The study examined the influence of training on first-year nursing department students’ attitudes on death and caring for dying patients. Utilizing the experimental model, the study sample consisted of 81 first-year students attending the nursing department of a university. Death Attitude Profile-Revised and Frommelt Attitude toward Care of the Dying Scale were used for data collection. Data analysis included means, standard deviation, and t test for related samples. Student attitudes toward death were measured as 146.43 (16.741) and 152.75 (15.132) for pre- and posttraining, respectively. Student attitudes toward caring for dying patients were established to be 103.02 (7.655) during pretraining period and 111.02 (10.359) at posttraining period. The difference between pre- and posttests for mean attitudes toward death and caring for the dying patient was statistically significant. Study results determined that training was effective in forming positive student attitudes toward death and caring for dying patients.
Nursing students, who have been receiving the End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium (ELNEC) Core training throughout their Bachelor of Science in Nursing program, have a unique perspective of the benefits of this training. In addition, they have insight as to where an online ELNEC module series specifically for undergraduate nursing students would best be integrated within the curriculum. This study used a mixed methods strategy to evaluate students' opinions on the placement of end-of-life care education within the curriculum and their experience of having received ELNEC training previously throughout their program. Senior-level nursing student opinions on the placement of the ELNEC modules within the curriculum were equally divided, with one-third suggesting placement at the sophomore level, one-third suggesting placement at the junior level, and one-third suggesting placement at the senior level. Students also offered a recommendation for an end-of-life care simulation integration into the Bachelor of Science in Nursing curriculum. Students who have been receiving ELNEC training integrated throughout the curriculum reported feeling comfortable with providing end-of-life care after graduation. Themes extracted from students' suggestions on improving end-of-life care education were as follows: (1) The quality and consistency of instruction needs to be enhanced, (2) palliative care education should be delivered using various methods, and (3) methods to assess education on palliative care should be improved. Students reported that ELNEC training helped them to gain insight into the key elements in palliative care, to understand the differences and similarities between palliative care and hospice, and to understand the nurse's role in palliative care and hospice.
Primary palliative care education should be provided within prelicensure programs to maximize nurses’ preparation to care for patients with serious, life-limiting illness before entering professional practice settings. Curricula need to be assessed to identify current content integration across nursing programs. The specific aim of this feasibility study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a survey methodology to assess primary palliative care content integration within prelicensure nursing curricula in multiple programs. A secondary aim was to compare content integration across nursing programs. Faculty teaching in prelicensure courses at 3 accredited nursing programs were recruited to complete a 50-item curriculum assessment survey based on the End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium Undergraduate Curriculum. Response rates were 73%, 26.7%, and 18.8%, respectively. All content areas were reported as being taught by at least 1 faculty member per institution. Lecture was the primary pedagogy to teach all End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium Undergraduate content areas, followed by clinical conference/debriefing and simulation. Content was primarily taught in Critical Care, Maternity, Adult Health, Gerontology, and Fundamentals courses. The disparate response rates suggest that survey dissemination may prove ineffective for multisite curricula evaluation. Implications for nursing education and clinical practice will be discussed.
BACKGROUND: The need to provide care for the dying patient and his/her family may occur in every medical setting. Newly graduated nurses and physicians should therefore be prepared to deliver it at a high-quality level.
OBJECTIVES: To explore (a) the primary difficulties participants anticipate they will encounter whilst working with dying patients, (b) their interest in developing competencies in caring for dying patients, and (c) their interest in working in palliative/hospice settings or with dying patients in the future.
DESIGN: A cross-sectional study.
SETTINGS: A medical university in Poland.
PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of nursing (=112) and medical students (=101) at the end of their undergraduate education.
METHODS: Questionnaire distributed online and in hard-copy format.
RESULTS: Half of the participants anticipated experiencing various emotional and professional difficulties in caring for dying individuals, especially medical students. These difficulties pertained mostly the reaction of family members to the patient's death, addressing the psychological needs of the dying person, and coping with his/her own emotions when dealing with the patient's death. Students reported that working with dying patients could cause occupational stress - more so among medical students. The majority of them showed an interest in improving knowledge regarding palliative care and also in this case this was mostly true of medical rather than nursing students. However, more than half of the participants preferred avoiding work in palliative/hospice settings, with no differences between the two groups. Participants attributed this attitude to two factors: (a) the desire to avoid negative emotions and stress that could be triggered by dealing with death and dying; and (b) because they felt they lacked the required skills and personal abilities to handle such situations.
CONCLUSIONS: Undergraduate curricula that include strategies for coping with negative emotions associated with facing the process of death and dying should be developed. Interprofessional education should be encouraged, especially regarding the psychosocial aspects of end-of-life care.
BACKGROUND: The need to provide quality end-of-life care is universally accepted. International research and policies encourage innovative ways that effective culturally appropriate care can be provided. Higher education institutions and practice settings are tasked with ensuring that nurse graduates have the knowledge, skills and insight to deliver person-centred end-of-life care.
RESEARCH AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim was to explore student evaluation of end-of-life care learning within a three-year undergraduate adult nursing degree programme. Objectives were to assess student perceptions of the content and level of learning achieved, explore usefulness of learning, highlight areas that were most useful, and identify suggestions to improve learning.
DESIGN: A 3-year quantitative longitudinal design was used. A questionnaire containing open and closed questions was designed to incorporate the personal and professional learning strategies indicated by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (2010).
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The evaluation was completed at the same time point over a three-year period from April 2015–April 2017. The participants were year three student nurses, from 3 consecutive years, enrolled on a pre-registration adult nursing course at one university. There was a 66% response rate (n = 336).
METHODS: Participant information sheets and questionnaires were distributed and time to complete them facilitated. Responses from closed questions were coded and analysed using descriptive statistics (SPSS 24) and thematic analysis used for open questions.
RESULTS: Students expressed satisfaction with their learning, 88.7-97% of students reported a positive impact on their knowledge. They developed an understanding of the impact the nurse can have on the patient and family experience, reporting more confidence and competence in most aspects of end-of-life care. They noted improved ability to utilise this in their subsequent practice experience 88.1-97%.
CONCLUSIONS: Structured end-of-life care within the curriculum is essential to equip graduate nurses to provide effective evidence informed care. Planning should continue for curriculum development that encompasses person-centred end-of-life care across cultures.
PURPOSE: This study attempted to examine the influence of resilience, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being on attitude to death.
METHODS: A predictive correlational design was used. The participants were 184 nursing students from three universities of Korea. They responded to a self-report questionnaire, with items on demographics, resilience, life satisfaction, psychological well-being, and attitude to death.
RESULTS: The mean score for attitude to death was 2.77±0.39 (range, 1-4), and a significant difference was observed depending on age, grade, and death-related education. Attitude to death was positively correlated with death-related education, resilience, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being. Results of the hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that death-related education and psychological well-being were significant predictors of attitude to death, explaining 26.6% of the latter. The most important factor was psychological well-being.
CONCLUSION: Although death-related education and psychological well-being are two of the most influential factors among nursing students, no more than 30.4% of this study's participants received death-related education. Death-related education is necessary to help nursing students so that they can cope positively with stressful situations by finding positive meaning. It is necessary to develop a systematic curriculum so that these students can establish a positive attitude to death.
BACKGROUND: End-of-life care is challenging on health professionals' mental and emotional state. Palliative care education can support health professional students' transition, helping them to cope with the challenges of working in this complex setting. Students feel that they need more preparation in this area.
PURPOSE: To collate the relevant information regarding how to teach health professional students about palliative care.
METHOD: The full holdings of Medline, PsycINFO, EBM Reviews, Cinahl Plus, ERIC, and EMBASE via Elsevier were searched until April 7, 2019. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials of group interventions that aimed to increase health professional students' knowledge, skills, or attitudes in palliative care. Studies were appraised using the PEDro scale. Data were synthesized using meta-analysis.
RESULTS: The results favored the intervention and were statistically significant for knowledge and attitudes but not for skills. A 2-hour seminar accompanied by readings seems sufficient to improve both knowledge and attitudes. Quality assessment scores ranged from 1/10 to 7/10 (mean 5, standard deviation 1.73). When studies at high risk of bias were excluded, then only knowledge improved significantly. Key areas where rigor was lacking were in concealing the randomization, omitting intention-to-treat analysis and not blinding of participants, therapists, or assessors.
CONCLUSIONS: Palliative care education is effective in improving health professional students' knowledge and attitudes toward palliative care. More research is required into skill development. This review highlights the need for more high-quality trials in both the short and long-term to determine the most effective mode of palliative care education.
BACKGROUND: The provision of end-of-life care remains a significant component of work for clinicians in critical care settings. Critical care nurses report that this area of practice receives limited attention in education and training.
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to identify and describe the end-of-life care content in postgraduate critical care nursing programs in Australia.
METHODS: Using a descriptive exploratory research design, an Internet search was undertaken in August 2015, identifying 17 education providers offering postgraduate critical care nursing programs. Thirteen individuals agreed to participate in a structured telephone interview regarding end-of-life content in their postgraduate program. Descriptive statistics were calculated to summarise the data obtained.
RESULTS: Twelve participants reported that end-of-life care content was explicitly addressed in their postgraduate critical care nursing programs, yet variation in actual content areas covered was evident. The majority of programs addressed content related to organ donation (92%) and legal and ethical issues (77%). However, content least commonly identified as covered pertained to the work of the nurse in providing direct clinical care to the patient at the end of life and his or her family, including the physical changes experienced by the dying patient (31%), respiratory management encompassing withdrawal of ventilation and symptom management (23%), emotional support of family (23%), care of the body after death (23%), and the process of withdrawing life-sustaining treatment (15%). Participants (92%) agreed that end-of-life content was important in postgraduate critical care nursing programs, with 77% of participants agreeing that more time should be allocated to end-of-life content.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides preliminary evidence of the variation in end-of-life content in postgraduate critical care nursing programs in Australia. Addressing gaps in end-of-life care content in formal education, including clinical care of the dying patient, is urgently needed to address the complexity of this phase of care that is so frequently provided in critical care units.
PURPOSE: Preparing a future nurse to respond to the complex and sensitive needs of a child and family during the end-of-life requires more than didactic content in a classroom. During clinical experiences, students may care for children diagnosed with a terminal illness however; it is less likely that a student will have a clinical opportunity to care for a child and their family at the end-of-life. Without having an experience, it is challenging to teach students how to care for the dying child and family including how to appreciate the emotions, thoughts, and expectations when faced with a pediatric death (Lindsay, 2010).
DESIGN AND METHODS: The instructional model integrates an end-of-life simulation into an undergraduate pediatric nursing course allowing students to practice caring for a child and their family while developing an understanding of the unique needs of a dying pediatric patient.
RESULTS: Post simulation, students participating in guided reflection, identified several themes impacting their experience with end-of-life care, including symptom management, emotional care and "what to say".
CONCLUSIONS: The structured simulated experience provided knowledge, skill and awareness to the role of the nurse when providing care at the end-of-life.
PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Nurses' behaviors and responses when caring for a child can have a significant impact on the family's experience and memory of their child's death. Unintended actions may result in the family experiencing negative impressions, causing further distress to the grieving family (Butler, Hall, Willetts, & Copnell, 2015).
Nurse educators have a unique role to prepare nursing students for all aspects of patient and family care, from birth through death. Knowing that death is inevitable is not the challenge. Preparing nursing students to cope with death and address personal and community myths about death and dying are the challenges. Opportunities for students to examine personal and community associations with death are essential for nursing students preparing to enter the field. Biophysiological processes and treatment protocols are an essential part of each course; however, one course in a Department of Nursing in a small university in the Midwestern United States provides students the opportunity to reflect on death and dying and includes the experience of creating a tangible symbol to “hold on to” as they professionally and thoughtfully work with dying patients and their families, as well as cope with their own experiences of loss and grief in their careers.
BACKGROUND: Many nursing schools have begun to address the gap in palliative care education. Recently released entry-to-practice competencies in palliative care can guide educators as they incorporate such material into their curriculum. In an effort to evaluate learning, educators need a reliable instrument that aligns with the updated competencies.
PURPOSE: This article describes the development of a new instrument to evaluate perceived competence to provide primary palliative care.
METHODS: The psychometric properties and performance of the new instrument in evaluating perceived competence were tested via an interprofessional palliative care simulation with medical, nursing, and social work students. Perceived competence was measured before and after the simulation.
RESULTS: The new instrument demonstrates strong reliability and validity, represents a unidimensional construct, and captures changes in perceived competence across time and disciplines.
CONCLUSIONS: The new instrument is acceptable for assessing perceived competence to provide palliative care, particularly for nursing students.
Context: Nurses play an inevitable role in providing compassionate care and support to dying patients and their families. However, it has been a bone of contention that whether the nursing curriculum is sufficiently set to achieve this goal.
Aims: The primary objective of this study is to assess the attitude of nursing students attending a private nursing school in Central Travancore region toward the care of dying using the Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale Form-B (FATCOD-B).
Methodology: FATCOD-B was introduced among 146 participants and an arbitrary cutoff of 65% of the total score were chosen with those scoring more than that were assumed to have a positive attitude. A principal component analysis was done to identify the key constructs and mean score of the items within these identified constructs were calculated.
Results: The positive attitude toward dying was shown by 39% of participants. Most of the students' responses were averaging toward the option uncertain. A statistically significant increase in mean score by 3.15 (P = 0.02) was noticed among those who completed palliative care postings. The keys constructs identified included perception toward the end-of-life care, emotional engagement with the dying, and perceptions with respect to professional engagement with subgroup analysis showing an average mean score (standard deviation) of 4.36 (0.144), 2.25 (0.874), and 3.39 (0.85), respectively.
Conclusion: The revision of the current curriculum incorporating more palliative care postings with specific attention toward handling emotional engagement with the dying may help in developing a positive attitude.
Being able to communicate effectively is an essential skill for all nurses. Communication in paediatric end of life care can be challenging for both the student and lecturer as it is a rare experience and challenging to teach. Innovative approaches to teaching communication skills such as role play, simulation and drama have been used; however there is a dearth of literature examining the use of drama in this specialist context. The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a novel workshop in teaching transferable knowledge and skills in palliative, end of life and bereavement care communication to a convenience sample of first year pre-registration nursing students undertaking clinical skills training at a UK university. Qualitative and quantitative data were obtained from pre and post intervention questionnaires exploring student's perception of communication skills. Qualitative data were analysed thematically and quantitative data presented as standard descriptive statistics. The novel communication workshop facilitated students' exploration of how good and poor communication looks and feels and introduced aids to inform communication in clinical practice. Exposure to different learning approaches provided opportunities to both gain confidence in engaging in new learning activities and develop knowledge and skills through purposeful engagement.
BACKGROUND: This article outlines the rationale of developing a DVD using a simulated patient to show students how to perform the last offices in the UK and what they can expect when a patient dies.
AIM: This is an aspect of the curriculum that students felt was not adequately covered and they were anxious about experiencing the death of a patient for the first time. The DVD allowed a large number of students to receive extra teaching on this topic and was a time-effective way of introducing more teaching into the curriculum.
CONCLUSION: Students felt more prepared for the death of a patient during their first clinical placement.
Many nurses report a lack of confidence providing care for patients facing a life-threatening illness. Palliative care leaders have devised primary palliative nursing care competencies (CARES [Competencies And Recommendations for Educating undergraduate nursing Students]) that all students should achieve. In this study, nursing students participated in an innovative palliative care immersion experience, the Comfort Shawl Project. We performed a reliable content analysis of their narrative reflections. The goal was to evaluate whether reflections on their interactions with patients/families were consistent with CARES competencies. Nine female students wrote reflections after gifting each of the 234 comfort shawls to patients. Four CARES-related categories were analyzed: Individual Values and Diversity, Compassionate Communication, Fostering Quality of Life, and Self-Insight and Emotion. Reflections were highly representative (41%) of recognizing Individual Values and Diversity, representing sensitivity for patients' unique differences in values, an integral component of palliative care. The Comfort Shawl Project shows promise as an experiential immersion for introducing nursing students to CARES competencies.
Introduction : alors que l'intégration de la démarche palliative aux études de médecine est un des objectifs du plan national de développement des soins palliatifs, quelles sont les attentes des internes de médecine générale quant à une formation en soins palliatifs ?
Méthode : il s'agit d'une étude descriptive, réalisée à partie d'un questionnaire envoyé par mail aux internes inscrits en Diplôme d'Etudes Spécialisées (DES) de médecine générale de l'Université de Reims Champagne Ardenne (URCA) pour l'année universitaire 2016-2017. L'enquête s'est déroulée entre le 9 octobre et le 11 novembre 2017. Résultats : 93 réponses ont été analysées. Quatre-vingt-douze pour cent des répondeurs souhaitent une formation plus approfondie en soins palliatifs. Les principaux types de formations souhaités étaient : la discussion de cas cliniques en groupes, les stages d'initiation en structures de soins palliatifs et les débriefings sur les lieux de stage avec un médecin sénior. Ils souhaitaient la mise en place de cette formation en troisième cycle des études médicales et avant confrontation à des situations palliatives.
Discussion : la mise en pratique permet de nous améliorer dans la prise en charge du patient et de créer notre propre identité professionnelle en développant nos compétences. Le modèle de formation britannique est celui qui semble le plus adapté aux attentes de nos internes. Actuellement la formation des médecins évolue, avec l'application des mesures proposées par le plan national de développement des soins palliatifs. Désormais un enseignement sur les soins palliatifs et un stage court sont proposés en deuxième cycle des études médicales. Il parait primordial d'élargir cette mesure en troisième cycle.
Conclusion : les internes de médecine générale de l'URCA souhaitent une formation approfondie en soins palliatifs au cours du DES de médecine générale, avec mise en pratique clinique.
Origine : BDSP. Notice produite par BIUSANTE HR0xrBID. Diffusion soumise à autorisation
Worldwide, more than 19 million people require palliative care because of an advanced stage of disease. Undergraduate nursing education should include palliative care as the European consensus suggests. In 2004, the European Society of Palliative Care issued a guide for the development of palliative nurse education in Europe. This study aims to describe the extension and characteristics of palliative care education within all of the nursing degree curricula in Italy, as well as to what extent their topics match the European Society of Palliative Care guide. A descriptive study was conducted through the universities web pages. For each degree, the curricula of the academic years from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed. Sixty percent of the curricula had formal education in palliative care, heterogeneously distributed in different courses and provided few compulsory and mandatory teaching hours. Data on clinical training suggested that education was essentially theoretical, with poor theory and practice integration. The increasing need for palliative care in different settings corresponds to increasing attention to nursing education in palliative care from the undergraduate level. The inclusion of palliative care teaching in universities at all levels of education and research development represent the future challenges for this discipline.
BACKGROUND: Health-care providers report a lack of training in end-of-life care and limited opportunities exist to learn about the dying process in home settings where most prefer to die.
AIM:: To evaluate the effectiveness of a Community Action, Research, and Education (CARE) program designed to promote empathy and self-efficacy communicating with and caring for terminally ill patients.
METHODS: This mixed-methods study collected pre–post data from 18 undergraduates (7 men= 11 women) in a 8-week immersive program where they served as primary caregivers in residential homes for the dying providing 200 hours of bedside care to hospice patients during their final days. Quantitative measures assessed empathy using the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Professions (JSE-HPS) version and self-efficacy using a 20-question palliative care skill assessment. Qualitative analyses were conducted on reflective journals to further assess knowledge, skill, and value development.
RESULTS: Paired t tests revealed significant increases in empathy ( P < .05) and self-efficacy ( P < .001) to provide end-of-life care. Thematic analysis of reflective journals further demonstrated specific instances of empathy and self-efficacy.
CONCLUSIONS: Community-run residential homes for the dying offer a unique opportunity for skills training in end-of-life care. The opportunity to serve as a caregiver for the dying improved students' confidence and ability to provide empathic patient- and family-centered end-of-life care to hospice patients in their final days.
Chaque année, des dizaines de milliers de jeunes gens, filles et garçons, se lancent dans des études en soins infirmiers.
Entre cours théoriques, exercices pratiques et stages sur le terrain, ils devront acquérir un grand nombre de connaissances, maîtriser de nombreux gestes techniques et se préparer à endosser de lourdes responsabilités.
Ce film retrace les hauts et les bas d’un apprentissage qui va les confronter très tôt, souvent très jeunes, à la fragilité humaine, à la souffrance, aux fêlures des âmes et des corps. C’est pourquoi il nous parle de nous, de notre humanité.
Background: Palliative care education and experience are needed for student competence in delivering high-quality palliative nursing care. Simulation has been linked to acquired clinical competency among pre-licensure students. A known literature gap is measurement of students' performance during end-of-life simulations.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine relationships among previous palliative care nursing experience, knowledge, self-awareness, and performance in nursing students during an end-of-life simulation.
Design/Setting/Participants: A quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design was used to assess these variables with a convenience sample of 75 senior nursing students during an end-of-life simulation at a Midwest Jesuit university.
Methods: Self-awareness was measured with the Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying, Form B. The Palliative Care Quiz for Nursing measured participants' knowledge. Participants' performance during the simulation was measured using a modified version of the Creighton Competency Evaluation Instrument®. Palliative care nursing self-awareness and knowledge were assessed before and after the simulation. Previous end-of-life care experience was assessed with a single demographic question at pretest only.
Results: The sample was highly experienced in end-of-life care (93.3% reporting experience pre-simulation). Although pretest self-awareness (M = 124.5; ±1.3) and knowledge (M = 57.1%; ±2.2) were higher in students with two or more types of end-of-life experience (n = 42), there were no significant differences (p > .10) in these outcomes by groups pre- or post-simulation. Self-awareness (M = 130.1; ±1.2), knowledge (M = 80.5%; ±2.6), and performance (M = 94.1%; IQR 87.5 to 100) scores were high for student participants (n = 36) post-simulation, with moderate correlations found between some scores (rpb < -0.40 or 0.40).
Conclusions: Findings support self-awareness and knowledge as antecedents of high quality palliative nursing care. Students demonstrated increased post-simulation knowledge, self-awareness, and quality performance of palliative nursing care regardless of previous end-of-life experience. End-of-life simulation is supported as an education method for increasing palliative care nursing competence and assessing student performance of palliative care nursing interventions.