Objective: Patients with cancer face numerous problems at the end of their lives, which makes palliative care necessary for a peaceful death. Considering the important role nurses play in the provision of end-of-life care, the present study was conducted to study the effect of a traditional training method on nurses' perception of and clinical competency in providing end-of-life care to patients with cancer in a hospital in Southeastern Iran.
Methods: This was a pilot clinical trial in which the nurses in an oncology ward were allocated to two groups, experimental (n = 24) and control (n = 33), using a table of random numbers. The experiment group received three sessions of workshop training. The nurses' perception and clinical competency were measured before and 3 months postintervention.
Results: The results showed the perception scores in the experimental and control groups to be 171.75 ± 19.54 and 170.03 ± 17.03 before education and 176.16 ± 19.54 and 176.12 ± 16.12 postintervention, respectively. The scores of clinical competency were 98.71 ± 10.24 and 99.58 ± 12.17 before education and 101.5 ± 14.67 and 104.97 ± 12 postintervention in the experimental and control groups, respectively. According to the findings, neither of the groups showed a significant difference between pre- and post-intervention in terms of perception of or clinical competency in end-of-life care.
Conclusions: A traditional training method such as workshop training cannot cause long-term improvement in nurses' end-of-life care perception or clinical competency. It seems that nurses would benefit from acquiring cognitive and behavioral skills and knowledge through a more continuous form of instruction delivered through modern blended educational methods.
Introduction: Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach which is focused on both the patient and their family. Therefore the objectives of the study is to assess the knowledge and attitude towards palliative care and its associated factors among nurses in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia, 2018.
Methods: An institutional based cross-sectional quantitative study design was carried out using 355 nurses working in selected hospitals in Tigray region from February to March, 2018. Systematic random sampling was used to select six governmental hospitals. We used triangulation in the study method, making use of both Frommelt's Attitude Toward Care of the Dying (FATCOD) scale, and Palliative Care Quiz for Nursing (PCQN) knowledge. SPSS were applied for data entry and analysis. Statistical significance was declared at P<0.05. The goodness of fit the final logistic model was tested by using the Hosmer and Lemeshow test at a value of > 0.05.
Results: All the participants were able to respond. Out of the total study participants, 223 (62.8%) had good knowledge and 200 (56.3%) had a favorable attitude towards Palliative care. A medical ward had (AOR = 3.413, CI = 1.388-8.392, P = 0.019), trained Nurses [AOR = 3.488; CI = 1.735-7.015; P = 0.00) significant associated with nurses knowledge towards palliative care. Nurses working in the lemlem Karl (AOR=2.541; 95% CI; 0.013(1.106-5.835), nurses who had a 20-30 years ago had unfavorable attitude (AOR = 2.660; 95% CI; 0.002(1.386-5.106) were significant.
Conclusion: The nurses had poor knowledge. However, their attitude towards palliative care (PC) was favorable.
Health care provider communication proficiency is critical in the initiation and revisitation of these discussions throughout the trajectory of chronic illness. The delivery of palliative care (PC) throughout the continuum of illness has traditionally been underutilized. Nurses have the ability to significantly improve PC utilization through the use of advance care planning strategies to confidently initiate conversations with patients and families at multiple points throughout the continuum of illness. Nurses are uniquely positioned to contribute to the improvement of care provided to terminally and chronically ill patients because of the relationship developed and the knowledge of patient-specific disease progression that unfolds during the time spent with patients. In this study, nurses improved communication efficacy by learning to utilize advance care planning–specific interview strategies inclusive of scripting and cued language when initiating PC conversations. The preintervention/postintervention confidence levels of nurses in initiating early PC conversations significantly increased to improve the delivery of PC to patients.
Nearly all reports of interprofessional education (IPE) in palliative care have excluded pharmacy students. This article describes an IPE event between pharmacy and nursing students and assesses its impact on IPE competencies. Second-year nursing students and third-year pharmacy students participated in an evening-long event, focused on a married couple who each require palliative care—one for end-of-life planning and one for chronic disease progression. The impact of the event was assessed using the Interprofessional Collaborative Competency Attainment Scale (ICCAS) and qualitative feedback. Two hundred nine (96.7%) completed the ICCAS, and 16 of the 20 statements of the ICCAS showed large positive effect sizes (Cohen d >= 0.8), with the remaining 4 showing moderate positive effect sizes (Cohen d >= 0.5). The greatest effect sizes were related to improved awareness of complementary skillsets and knowledge between the professions. Addressing team conflict and including the patient/family in decision-making showed the least improvement. While ongoing interactions are ideal for the development of skills related to conflict and team development, this article demonstrates that even a 1-time activity can have an impact on students' interprofessional care competence.
The objective of this study was to understand the organizational context of nurses' use of advance care plans (ACPs). We use a modified version of Bandera's social cognitive theory model to understand relationships between organizational constructs such as experience with ACPs and satisfaction with organizational support and oncology nurses' knowledge, behaviors, and perceptions around ACPs. The sample included practicing registered nurses with a major focus in oncology who were members of the Oncology Nursing Society in the United States, and nurses at medical hospital or community care settings were included. Institutional review board approval was obtained, and permission was granted from the oncology nursing organization for online surveys. A validated ACP survey was used to measure nurses' experiences and perceptions of working with ACP. Perceptions of ACP by patients, vicarious experience with ACP, direct experience of ACP, having received training, and perceptions of organizational support for ACP were all predictive of total ACP behaviors in the workplace. The final regression model had 3 independent variables and accounted for 33% of the variance in total ACP behaviors. Both vicarious and direct experience with ACP was associated with ACP behaviors in workplaces. This implies the need for more vicarious and direct training experiences, as well as organization support, to build self-efficacy to perform ACP.
The purpose of this quality improvement project was to evaluate a statewide initiative promoting Advance Care Planning (ACP) to educate and support multidisciplinary ACP educators and provide tools to start ACP conversations in a predominantly rural state of the Upper Midwest. Individual objectives were to (1) motivate people of different professions and backgrounds to support the vision and (2) implement a system to educate and maintain a pipeline of ACP educators in appropriate methodologies to enable ACP in distant communities. The Advance Care Planning: Quality Conversations coalition was formed in 2015 to improve health care across the life span. The Reach-Effectiveness-Adoption-Implementation-Maintenance framework was applied to evaluate the project. Outcome variables were measured before, during, and after program implementation through service statistics and a questionnaire. Participation in the coalition's membership team between September 2015 and September 2019 ranged from 18 to 36 with a median of 27 and mode of 27. At least 20 different professions were represented. The coalition provided funds for educating 9 ACP instructors and 180 facilitators according to the Respecting Choices–First Steps ACP program. The coalition's mission has generated sustained interest for 4 years. Key elements and obstacles to implementing a statewide coalition were identified.
Background: Hospital-based nurses can offer a unique perspective about factors that can contribute to a good end-of-life experience, including the location in which end-of-life care is delivered.
Objectives: To examine in a sample of hospital-based nurses, the location in which they personally would most and least prefer to be cared for at the end of life, and the reasons for these preferences.
Design: Questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study.
Setting and participants: 170 registered and enrolled nurses employed in acute care wards of three metropolitan hospitals in Australia between April 2016 and February 2017.
Results: Nurses would most prefer to be cared for at home (53%) or in a hospice/palliative care unit (41%) at the end-of-life. Being in a familiar environment and feeling like dying is a more normal process were the main reasons reported for choosing these settings. The main reasons given by nurses for choosing a hospice/palliative care unit were that being cared for at home may place a burden on family/friends and hinder appropriate symptom management. Nurses would least prefer being cared for in an emergency department (49%) due to a perceived lack of privacy and adverse impact on the family; and residential aged care facilities (25%) due to perceived suboptimal symptom management and reduced likelihood of wishes being respected.
Conclusion: Nurses in this study value familiarity of environment and normalising the dying process. The majority do not wish to burden their family and friends at the end of their lives. Important next steps in providing services that meet the needs of people facing the end of their lives include understanding how nurses' personal views may influence decision-making conversations with patients and families about location of care at the end-of-life, as well as determining the capacity of available services to meet patient and family needs.
OBJECTIVES: Code status specifies the action that healthcare providers should take in the event of cardiac arrest. Studies have shown, however, that patients with do-not-resuscitate/do-not-intubate (DNR/DNI) orders have worse outcomes and do not consistently receive the standard of care. Several studies have demonstrated that physicians behave differently toward patients with DNR/DNI orders, but little research exists into whether DNR/DNI status affects the practice of other members of the care team. Our objective was to determine whether code status affects decision making by nursing staff.
METHODS: This was an anonymous, self-administered survey of nurses between April 2018 and March 2019 using SurveyMonkey. The survey contained four previously published clinical vignettes followed by a series of questions regarding specific interventions tailored to reflect nursing escalation of care. Our focus was two local hospitals: one large academic quaternary-referral center and one large community hospital. Registered nurses on medical-surgical units identified based on available unit-specific e-mail listservs from both hospitals were the participants. Nurses in higher-acuity units were excluded.
RESULTS: Nurses are significantly less likely to call rapid response or a physician when a patient undergoes certain changes in clinical status if the patient is labeled as DNR/DNI rather than full code. For all of the vignettes, respondents were less likely to say they would call rapid response or a physician for patients with a DNR/DNI status who developed tachycardia (P < 0.001). Nurses also were less likely to escalate care for patients with DNR/DNI status who developed tachypnea or mental status changes. Nurses were equally likely to call a physician for the development of abdominal pain or new hypotension (P > 0.05). Nurses with >3 years of experience were less likely to escalate care throughout the vignettes (odds ratio <1).
CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to demonstrate that code status affects decision making by nursing staff. It highlights the limitations that code status designations create with regard to patient care. By acknowledging that patients with DNR/DNI orders receive different care, we can create systems in which patients are treated equally, regardless of their code status.
INTRODUCTION: Patients with cancer are at high risk of developing pressure ulcers at the end of life as a result of their underlying condition or cancer treatment. There are many guidelines which set out best practice with regard to end-of-life skin care. However, the complexity of palliative cancer care often means that it is challenging for nurses to make the appropriate person-centred decisions about end-of-life skin care. This study seeks to explore the perceived importance that nurses place on different factors in their end-of-life skin care for patients with cancer. The utility, face validity and content validity of a prototype decision-making tool for end-of-life skin care will also be evaluated.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A mixed-method design will be used to gather data from primary and secondary care nurses working in different hospitals and local authority areas across Wales. Clinical vignettes will be used to gather qualitative and quantitative data from nurses in individual interviews. Qualitative data will be subject to thematic analysis and quantitative data will be subject to descriptive statistical analysis. Qualitative and quantitative data will then be synthesised, which will enhance the rigour of this study, and pertinently inform the further development of an end-of-life skin care decision-making tool for patients with cancer.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval to undertake the study has been granted by Cardiff University School of Healthcare Sciences Research Governance and Ethics Screening Committee. Informed consent will be obtained in writing from all the participants in this study. The results of this study will be disseminated through journal articles, as well as presentations at national and international conferences. We will also report our findings to patient and public involvement groups with an interest in improving cancer care, palliative care as well as skin care.
BACKGROUND: Ideas of patient involvement are related to notions of self-determination and autonomy, which are not always in alignment with complex interactions and communication in clinical practice.
AIM: To illuminate and discuss patient involvement in routine clinical care situations in nursing practice from an ethical perspective.
METHOD: A case study based on an anthropological field study among patients with advanced cancer in Denmark.
ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: Followed the principles of the Helsinki Declaration.
FINDINGS: Two cases illustrated situations where nurses refused patient involvement in their own case.
DISCUSSION: Focus on two ethical issues, namely 'including patients' experiences in palliative nursing care' and 'relational distribution of power and knowledge', inspired primarily by Hannah Arendt's concept of thoughtlessness and a Foucauldian perspective on the medical clinic and power. The article discusses how patients' palliative care needs and preferences, knowledge and statements become part of the less significant background of nursing practice, when nurses have a predefined agenda for acting with and involvement of patients. Both structurally conditioned 'thoughtlessness' of the nurses and distribution of power and knowledge between patients and nurses condition nurses to set the agenda and assess when and at what level it is relevant to take up patients' invitations to involve them in their own case.
CONCLUSION: The medical and institutional logic of the healthcare service sets the framework for the exchange between professional and patient, which has an embedded risk that 'thoughtlessness' appears among nurses. The consequences of neglecting the spontaneous nature of human action and refusing the invitations of the patients to be involved in their life situation call for ethical and practical reflection among nurses. The conditions for interaction with humans as unpredictable and variable challenge nurses' ways of being ethically attentive to ensure that patients receive good palliative care, despite the structurally conditioned logic of healthcare.
BACKGROUND: Palliative care should be holistic, but spiritual issues are often overlooked. General practitioners and nurses working together in PaTz-groups (palliative home care groups) consider spiritual issues in palliative care to be relevant, but experience barriers in addressing spiritual issues and finding spiritual caregivers. This study evaluates the feasibility and perceived added value of a listening consultation service by spiritual caregivers in primary palliative care.
METHODS: From December 2018 until September 2019, we piloted a listening consultation service in which spiritual caregivers joined 3 PaTz-groups whose members referred patients or their relatives with spiritual care needs to them. Evaluation occurred through (i) monitoring of the implementation, (ii) in-depth interviews with patients (n = 5) and involved spiritual caregivers (n = 5), (iii) short group interviews in 3 PaTz-groups (17 GPs, 10 nurses and 3 palliative consultants), and (iv) questionnaires filled out by the GP after each referral, and by the spiritual caregiver after each consultation. Data was analysed thematically and descriptively.
RESULTS: Consultations mostly took place on appointment at the patients home instead of originally intended walk-in consultation hours. Consultations were most often with relatives (72%), followed by patients and relatives together (17%) and patients (11%). Relatives also had more consecutive consultations (mean 4.1 compared to 2.2 for patients). Consultations were on existential and relational issues, loss, grief and identity were main themes. Start-up of the referrals took more time and effort than expected. In time, several GPs of each PaTz-group referred patients to the spiritual caregiver. In general, consultations and joint PaTz-meetings were experienced as of added value. All patients and relatives as well as several GPs and nurses experienced more attention for and awareness of the spiritual domain. Patients and relatives particularly valued professional support of spiritual caregivers, as well as recognition of grief as an normal aspect of life.
CONCLUSIONS: If sufficient effort is given to implementation, listening consultation services can be a good method for PaTz-groups to find and cooperate with spiritual caregivers, as well as for integrating spiritual care in primary palliative care. This may strengthen care in the spiritual domain, especially for relatives who are mourning.
BACKGROUND: Palliative needs in older patients are often not timely identified. The Surprise Question (SQ) 'would I be surprised if this patient died in the next year?' is a well-researched tool that could aid in this effort. Most studies thus far involved physicians or specialist nurses, however the predictive value of the SQ when used by general nurses caring for hospitalized older patients is unknown.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the predictive value of the SQ when used by general nurses and student nurses, in determining one year mortality in acutely hospitalized older patients.
DESIGN: Observational cohort study with an one year follow-up.
SETTING: One academic and one regional hospital in the Netherlands.
PARTICIPANTS: Patients >=70 years acutely hospitalized for at least 48 hours.
METHODS: Registered nurses and student nurses answered the SQ with 'No' (a positive SQ), 'Yes' or 'Don't know'. Data on student nurses was analysed separately. The sensitivity, specificity, negative- and positive predictive values were calculated. Furthermore, logistic regression was performed to determine the odds of death.
RESULTS: 66 registered nurses answered the SQ for 252 patients of whom 77 (30.6%) died in the year after inclusion. Respectively, 44%, 14% and 22% died within the 'No', 'Yes' and 'Don't know' group. 85% of patients who died during admission or in the first three months post-discharge were identified. The sensitivity and specificity were 76.7% and 56.6%. The positive and negative predictive values were 43.7% and 84.6 %. Compared to persons in whom the SQ was answered with yes, a no answer was associated with an 4.7 times increased odds of dying in the next 12 months (odds ratio 4.71, 95% CI 2.43-9.12, p<0.001). Additionally, 20 student nurses answered the SQ about 73 patients; sensitivity and specificity were 46.7% and 72.1%, with a positive and negative predictive value of 53.8% and 66.0% respectively.
CONCLUSION: The usability of the Surprise Question in predicting 12-month mortality in older acutely admitted patients is limited, due to the high false positive rate. The SQ when used by non-specialized nurses identifies vulnerable patients with an increased mortality risk and can be used as a first step in assessing a patients' palliative needs, but has limited use as a single criterion for referral to specialist palliative care.
BACKGROUND: Critical care nurses routinely care for dying patients. Research on obstacles in providing end-of-life care has been conducted for more than 20 years, but change in such obstacles over time has not been examined.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the magnitude scores of obstacles and helpful behaviors regarding end-of-life care have changed over time.
METHODS: In this cross-sectional survey study, questionnaires were sent to 2000 randomly selected members of the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. Obstacle and helpful behavior items were analyzed using mean magnitude scores. Current data were compared with data gathered in 1999.
RESULTS: Of the 2000 questionnaires mailed, 509 usable responses were received. Six obstacle magnitude scores increased significantly over time, of which 4 were related to family issues (not accepting the poor prognosis, intrafamily fighting, overriding the patient's end-of-life wishes, and not understanding the meaning of the term lifesaving measures). Two were related to nurse issues. Seven obstacles decreased in magnitude, including poor design of units, overly restrictive visiting hours, and physicians avoiding conversations with families. Four helpful behavior magnitude scores increased significantly over time, including physician agreement on patient care and family access to the patient. Three helpful behavior items decreased in magnitude, including intensive care unit design.
CONCLUSIONS: The same end-of-life care obstacles that were reported in 1999 are still present. Obstacles related to family behaviors increased significantly, whereas obstacles related to intensive care unit environment or physician behaviors decreased significantly. These results indicate a need for better end-of-life education for families and health care providers.
Retaining registered nurses (RNs) in post during their first year of employment is a problem for the Marie Curie Home Nursing Service. This article describes an initiative undertaken by Marie Curie Northern Ireland's (NI) Regional Nursing Service's manager in conjunction with clinical management and RNs to develop a peer-mentoring programme that would support newly appointed RNs during their first 3 months and strengthen the possibility that they would remain in post. A scoping exercise of key stakeholders clarified that peer mentoring could address the sense of remoteness and isolation that newly appointed nurses expressed as lone workers. RNs taking on a peer-mentoring role received additional remuneration during the 3-month period. Through the initiative, the stakeholders recognised that the peer-mentoring programme should be simple, responsive to the needs of the newly appointed nurses and provide the necessary support and guidance when required.
Purpose: To explore the experiences of expatriate nurses caring for Muslim patients near end-of-life in a palliative care unit in the United Arab Emirates.
Methods: A qualitative descriptive study, with data collected through semi structured individual interviews with nine expatriate nurses working in a palliative care unit in one hospital in the United Arab Emirates. Thematic analysis of the data transcripts used a structured inductive approach.
Results: Analysis of the interview transcripts yielded three themes. First, language was a significant barrier in end-of-life care but was transcended when nurses practiced authentically, using presence, empathetic touch and spiritual care. Secondly, relationships between nurses, patients and families were strengthened over time, which was not always possible due to late presentation in the palliative care unit. Finally, nurses were continually in discussions with physicians, families and other nurses, co-creating the meaning of new information and experiences within the hospital policy context.
Conclusion: For expatriate nurses, palliative nursing in a Muslim middle eastern country is complex, requiring nurses to be creative in their communication to co-create meaning in an emotionally intensive environment. Like other palliative care settings, time can strengthen relationships with patients and their families, but local cultural norms often meant that patients came to palliative care late in their disease trajectory. Preparing expatriate nurses for work in specialist palliative care settings requires skill development in advanced communication and spiritual practices, as well as principles of palliative care and tenets of Muslim culture.
Background: oral health problems among people receiving palliative care are common and can significantly affect quality of life. Nurses are at the frontline of palliative care in Australia. However, how optimal oral health care is addressed in clinical practice by palliative nurses is not known.
Aim: To explore the perceptions of nurses working in Australian palliative care settings to determine the acceptability, challenges and recommendations that need to be considered to develop and implement an oral health care model in palliative care settings.
Methods: Two focus groups were conducted with community (n = 8) and inpatient nurses (n = 10) working in urban palliative care settings.
Findings: Four main themes were developed through consensus: 1) Oral health is important in the palliative care setting; 2) Additional training could enhance what nurses already do; 3) Barriers to receiving oral care: a structural issue; 4) Exploring alternative pathways to dental services.
Discussion: Nurses recognised the importance of oral health in palliative care; however, the paucity of set protocols based on existing guidelines meant that oral care was often unstructured. Systemic factors reduced the number of available options for people receiving palliative care to access professional dental treatment. Although alternative solutions, including teledentistry services, were explored, there were some constraints.
Conclusion: A palliative care oral health model of care would need to integrate existing formal guidelines into a comprehensive framework specific for palliative care nurses and develop palliative care oral health training for them taking into consideration existing barriers for people to receive professional dental treatment.
The aim of the research was to conduct the Turkish validity and reliability study of the Frommelt Attitude toward Care of the Dying Scale. The study used a cross-sectional research design. The sample of the study consists of 236 intensive care nurses. The data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 and SPSS AMOS 22.0 programs. Descriptive statistical methods, reliability analysis, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used in the analysis of the data. According to the findings of the exploratory factor analysis, the scale was divided into six factors as in its original. According to results of the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the goodness of fit of the scale was acceptable level. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of the Frommelt Attitude toward Care of the Dying and subdimensions were found to be between 0.606 and 0.800. These results showed that the Turkish form of scale was valid and reliable and it had the necessary conditions for using Turkish form.
The large scale and rapid spread of the current COVID-19 pandemic has changed the way hospitals and other health services operate. Opportunities for patient-centered decision-making at the end of life are being jeopardized by a scarcity of health system resources. In response, the traditional doctor-initiated advanced care planning (ACP) for critical illness may also need to be readjusted. We propose nurse-led and allied health-led ACP discussions to ensure patient and family inclusion and understanding of the disease prognosis, prevention of overtreatment, and potential outcomes in crisis times. We highlight known barriers and list enablers, long-term and short-term opportunities to assist in the culture change.
Background: To effectively care for dying patients, nurses need to possess death self-efficacy—the state of having both a range of skills and capabilities to provide care to dying patients and confidence in one’s ability to do so. A paucity of death self-efficacy may lead to burnout.
Objectives: The aims of this study are to clarify oncology nurses’ death self-efficacy and to explore its relationships with attitudes toward death and burnout.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 7 cancer hospitals across mainland China between June and July 2019. Oncology nurses completed an online survey consisting of the Death Self-efficacy Scale, Death Attitude Profile–Revised Scale, and Maslach Burnout Inventory.
Results: The 755 oncology nurses completing the survey reported low death self-efficacy and high levels of burnout. Those who had more years of clinical experience, had the highest professional rank, talked death quite often, and have received palliative care trainings, doing no shift work, scored higher on death self-efficacy. Death self-efficacy was positively correlated with positive attitudes toward death and negatively correlated with levels of burnout. The multiple regression analysis showed that death self-efficacy and attitudes toward death were independent, significant predictors of oncology nurses’ burnout.
Conclusions: Chinese oncology nurses are not well prepared to care for dying cancer patients and cope with death-related issues.
District nurses are core providers of palliative care, yet little is known about the way that they provide care to people at home. This study aimed to investigate the role and practice of the district nurse in palliative care provision. This was an ethnographic study, with non-participant observation of district nurse-palliative care patient encounters, and post-observation interviews. District nurse teams from three geographical areas in northwest England participated. Data were analysed iteratively, facilitated by the use of NVivo, using techniques of constant comparison. Some 17 encounters were observed, with 23 post-observation interviews (11 with district nurses, 12 with patients/carers). Core themes were ‘planning for the future’ and ‘caring in the moment’. District nurses described how they provided and planned future care, but observations showed that this care focused on physical symptom management. District nurses engaged in friendly relationship building, which allows detailed management of symptomatology, but with little evidence of advance care planning.