Background: Patients with chronic disease prefer an adequately supported death at home, but often die in the hospital. We assessed temporal trends and sex differences in healthcare intensity and location of death among decedents with heart failure.
Methods and Results: This was a retrospective cohort study of adults with heart failure who died between April 1, 2004 and March 31, 2017 in Ontario, Canada. We used population-based administrative databases to assess healthcare utilization during the last 6 months of life and applied multilevel multivariable logistic regression to assess whether sex was independently associated with location of death. Among 396 024 decedents with heart failure, mean (SD) age was 81.8 (10.7) years, 51.5% were women, and 53.4% had in-hospital deaths. From 2004 to 2016, there was an increase in patients receiving mechanical ventilation (15.1%-19.6%), hemodialysis (5.2%-6.8%), and cardiac revascularization (1.7%-2.3%). Relative to men, women spent fewer days in a hospital (mean, 16.4 versus 18.3; mean difference, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.7-2.0; P<0.001) and in an intensive care unit (mean, 2.1 versus 3.0; mean difference, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.8-0.9; P<0.001); and less commonly received mechanical ventilation (15.5% versus 20.8%; P<0.001); hemodialysis (4.8% versus 7.7%; P<0.001); or cardiac catheterization (2.8% versus 4.6%; P<0.001). Female sex was independently associated with lower odds of in-hospital death (odds ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.87-0.89). Mean (SD) 6-month direct healthcare cost was greater for in-hospital ($52 349 [$55 649]) than out-of-hospital ($35 998 [$31 900]) death.
Conclusions: Among decedents with heart failure, invasive care in the last 6 months increased in prevalence over time but was less common in women, who had lower odds of dying in a hospital.
Background: Night sweats significantly impact the quality of life for cancer patients and are often resistant to treatment. Cannabinoids have been shown to modulate cytokine activity and produce hypothermia in animal models, suggesting that they may be a promising candidate for palliation of night sweats in patients with oncologic disease.
Objective: Assess efficacy of the oral cannabinoid, dronabinol, for palliation of night sweats in cancer patients.
Design: A retrospective record search identified five cancer patients who had tried oral dronabinol for palliation of their night sweats between 2013 and 2016 and subjectively reported on its efficacy.
Setting/Subjects: A convenience sample of five patients from the outpatient consultative palliative medicine program at Stanford Medical Center was chosen from a search of past records. Patients were included if they had a cancer diagnosis and complained of night sweats that subjectively interfered with their quality of life. All agreed to try oral dronabinol for palliation of their night sweats.
Measurements: Patients self-reported the effect of oral synthetic dronabinol on their night sweats.
Results: Treatment of five patients with advanced cancer with synthetic orally administered dronabinol resulted in the successful management of persistent symptomatic paraneoplastic night sweats.
Conclusion: Dronabinol and/or medicinal cannabis are promising therapies for palliation of night sweats in cancer patients.
Background: Research on the patterns of use of medical cannabis among cancer patients is lacking.
Objective: To describe patterns of medical cannabis use by patients with cancer, and how patterns differ from patients without cancer.
Design/Measurements: We performed secondary data analysis using data from a medical cannabis licensee in New York State, analyzing demographic information, qualifying conditions, and symptoms, and the medical cannabis product used, including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to cannabidiol (CBD) ratios.
Setting/Subjects: Adults age =18 who used New York State medical cannabis licensee products between January 2016 and December 2017.
Results: There were a total of 11,590 individuals with 1990 (17.2%) having cancer who used at least one cannabis product. Patients with cancer using cannabis were older and more likely to be female. The most common qualifying symptom for both cancer and noncancer patients was severe or chronic pain. Cancer patients were more likely to use the sublingual tincture form of cannabis (n = 1098, 55.2%), while noncancer patients were more likely to use the vaporization form (n = 4222, 44.0%). Over time, across all patients, there was an increase in the THC daily dose by a factor of 0.20 mg/week, yielding a corresponding increase in the THC:CBD daily ratio. Compared with noncancer patients, these trends were not different in the cancer group for THC daily dose, but there were less pronounced increases in the THC:CBD daily ratio over time among cancer patients.
Conclusions: Our study found some key differences in demographics and medical cannabis product use between patients with cancer and without cancer.
There has been a systematic and largely unconscious neglect of gender in palliative care research, practice and policy. This is despite significant, although previously uncollated, evidence that gender influences almost all aspects of end-of-life preferences, experiences and care. The social situations of women, transgender people and men often differ from one another while also intersecting in complex ways with sex differences rooted in biology. If palliative care is to meet its aspiration of providing universal benefit, it urgently needs to address a range of gender inequalities currently (re)produced at the level of the laboratory all the way through to government departments. In this call to arms, we spotlight specific instances where gender inequalities have been documented, for example, regarding end-of-life caregiving, end-of-life intervention and palliative care access and benefit. We highlight how gender inequalities intersect with other social determinants of health including ethnicity and economic status to exacerbate situations of marginality. We conclude by offering some practical steps that can be taken to support the discipline to adopt a more critical gender lens to support more equitable research, policy and practice.
Background: Fatigue is one of the most distressing symptoms in patients with advanced cancer. Previous studies have shown an association between low vitamin D levels and fatigue.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between vitamin D levels and self-assessed fatigue in cancer patients admitted to palliative care, with focus on possible sex differences.
Design: This is a cross-sectional study.
Subjects: Baseline data from 530 screened patients, 265 women and 265 men, from the randomized placebo-controlled trial “Palliative-D” were analyzed.
Measurements: Vitamin D status was measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and fatigue was assessed with EORTC-QLQ-PAL15 and with Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS).
Results: In men, there was a significant correlation between 25-OHD and fatigue measured with the “Tiredness question” (Q11) in EORTC-QLQ-PAL15 (p < 0.05), where higher 25-OHD levels were associated with less fatigue. No correlation between 25-OHD and fatigue was seen for women. Fatigue measured with ESAS did not show any significant association with 25-OHD levels neither in men nor in women.
Conclusion: Low vitamin D levels were associated with more fatigue in men but not in women. The study underscores the importance of subgroup analysis of men and women when evaluating the effect of vitamin D in clinical trials since the effect may differ between the sexes. The ongoing “Palliative-D study” will reveal whether vitamin D supplementation may counteract fatigue in both men and women.
In Japan, many adults prefer to die at home; however, few have their preferences actually come true. While discussions regarding place of death preferences (DPDPs) are important for older adults, they are poorly documented. Therefore, we investigated the factors associated with older Japanese men and women having DPDPs. We used cross-sectional survey data collected for the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES). We applied multivariable logistic regression analysis to calculate the odds ratio (ORs) of having DPDPs separately between men (n = 2,770) and women (n = 3,038) aged = 75 years. We considered 17 potential factors associated with having DPDPs, which were classified as either demographic, healthcare, family, or community factors. Among participants, 50.1% had DPDPs: 1,288 men (44.3%) and 1,619 women (55.7%). Older adults, DPDPs were associated with 5 additional factors; e.g. having a primary care physician (ORs = 1.47 [men] and 1.45 [women]), as were those who gave family and friends advice (ORs = 1.26 [men] and 1.62 [women]), and having people who listened to their concerns (ORs = 1.70 [men] and 1.81 [women]). Among men, DPDPs were associated with 3 additional factors; e.g. humorous conversations with their spouse (OR = 1.60). Among women, only one factor—reading newspapers (OR = 1.43) was associated with having DPDPs. Social networks with primary care physicians, family members, and friends may be important factors in promoting DPDPs. These gender-based differences in older adults relating to DPDPs should be considered when developing interventions to promote advance care planning that includes DPDPs.
Heart failure is a leading cause of readmissions in the United States, although treatment has come along away, palliative care is often not appropriately offered in advanced heart failure. The purpose of this study was to use a large database of national in-patient sample to find out the use of palliative care in acute heart failure admissions. Data from 2002 to 2017 was used for analysis. Simple linear regression was used for trend analysis over the years. Variables that were statistically significant in univariate analysis were used in single-step (entry method) multiple logistic analysis. The use of palliative care was found to be low at 4.1%, although recent trends have shown an increase (from 0.4% in 2002 to 6.2% in 2017). Women (0.3% in 2002 to 6.5% in 2017) and Caucasians (0.6% in 2002 to 6.9% in 2017) had a higher proportion of PC encounters as compared to men (0.5% in 2002 to 5.9% in 2017) and other racial minorities, increasing age (OR, 1.04[CI; 1.03-1.04], p < 0.01), female gender (OR, 1.03[CI; 1.02-1.03], p < 0.01), do not resuscitate status (OR, 10.62[CI; 10.53-10.70], p < 0.01), diabetes mellitus (OR, 1.10[CI; 1.01-1.11], p < 0.01), liver disease (OR, 1.63[CI; 1.60-1.66], p < 0.01), renal failure (OR, 1.40[CI; 1.39-1.41], p < 0.01), acute myocardial infarction (OR, 1.28[CI; 1.27-1.30], p < 0.01), and cardiogenic shock (OR, 2.89[CI; 2.84-2.93], p < 0.01) were associated with higher odds of having PC encounter. In conclusion, the use of palliative care has increased in the United States over the years, however, it is still low as compared to other high-income countries.
Background: Patients with advanced cancer commonly report depressive symptoms. Examinations of gender differences in depressive symptoms in patients with advanced cancer have yielded inconsistent findings.
Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate whether the severity and correlates of depressive symptoms differ by gender in patients with advanced cancer.
Design: Participants completed measures assessing sociodemographic and medical characteristics, disease burden, and psychosocial factors. Depressive symptoms were examined using the Patient Health Questionnaire, and other measures included physical functioning, symptom burden, general anxiety, death related distress, and dimensions of demoralization. A cross-sectional analysis examined the univariate and multivariate relationships between gender and depressive symptoms, while controlling for important covariates in multivariate analyses.
Setting/participants: Patients with advanced cancer (N = 305, 40% males and 60% females) were recruited for a psychotherapy trial from outpatient oncology clinics at a comprehensive cancer center in Canada.
Results: Severity of depressive symptoms was similar for males (M = 7.09, SD = 4.59) and females (M = 7.66, SD = 5.01), t(303) = 1.01, p = 0.314. Greater general anxiety and number of cancer symptoms were associated with depressive symptoms in both males and females. Feeling like a failure (ß = 0.192), less death anxiety (ß = –0.188), severity of cancer symptoms (ß = 0.166), and older age (ß = 0.161) were associated with depressive symptoms only in males, while disheartenment (ß = 0.216) and worse physical functioning (ß = 0.275), were associated with depressive symptoms only in females.
Conclusions: Males and females report similar levels of depressive symptoms but the pathways to depression may differ by gender. These differences suggest the potential for gender-based preventive and therapeutic interventions in this population.
Research suggests variation in how grief develops across time, and gender may account for some of this variation. However, gender differences in growth patterns of the newly codified ICD-11 prolonged grief disorder (PGD) are unknown. This study examined gender-specific variances in grief trajectories in a registry-sampled cohort of 857 spousal bereaved individuals (69.8% female). Participants completed self-report questionnaires of PGD symptoms at 2, 6, and 11 months post-loss. Using Growth Mixture Modeling, four PGD trajectories emerged: resilient characterized by low symptoms (64.4%), moderate-stable characterized by moderate symptoms (20.4%), recovery characterized by elevated symptoms showing a decrease over time (8.4%), and prolonged grief characterized by continuous elevated symptoms (6.8%). Similar proportions of men and women comprised the four trajectories. Gender influenced the parameter estimates of the prolonged grief trajectory as men evidenced more baseline symptoms (higher intercept) than women did and a decreasing symptom-level (negative slope), while women showed symptom-increase over time (positive slope). The prolonged grief trajectory captured the largest proportion of probable PGD cases in both genders. Low optimism and low mental health predicted membership in this class. Altogether, the absolute majority of both men and women followed a low-symptom resilient trajectory. While a comparable minority followed a high-symptom prolonged grief trajectory, men and women within this trajectory expressed varying symptom development. Men expressed prolonged grief as an acute, decreasing reaction, whereas women showed an adjourned, mounting grief reaction. This study suggests that gender may influence symptom development in highly distressed individuals across early bereavement.
Objective: This study sought to understand the patients’ perspective of what contributes to an absence of discussions of sexual orientation (SO), gender identity (GI), and sexual health in cancer care.
Methods: Patients were recruited from oncology, gynecology, and a gender transition clinic to participate in semistructured interviews, which were analyzed with qualitative methods.
Results: A total of 25 patients were interviewed, shedding light on 2 themes. The first was that these conversations are important but infrequent. One patient explained, “…. we know people who have had sex changes…[they] would have appreciated that question.” In response to whether sexual health was ever brought up, one patient responded, “No doctor ever has.” Patients described unaddressed issues: “There have been times, you know, we’ve wondered if it was okay to make love.” The second theme consisted of 4 pragmatic, patient-provided points to facilitate discussions: (1) implementation of a scale of 1 to 10 (with 10 being comfortable) to first gauge patients’ comfort in talking about SO, GI, and sexual health; (2) having the health-care provider explore the topic again over-time; (3) making sure the health-care provider is comfortable, as such comfort appears to enhance the patient’s comfort (“I have a doctor here, a female doctor, who just matter of fact will ask if I get erections and so on because of the medication she’s giving me);” and (4) eliminating euphemisms (one patient stated, “I don’t know what you mean by ‘sexual health’.”).
Conclusion: Oncology health-care providers have a unique opportunity and responsibility to address SO, GI, and sexual health.
Background: Palliative care improves quality of life in patients with heart failure. Whether men and women with heart failure derive similar benefit from palliative care interventions remains unknown.
Methods: In a secondary analysis of the PAL-HF trial (Palliative Care in Heart Failure), we analyzed differences in quality of life among men and women with heart failure and assessed for differential effects of the palliative care intervention by sex. Differences in clinical characteristics and quality-of-life metrics were compared between men and women at serial time points. The primary outcome was change in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score between baseline and 24 weeks.
Results: Among the 71 women and 79 men, there was a significant difference in baseline Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (24.5 versus 36.2, respectively; P=0.04) but not Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Palliative Care scale (115.7 versus 120.3; P=0.27) scores. Among those who received the palliative care intervention (33 women and 42 men), women’s quality-of-life score remained lower than that of men after enrollment. Treated men’s scores were significantly higher than those untreated (6-month Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire, 68.0 [interquartile range, 52.6–85.7] versus 41.1[interquartile range, 32.0–78.3]; P=0.047), whereas the difference between treated and untreated women was not significantly different (P=0.39). Rates of death and rehospitalization, as well as the composite end point, were similar between treated and untreated women and men.
Conclusions: In the PAL-HF trial, women with heart failure experienced a greater symptom burden and poorer quality of life as compared with men. The change in treated men’s Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score between baseline and 24 weeks was significantly higher than those untreated; this trend was not observed in women. Thus, there may be a sex disparity in response to palliative care intervention, suggesting that sex-specific approaches to palliative care may be needed to improve outcomes.
Mexican Americans (MAs), 1 of 10 subgroups of Latinos, are the largest and fastest growing Latino subgroup in the United States; yet, their access to end-of-life (EOL) care using hospice services is low. An investigation was needed into extant research-based knowledge about factors influencing EOL care decisions among MAs to guide health-care professionals in assisting MAs to make timely, acceptable, and satisfactory EOL care decisions. To determine whether gender was an influence on EOL decision-making among older MAs, CINAHL and PubMed were searched for articles published between 1994 and 2018. Relevant sources were also identified through the reference lists of review articles. Reports were included if they were written in English, involved participants aged 50 years and older who identified themselves as MA, and data derived directly from participants. Reports in which MAs were not equally represented in the sample, large databases, and instrumentation development and testing articles were excluded. Of the 345 unduplicated articles identified in our electronic search and the 47 identified through review articles, 22 met the inclusion criteria. Content analysis was conducted using a priori codes from the Ethno-Cultural Gerontological Nursing Model (ECGNM). Only 8 (36%) of the 22 articles reported on MA older adults' gendered experiences related to EOL decision-making. Results indicate an association between gender and EOL decision-making. As the older MA population grows, tackling disparities in EOL services use requires attention to how culture and gender influence EOL decision-making and care.
OBJECTIVES: To map out the total use of long-term care (LTC; ie, home care or institutional care) during the last 2 years of life and to investigate to what extent gender differences in LTC use were explained by cohabitation status and age at death.
DESIGN: The National Cause of Death Register was used to identify decedents. Use of LTC was based on the Social Services Register (SSR) and sociodemographic factors were provided by Statistics Sweden.
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: All persons living in Sweden who died in November 2015 aged =67 years (n = 5948).
METHODS: Zero inflated negative binomial regression was used to estimate the relative impact of age, gender, and cohabitation status on the use of LTC.
RESULTS: Women used LTC to a larger extent [odds ratio (OR) 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.92-2.50] and for a longer period [risk ratio (RR) 1.14, 95% CI 1.11-1.18] than men. When controlling for age at death and cohabitation status, gender differences in LTC attenuated (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.28-1.72) and vanished in regard to the duration. In the controlled model, women used LTC for 15.6 months (95% CI 15.2-16.0) and men for 14.1 months (95% CI 13.7-14.5) out of 24 months. The length of stay in institutional care was 7.2 (95% CI 6.8-7.5) and 6.2 months (95% CI 5.8-6.6), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: A substantial part of women's greater use of LTC was due to their higher age at death and because they more often lived alone. Given that survival continues to increase, the association between older age at death and LTC use suggests that policy makers will have to deal with an increased pressure on the LTC sector. Yet, increased survival among men could imply that more women will have access to spousal caregivers, although very old couples may have limited capacity for extensive caregiving at the end of life.
Gender inequality in the form of gender-based violence manifests throughout the course of women's lives but has a particularly unique impact at end of life. We sampled 26 patients and 14 caregivers for this qualitative critical ethnographic study. The study purpose was to describe the lived experience of female palliative care patients in rural Malawi and their caregivers. The specific aims were to (i) analyse physical, spiritual and mental health needs and (ii) guide best healthcare practice. The study was informed by feminist epistemology, which drew us to an analysis focused on how gender inequality and gender-based violence affect the care of those with terminal illness. In this article, based on our findings, we demonstrate how gender inequality manifests through the intersecting gendered vulnerabilities of patients and their caregivers in rural Malawi. The findings specifically provide insight into the gendered nature of care work and how the gendered life trajectories of both patients and caregivers intersect to impact the health and well-being of both groups. Our findings have implications on how palliative care can be scaled up in rural Malawi in support of women who are experiencing intimate partner violence at end of life, and the caregivers responsible for their well-being.
Purpose: Patients with advanced cancer often receive suboptimal end-of-life (EOL) care. Particularly males with advanced cancer are more likely to receive EOL care that is more aggressive, even if death is imminent. Critical factors determining EOL care are EOL conversations or advance care planning. However, information about gender-related factors influencing EOL conversations is lacking. Therefore, the current study investigates gender differences concerning the content, the desired time point, and the mode of initiation of EOL conversations in cancer patients.
Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 186 female and male cancer patients were asked about their preferences for EOL discussions using a semi-structured interview, focusing on (a) the importance of six different topics (medical and nursing care, organizational, emotional, social, and spiritual/religious aspects), (b) the desired time point, and (c) the mode of discussion initiation.
Results: The importance of EOL topics differs significantly regarding issue (p = 0.002, 2 = 0.02) and gender (p < 0.001, 2 = 0.11). Males wish to avoid the engagement in discussions about death and dying particularly if they are anxious about their end-of-life period. They wish to be addressed regarding the “hard facts” nursing and medical care only. In contrast, females prefer to speak more about “soft facts” and to be addressed about each EOL topic. Independent of gender, the majority of patients prefer to talk rather late: when the disease is getting worse (58%), at the end of their therapy, or when loosing self-sufficiency (27.5%).
Conclusion: The tendency of patients to talk late about EOL issues increases the risk of delayed or missed EOL conversations, which may be due to a knowledge gap regarding the possibility of disease-associated incapability. Furthermore, there are significant gender differences influencing the access to EOL conversations. Therefore, for daily clinical routine, we suggest an early two-step, gender-sensitive approach to end-of-life conversations.
Most caregiving literature has focused on women, who have traditionally taken on caregiving roles. However, more research is needed to clarify the mixed evidence regarding the impact of gender on caregiver/patient psychological outcomes, especially in an advanced cancer context. In this paper, we examine gender differences in caregiver stress, burden, anxiety, depression, and coping styles, as well as how caregiver gender impacts patient outcomes in the context of advanced cancer. Eighty-eight patients with advanced cancer and their caregivers completed psychosocial surveys. All couples were heterosexual and most caregivers were women (71.6%). Female caregivers reported significantly higher levels of perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and social strain compared with male caregivers, and female patients of male caregivers were more likely to use social support as a coping style compared with male patients of female caregivers. These findings highlight the potential differences between male and female caregivers' needs and psychological health.
BACKGROUND: Although national organizations advocate that health-care providers ask patients about sexual health and sexual and gender minority status-to learn, for example, about side effects of treatment and to understand patients' social support-these conversations often do not occur. This study explored health-care providers' reasons for having/not having these conversations.
METHODS: This single-institution study recruited health-care providers from medical oncology, hematology, radiation oncology, and gynecology. Face-to-face interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed qualitatively.
RESULTS: Three main themes emerged: (1) patient-centric reasons for discussing/not discussing sexual health and sexual and gender minority status ("So I think just the holistic viewpoint is important"); (2) health-care provider-centric reasons for discussing/not discussing these issues ("That's going to take more time to talk about and to deal with…" or "I was raised orthodox, so this is not something we talk about…"; and (3) reasons that appeared to straddle both of the above themes (eg, acknowledgment of the sometimes taboo nature of these topics).
CONCLUSION: Although many health-care providers favor talking with patients with cancer about sexual health and sexual and gender minority status, limited time, personal reluctance, and the taboo nature of these topics appear at times to hamper the initiation of these conversations.
The debate about euthanasia continues worldwide, with nurses’ attitudes becoming increasingly more important. The aim of this study is to investigate gender differences among nurses’ perceptions of attitudes toward euthanasia. A nonprobability quantitative, cross-sectional design was carried out among nurses working at a tertiary care center. Data were collected through self-reported questionnaires at their work place. Significant differences were found between men and women to the items such as “Fear of death shows differences due to religious beliefs” ( 2 = 10.550, p < 0.05), “If patient wants euthanasia, nutrition support should be stopped” ( 2 = 12.209, p < 0.05), “CPR should not be applied in case of sudden respiration and heart stop” ( 2 = 9.591, p < 0.05), and “burden for relatives to take care of a patient who is in terminal period and who will die” ( 2 = 9.069, p < 0.05). The present study depicts that gender plays an important role in euthanasia; hence, the researchers strongly suggest that there is an urgent need to draft uniform guidelines after wide consultation with all the stake holders regarding nurses’ role in taking care of patients who request euthanasia, to face these situations effectively and competently within professional boundaries.
BACKGROUND: Half of nursing home residents (NHR) suffer from dementia. End-of-life hospitalizations are often burdensome in residents with dementia. A systematic review was conducted to study the occurrence of hospitalizations at the end of life in NHR with dementia and to compare these figures to NHR without dementia.
METHODS: A systematic literature search in MEDLINE, CINAHL and Scopus was conducted in May 2018. Studies were included if they reported proportions of in-hospital deaths or hospitalizations of NHR with dementia in the last month of life. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed quality of studies.
RESULTS: Nine hundred forty-five citations were retrieved; 13 studies were included. Overall, 7 studies reported data on in-hospital death with proportions ranging between 0% in Canada and 53.3% in the UK. Studies reporting on the last 30 days of life (n = 8) varied between 8.0% in the Netherlands and 51.3% in Germany. Two studies each assessed the influence of age and sex. There seem to be fewer end-of-life hospitalizations in older age groups. The influence of sex is inconclusive. All but one study found that at the end of life residents with dementia were hospitalized less often than those without (n = 6).
CONCLUSIONS: We found large variations in end-of-life hospitalizations of NHR with dementia, probably being explained by differences between countries. The influence of sex and age might differ when compared to residents without dementia. More studies should compare NHR with dementia to those without and assess the influence of sex and age.