring model with 202 Spanish nurses who were expert in end-of-life care to explore the adequacy of the components of the NANDA-I diagnosis "death anxiety" (00147) in the Spanish edition.
FINDINGS: None of the diagnosis definitions were considered as representative. Furthermore, 5 of the 56 defining characteristics and 5 of the 26 related factors were validated as major.
CONCLUSIONS: In general, the components of the diagnosis "death anxiety" (00147) in the Spanish edition are not representative according to experts.
IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: The results support the need to either exclude the diagnosis from the taxonomy or adjust its content.
CONTEXT: The coping with death competence is of great importance for palliative care professionals, who face daily exposure to death. It can keep them from suffering compassion fatigue and burnout, thus enhancing the quality of the care provided. Despite its relevance, there are only two measures of professionals' ability to cope with death. Specifically, the Coping with Death Scale (CDS) has repeatedly shown psychometric problems with some of its items.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a short version of the CDS.
METHODS: Nine items from the original CDS were chosen for the short version. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Spanish (N=385) and Argentinian (N=273) palliative care professionals. The CDS and the Professional Quality of Life Scale were used in this study. Statistical analyses included two Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA), followed by a standard measurement invariance routine. Reliability estimates and evidence of validity based on relations with other measures were also gathered.
RESULTS: CFA models had excellent fit in both the Spanish ( 2(27)=107.043, p<.001; CFI=.978; TLI=.970; RMSEA=.093 [.075,.112]; SRMR=.030) and Argentinian ( 2(27)=102.982, p<.001; CFI=.963; TLI=.950; RMSEA=.106[.085,.128]) samples. A standard measurement invariance routine was carried out. The most parsimonious model ( 2(117)=191.738, p<.001; CFI=.987; TLI=.992; RMSEA=.046[.034,.058]; SRMR=.043) offered evidence of invariance across countries, with no latent mean differences. Evidence of reliability and evidence of validity based on relations with other measures were also appropriate.
CONCLUSION: Results indicated the psychometric boundaries of the short version of the CDS.
BACKGROUND: Episodic dyspnea is an increasingly recognized phenomenon that occurs frequently in patients with cancer. Although numerous definitions have been proposed to describe episodic dyspnea, to date, no common widely accepted definition in Spanish has yet emerged. Without a clear well-accepted definition, it is difficult to design rigorous clinical trials to evaluate candidate treatments for this emerging entity and to compare outcomes among studies.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to reach a consensus definition of episodic dyspnea in the Spanish language based on professional criteria in cancer patients.
DESIGN: A two-round Delphi study.
SETTING/SUBJECTS: Sixty-one Spanish specialists in medical oncology, radiation oncology, pneumology, palliative care, and pain management participated in the study.
MEASUREMENTS: Sixteen different questions on dyspnea-related terminology, including the definition of episodic dyspnea, were assessed.
RESULTS: The panel of experts reached a consensus on 75% of the 16 assessments proposed: 56.25% in agreement and 18.75% in disagreement. The term that most panelists considered most appropriate to define dyspnea exacerbation was dyspnea crisis. The panelists disagreed that dyspnea exacerbation is equivalent to dyspnea at effort and that the presence of dyspnea at rest is required for exacerbation to occur. However, there was wide agreement that exacerbation may or may not be predictable and can be triggered by comorbidities as well as emotional, environmental, or effort factors.
CONCLUSIONS: The broad consensus reached in this study is a necessary first step to design high-quality methodological studies to better understand episodic dyspnea and improve treatment.
OBJECTIVE: To measure and assess differences by educational level in the place of death for cancer patients, and to determine whether patterns of geographical disparities are associated with access to palliative care services in the municipality of residence.
METHOD: We analysed the death certificates of adults (older than 24) who died of cancer (ICD-10 C00 to C97) in Spain during 2015, either at home, in hospital or in a long-term care centre. Of the 105,758 individuals included in the study population, 75.2% lived in one of the 746 identifiable municipalities (more than 10,000 inhabitants). This individual database was combined with three economic databases at municipal level and with a directory of palliative care resources published by the Sociedad Española de Cuidados Paliativos. Multilevel models were estimated to predict the place of death according to individual characteristics. Generalised least squares regression models were then applied to the municipal effects estimated in the first stage.
RESULTS: The probability of dying in long-term care centre decreases as levels of education increase; the probability of dying at home, rather than in hospital, is higher for patients with higher education. Dying in hospital is an urban phenomenon. There are large differences between Spanish regions. Access to palliative services is only of marginal significance in accounting for the systematic differences observed between municipalities.
CONCLUSIONS: Developing specific plans for palliative care, with an active role being played by primary care teams, may help improve end-of-life care in Spain.
OBJECTIVE: The Emergency Heart Failure Mortality Risk Grade (EHMRG) scale, derived in 86 Canadian emergency departments (EDs), stratifies patients with acute-decompensated heart failure (ADHF) according to their 7-day mortality risk. We evaluated its external validity in a Spanish cohort.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We applied the EHMRG scale to ADHF patients consecutively included in the Epidemiology of Acute Heart Failure in Emergency departments (EAHFE) registry (29 Spanish EDs) and measured its performance. Patients were distributed into quintiles according to the original and their self-defined score cutoffs. The 7-day mortality rates were compared internally among different categories and with categories of Canadian cohorts.
RESULTS: The EAHFE group [n: 1553 patients; 80 (10) years; 55.6% women] had a 5.5% 7-day mortality rate and the EHMRG scale c-statistic was 0.741 (95% confidence interval: 0.688-0.793) compared with 0.807 (0.761-0.842) and 0.804 (0.763-0.840) obtained in the Canadian derivation and validation cohorts. The mortality rate of the EAHFE group mortality increased progressively as the quintile categories increased using intervals defined by either the Canadian or the Spanish EHMRG score cutoffs, although with more regular increments with the EAHFE-defined intervals; using the latter, patients at quintiles 2, 3, 4, 5a and 5b had (compared with quintile 1) odds ratios of 1.77, 3.36, 4.44, 9.39 and 16.19, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The EHMRG scale stratified risk in an ADHF cohort that included both palliative and nonpalliative patients in Spanish EDs, showing an extrapolation to a higher mortality risk cohort than the original derivation sample. Stratification improved when the score was recalibrated in the Spanish cohort.
OBJECTIVE: Implementation of an advance care planning (ACP) program for people with advanced chronic conditions is a complex process. The aims of this paper are to describe (1) the development of the ACP program in Catalonia, Spain, for patients with advanced chronic conditions and complex needs and (2) the preliminary results of the implementation of this program in health and social services.
METHOD: The ACP program was developed and implemented in a four-stage process as follows: (1) design and organization of the project; (2) selection of the professionals to carry out the project; (3) creation of four working groups to develop the conceptual model, guidelines, training program, and perform a qualitative evaluation; and (4) project implementation.Result: The following deliverables were completed: (1) conceptual framework document; (2) practical guidelines for the application of the ACP; (3) online training course (3,763 healthcare professionals completed the online course, with an overall satisfaction rating of 8.4 on a 10-point scale); and (4) additional training activities (conferences, short courses, and seminars) in between 2015 and 2017.Significance of results: This project was led by the Catalan Ministry of Health. The strengths of the project development include the contribution of a wide range of professionals from the entire region, approval by the Catalan Bioethics Committee and the Social Services Ethics Committee, and the ongoing validation by members of the community. A standardized online training course was offered to all primary care professionals and included as a quality indicator for continuing education for those professionals in the period 2016-2020. The main outcome of this project is the establishment of a pragmatic ACP throughout the region and training of the health and social care professionals involved in the care of advanced chronic patients.