BACKGROUND: It is often suggested that terminally ill patients favour end-of-life care at home. Yet, it is unclear how these preferences are formed, if the process is similar for patients and family caregivers, and if there are discrepancies between preferences for place of care and place of death. Understanding these nuances is essential to support people in their decision-making and ultimately provide better care at the end-of-life.
AIM: To gain an in-depth understanding of how terminally ill patients and their family caregivers make decisions about preferred place of care and place of death.
DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews with patients and family caregivers, which were analysed thematically using qualitative description.
SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 17 participants (8 patients and 9 caregivers) recruited from an acute palliative care hospital ward, a sub-acute hospice unit, and a palliative homecare organisation in Melbourne, Australia.
RESULTS: The process of forming location preferences was shaped by uncertainty relating to the illness, the caregiver and the services. Patients and caregivers dealt with this uncertainty on a level of thoughts, emotions, and actions. At the end of this process, patients and caregivers expressed their choices as contextual, personal, relational, conditional and flexible preferences.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that in many cases end-of-life decision-making does not conclude with a clear and stable choice. Understanding the reasons for the malleability of preferences and the process of how they are formed has implications for both clinicians and researchers.
BACKGROUND: Aggressive end-of-life (EOL) care is associated with lower quality of life and greater regret about treatment decisions. Higher EOL costs are also associated with lower quality EOL care. Advance care planning and goals-of-care conversations ("EOL discussions") may influence EOL health-care utilization and costs among persons with cancer.
OBJECTIVE: To describe associations among EOL discussions, health-care utilization and place of death, and costs in persons with advanced cancer and explore variation in study measures.
METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL. Twenty quantitative studies published between January 2012 and January 2019 were included.
RESULTS: End-of-life discussions are associated with lower health-care costs in the last 30 days of life (median US$1048 vs US$23482; P < .001); lower likelihood of acute care at EOL (odds ratio [(OR] ranging 0.43-0.69); lower likelihood of intensive care at EOL (ORs ranging 0.26-0.68); lower odds of chemotherapy near death (ORs 0.41, 0.57); lower odds of emergency department use and shorter length of hospital stay; greater use of hospice (ORs ranging 1.79 to 6.88); and greater likelihood of death outside the hospital. Earlier EOL discussions (30+ days before death) are more strongly associated with less aggressive care outcomes than conversations occurring near death.
CONCLUSIONS: End-of-life discussions are associated with less aggressive, less costly EOL care. Clinicians should initiate these discussions with patients having cancer earlier to better align care with preferences.
The effect of hospice care on place of death among centenarians remained unexplored. Using data obtained from National Health Insurance Research Database (2002-2010), we compared the differences in place and cause of death between centenarians and noncentenarians. These data were stratified into centenarian (n = 2495) and noncentenarian (n = 820 563) death. Data in place and cause of death and hospice care interventions were retrieved. Poisson regression models were used to evaluate factors associated with the centenarians' place of death. Time series models were used to predict the number of centenarian deaths until 2025. Most (63.8%) of the centenarians died at their own homes, followed by 30.5% who died in hospital. Hospice home care was involved in only 0.3% of the centenarian deaths but in 1.8% of the noncentenarian deaths. The leading causes of death among centenarians were respiratory diseases (16.6%), circulatory diseases (15.2%), and pneumonia (14.8%). Among the centenarians, those who died of circulatory disease, old age, and respiratory diseases were more likely to die at their own homes. We forecasted the number of annual centenarian deaths to reach 800 in 2025. Therefore, an increase in the provision of advanced care planning and earlier home hospice care intervention may enable centenarians to die at their own residence.
BACKGROUND: Patients with serious mental disorders have poorer healthcare outcomes at the end of life and are at greater risk of dying from unnatural causes. Aims: To explore place of death and demographic and clinical correlates of unnatural causes of death in patients with serious mental disorders.
METHOD: Routinely collected patient data were used to explore bivariate and adjusted associations between covariates and natural/unnatural cause of death.
RESULTS: In multivariable analysis (n = 1029), dying at home (odds ratio (OR) = 1.87, 95% CI 1.03-3.40), 'other' locations (OR = 16.50, 95% CI 7.57-36.00), younger age (OR = 17.26, 95% CI 8.28-36.00) and a diagnosis other than schizophrenia spectrum disorder (OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.04-2.73) were correlates of unnatural cause of death.
CONCLUSIONS: Deaths from unnatural causes were high and more likely to occur at home and non-healthcare settings. Unnatural causes of death were higher in younger patients with non-schizophrenia spectrum disorder diagnoses. Declaration of interest: F.G. has received support or honoraria for CME, advisory work and lectures from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Janssen, Lundbeck, Otsuka, Roche, and Sunovion, and has a family member with professional links to Lilly and GSK, including shares.
BACKGROUND: High rates of health care utilization at the end of life may be a marker of care that does not align with patient-stated preferences. We sought to describe trends in end-of-life care and factors associated with dying in hospital.
METHODS: We conducted a population-level retrospective cohort study of adult decedents in Ontario between Apr. 1, 2004, and Mar. 31, 2015, using linked administrative data sets, including the Office of the Registrar General for Deaths database, the hospital Discharge Abstract Database, the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System and physicians' billing claims (Ontario Health Insurance Plan). The primary outcome was place of death. To determine health care utilization and health care costs during the 6 months before death, we also identified admissions to hospital and to the intensive care unit, emergency department visits, and receipt of mechanical ventilation and palliative care.
RESULTS: In the last 6 months of life, 77.3% of 962 462 decedents presented to an emergency department, 68.4% were admitted to hospital, 19.4% were admitted to an intensive care unit, and 13.9% received mechanical ventilation. Forty-five percent of all deaths occurred in hospital, a proportion that declined marginally over time, whereas receipt of palliative care increased during terminal hospital admissions (from 14.0% in fiscal year 2004/05 to 29.3% in 2014/15, p < 0.001) and in the last 6 months of life (from 28.1% in 2004/05 to 57.7% in 2014/15, p < 0.001). The proportion of decedents who presented to the emergency department, were admitted to hospital or were admitted to the intensive care unit in the last 6 months of life did not change over 11 years. The mean total health care costs in the last 6 months of life were highest among those dying in hospital, with most costs attributable to inpatient medical care.
INTERPRETATION: Health care utilization in the last 6 months of life was substantial and did not decrease over time. It is possible that increased capacity for palliative, hospice and home care at the end of life may help to better align health system resources with the preferences of most patients, a topic that should be explored in future studies.
As healthcare systems worldwide are confronted with increasing numbers of aging patients and those living with life-limiting illnesses, the topic of where people want to spend their last days has received considerable attention. However, the strategies that researchers and clinicians use to capture these end-of-life views vary greatly in four key questions. These include: what, how, when and who to ask about location preferences. We will argue that how researchers and clinicians choose to answer these questions directly influences their findings. Based on these considerations, we will highlight ways to improve future palliative care and empirical end-of-life studies by addressing the precision, methods, timing and sources of preference assessments. Only when we are able to accurately identify where people want to spend their last days, can we begin to meet the needs of patients as they approach the final stage of their lives.
Background: Little is known about the role of geographic access to inpatient palliative and end of life care (PEoLC) facilities in place of death and how geographic access varies by settlement (urban and rural). This study aims to fill this evidence gap.
Methods: Individual-level death data in 2014 (N = 430,467, aged 25 +) were extracted from the Office for National Statistics (ONS) death registry and linked to the ONS postcode directory file to derive settlement of the deceased. Drive times from patients’ place of residence to nearest inpatient PEoLC facilities were used as a proxy estimate of geographic access. A modified Poisson regression was used to examine the association between geographic access to PEoLC facilities and place of death, adjusting for patients’ socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Two models were developed to evaluate the association between geographic access to inpatient PEoLC facilities and place of death. Model 1 compared access to hospice, for hospice deaths versus home deaths, and Model 2 compared access to hospitals, for hospital deaths versus home deaths. The magnitude of association was measured using adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs).
Results: We found an inverse association between drive time to hospice and hospice deaths (Model 1), with a dose–response relationship. Patients who lived more than 10 min away from inpatient PEoLC facilities in rural areas (Model 1: APR range 0.49–0.80; Model 2: APR range 0.79–0.98) and urban areas (Model 1: APR range 0.50–0.83; Model 2: APR range 0.98–0.99) were less likely to die there, compared to those who lived closer (i.e. = 10 min drive time). The effects were larger in rural areas compared to urban areas.
Conclusion: Geographic access to inpatient PEoLC facilities is associated with where people die, with a stronger association seen for patients who lived in rural areas. The findings highlight the need for the formulation of end of life care policies/strategies that consider differences in settlements types. Findings should feed into local end of life policies and strategies of both developed and developing countries to improve equity in health care delivery for those approaching the end of life.
OBJECTIVE: Hospital use increases in the last 3 months of life. We aimed to examine its association with where people live and its variation across a large health jurisdiction.
METHODS: We studied a number of emergency department presentations and days spent in hospital, and in-hospital deaths among decedents who were hospitalized within 30 days of death across 153 areas in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, during 2010-2015.
RESULTS: Decedents' demographics and health status were associated with hospital use. Primary care and aged care supply had no or minimal influence, as opposed to the varying effects of areal factors-socioeconomic status, remoteness, and distance to hospital last admitted. Overall, there was an approximate 20% difference in hospital use by decedents across areas. In all, 18% to 57% of areas had hospital use that differed from the average.
DISCUSSION: The observed disparity can inform targeted local efforts to strengthen the use of community care services and reduce the burden of end-of-life care on hospitals.
CONTEXT: The end-of-life period is characterized by increased hospital utilization despite patients' preferences to receive care and die at home.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of interventions aimed at planning for a home death (Yellow Folder) and managing symptoms in the home (Symptom Response Kit) on place of death and hospital utilization among palliative home care patients.
METHODS: This was an ecologic and retrospective cohort study of palliative home care patients in southeastern Ontario from April 2009 to March 2014. Linked health administrative and clinical databases were used to identify palliative home care patients and their receipt of the interventions, hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and place of death. Bivariable and multivariable regression was used to evaluate outcomes according to patients' receipt of intervention(s).
RESULTS: The proportion of patients who died in the community increased after implementation of the interventions, from 42.8% to 48.5% (p < 0.0001). Compared to patients who received neither intervention, patients who received the Yellow Folder or Symptom Response Kit had an increased likelihood of dying in the community, with the largest relative risk observed in patients who received both interventions (relative risk=2.20, 95% confidence interval 2.05-2.36). Receipt of these interventions was only associated with reductions in hospitalizations or emergency department visits in the six months prior to death.
CONCLUSION: Patients who received the Yellow Folder or Symptom Response Kit were more likely remain at home at the end-of-life. This association was stronger when these interventions were used together.
Background: The quality of the dying experience among older adults should improve with a better understanding of the dying experience and its association with the place of death in Mainland China.
Objective: This study investigated the relationship between the dying experience and place of death among older Chinese adults in the context of an urban-rural bifurcated system.
Design: We used the end-of-life module data from the China Longitudinal Aging Social Survey conducted in 2014 and 2016 with an eligible sample of 352 decedents ages 60 and older. Facial expression and sadness at the end of life were indicators of the dying experience in the present study. We performed multiple regression models to examine the association between the place of death and dying experience after adjusting for an ecological array of factors at the individual, family, and community levels.
Results: The urban–rural differences in the association between facial expression at death and place of death were identified (interaction term: ß = 0.16, p = 0.004). Among the decedents with a rural residence status, dying in a hospital was associated with a more peaceful facial expression at death than dying at home (p < 0.001). Among the decedents with an urban residence status, the place of death was not significantly related to the dying experience.
Conclusion: Although home is perceived as a common place for death, the findings revealed that dying at home was less positive for rural older adults compared with dying in hospital. Bridging the gaps between urban and rural areas is necessary for the reform and construction of health care and long-term care systems in China.
Supportive and palliative care at the end of life (EOL) is a core component of health systems. Providing care at the EOL may require the interaction of several care providers working in different settings including nursing homes, home care, hospices, and hospitals. This work aims to (a) provide evidence on the performance of EOL care for cancer patients across healthcare organizations, with a focus on the place of care, aggressive treatments, opioids, and the place of death and (b) analyze factors associated with dying in hospital. A population-based retrospective study was performed using administrative data from Tuscany region (Italy). Thirteen thousand sixty-six cancer patients who died in 2016 were considered. There is a marked variability in EOL care within regional areas, with the multilevel logistic regression highlighting a greater likelihood of dying in hospital for patients who were admitted to intensive care units or previously hospitalized. There is a lower probability of dying in acute care setting for patients assisted in hospices and in both hospital and hospices/home care and for patients treated with opioids. This intraregional variation highlights the need to improve EOL planning and rethink the delivery of supportive/palliative care. Further investigations on the preferences of patients may lead to more understanding.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe preferences for a good death among Chinese patients with advanced cancer and then to explore factors contributing to their preferences including patient demographics and disease variables.
METHODS: A convenience sample of 275 patients with advanced cancer was recruited from a tertiary cancer hospital in Beijing, China, between February and December 2017. A Chinese version of the Good Death Inventory (GDI) was used to measure patients' preferences for dying and death. Besides, data were collected using a multi-itemed questionnaire focusing on demographic and disease characteristics of patients.
RESULTS: Of the 275 questionnaires returned, 248 responses were analysed (effective response rate 90.2%). According to the total scores for each of the 20 domains, the five most important domains of a good death were: good relationship with family (19.80±2.39), independence (19.66±2.56), maintaining hope and pleasure (19.56±2.55), good relationship with medical staff (18.92±3.73), not being a burden to others (18.89±3.30). Patients' characteristics including age, educational status, religious belief, medical payment types, family economic status, past experiences of the death of others, the period since cancer diagnosis, past experiences of hospitalisation and subjective physical condition influenced their preferences for a good death (all p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: We had an in-depth knowledge and understanding of their preferences for good death among Chinese patients with advanced cancer. Meanwhile, we found some patients' factors contributed to different preferences for a good death. These findings have the potential to guide hospice care services aimed at achieving a good death for patients with advanced cancer.
BACKGROUND: Many middle- and high-income countries face the challenge of meeting preferences for home deaths. A better understanding of associated factors could support the design and implementation of policies and practices to enable dying at home. This study aims to identify factors associated with the place of death in Singapore, a country with a strong sense of filial piety.
SETTINGS/PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective cohort of 62,951 individuals (>=21 years old) who had died from chronic diseases in Singapore between 2012-2015 was obtained. Home death was defined as a death that occurred in a private residence whereas non-home deaths occurred in hospitals, nursing homes, hospices and other locations. Data were obtained by extracting and linking data from five different databases. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the effects of individual, clinical and system factors sequentially.
RESULTS: Twenty-eight percent of deaths occurred at home. Factors associated with home death included being 85 years old or older (OR 4.45, 95% CI 3.55-5.59), being female (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.16-1.25), and belonging to Malay ethnicity (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.82-2.01). Compared to malignant neoplasm, deaths as a result of diabetes mellitus (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.69-2.20), and cerebrovascular diseases (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.19-1.36) were also associated with a higher likelihood of home death. Independently, receiving home palliative care (OR 3.45, 95% CI 3.26-3.66) and having a documented home death preference (OR 5.08, 95% CI 3.96-6.51) raised the odds of home deaths but being admitted to acute hospitals near the end-of-life was associated with lower odds (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.90-0.94).
CONCLUSION: Aside from cultural and clinical factors, system-based factors including access to home palliative care and discussion and documentation of preferences were found to influence the likelihood of home deaths. Increasing home palliative care capacity and promoting advance care planning could facilitate home deaths if this is the desired option of patients.
For patients receiving palliative care, expressing a preferred place of death (PPD) reduces anxiety and depression and increases the likelihood of achieving their preference. However, during the course of a life-limiting illness, patients commonly change their PPD at least once prior to death. The aim of this study was to identify the pattern and timing of how patients (and families) receiving specialist palliative care change their PPD over time. A retrospective chart audit was conducted of patients who died over a 7-month period whilst in the care of a metropolitan-based Community Specialist Palliative Care Service where PPD is routinely recorded every time a discussion on the topic occurs. These discussions are triggered by various factors which highlight the need to re-assess or confirm PPD. Results showed that 80% of patients achieved their PPD. There was no change to PPD in 64% of patients after the initial assessment, while 36% changed preferences once (27%), twice (8%) or three times (1%). Symptom management (10%) and family requests (30%) were cited as reasons for changing PPD. This study highlights that providers should revisit end-of-life discussions with patients along the disease trajectory and facilitate the consideration of all possible places for a good and safe death and the different scenarios that may influence patient decisions.
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and the potential effects of the Haematological Home Care (HHC) programme for acute leukaemia (AL) patients, either in active chemotherapy or in the terminal phase of disease.
METHODS: We retrospectively assessed a group of AL patients assisted at home in terms of number of hospitalisations, accesses to emergency department and place of death. We also used historical data to evaluate potential effects of HHC.
RESULTS: The study group consisted of 44 patients, 36 of whom (82%) required palliative treatment, and eight (18%) had ongoing active chemotherapy. The mean number of hospitalisations was 0.64 (range 0-7) per patient, and the number of emergency department (ED) visits was 0.82 (range 0-4) per patient. Place of death was at home for 51.4% of patients and in hospital for 40.5%. Considering a historical group of 17 patients assisted at home the rate of hospitalisations and ED visits were 2.53 (range 0-9) and one (range 0-3), respectively. Place of death was home and hospital in 6% and 65%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Haematological Home Care for AL patients is feasible and has potential positive effects in terms rate of hospitalisations and place of death.
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that more than half of patients with advanced progressive diseases approaching the end-of-life report pain and that pain relief for these patients is poorest at home compared to other care settings such as acute care facilities and hospice. Although home is the most common preferred place of death, the majority of deaths occur outside the home. Specialist palliative care is associated with improved quality of life, but systematic reviews of RCTs have failed to show a consistent association with better pain relief. The aim of this study was to examine the factors associated with good pain relief at home in the last 3 months of life for people with advanced progressive disease.
METHODS: Data were obtained from the National Bereavement Survey in England, a cross-sectional post-bereavement survey of a stratified random sample of 246,763 deaths which were registered in England from 2011 to 2015. From 110,311 completed surveys (45% response rate), the analysis was based on individual-level data from 43,509 decedents who were cared for at home before death.
RESULTS: Decedents who experienced good pain relief at home before death were significantly more likely to have received specialist palliative care (adjusted OR = 2.67; 95% CI, 2.62 to 2.72) and to have a recorded preferred place of death (adjusted OR = 1.87; 95% CI, 1.84 to 1.90) compared to those who did not. Good pain relief was more likely to be reported by a spouse or partner of the decedents compared to reports from their son or daughter (adjusted OR = 1.50, 95% CI, 1.47 to 1.53).
CONCLUSION: This study indicates that patients at home who are approaching the end-of-life experience substantially better pain relief if they receive specialist palliative care and their preferred place of death is recorded regardless of their disease aetiology.
BACKGROUND: Existing quantitative evidence suggests that at a population level, socioeconomic factors affect access to preferred place of death. However, the influence of individual and contextual socioeconomic factors on preferred place of death are less well understood.
AIM: To systematically synthesise the existing qualitative evidence for socioeconomic factors affecting access to preferred place of death in the United Kingdom.
DESIGN: A thematic synthesis of qualitative research.
DATA SOURCES:: Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, ASSIA, Scopus and PsycINFO databases were searched from inception to May 2018.
RESULTS: A total of 13 articles, reporting on 12 studies, were included in the synthesis. Two overarching themes were identified: 'Human factors' representing support networks, interactions between people and decision-making and 'Environmental factors', which included issues around locations and resources. Few studies directly referenced socioeconomic deprivation. The main factor affecting access to preferred place of death was social support; people with fewer informal carers were less likely to die in their preferred location. Other key findings included fluidity around the concept of home and variability in preferred place of death itself, particularly in response to crises.
CONCLUSION: There is limited UK-based qualitative research on socioeconomic factors affecting preferred place of death. Further qualitative research is needed to explore the barriers and facilitators of access to preferred place of death in socioeconomically deprived UK communities. In practice, there needs to be more widespread discussion and documentation of preferred place of death while also recognising these preferences may change as death nears or in times of crisis.
BACKGROUND: dying in one's preferred place is a quality marker for end-of-life care. Little is known about preferred place of death, or the factors associated with achieving this, for people with dementia.
AIMS: to understand preferences for place of death among people with dementia; to identify factors associated with achieving these preferences.
POPULATION: adults with a diagnosis of dementia who died between December 2015 and March 2017 and who were registered on Coordinate My Care, an Electronic Palliative Care Coordination System.
DESIGN: retrospective cohort study.
ANALYSIS: multivariable logistic regression investigated factors associated with achieving preferred place of death.
RESULTS: we identified 1,047 people who died with dementia; information on preferred and actual place of death was available for 803. Preferred place of death was most commonly care home (58.8%, n = 472) or home (39.0%, n = 313). Overall 83.7% (n = 672) died in their preferred place. Dying in the preferred place was more likely for those most functionally impaired (OR 1.82 95% CI 1.06-3.13), and with a ceiling of treatment of 'symptomatic relief only' (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.37-5.14). It was less likely for people with a primary diagnosis of cancer (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.28-0.97), those who were 'for' cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.16-0.62) and those whose record was created longer before death (51-250 days (ref <50 days) OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.38-0.94).
CONCLUSIONS: most people with dementia want to die in a care home or at home. Achieving this is more likely where goals of treatment are symptomatic relief only, indicating the importance of advance care planning.
Purpose: Patients with haematological malignancies are more likely to die in hospital, and less likely to access palliative care than people with other cancers, though the reasons for this are not well understood. The purpose of our study was to explore haematology nurses' perspectives of their patients’ places of care and death.
Method: Qualitative description, based on thematic content analysis. Eight haematology nurses working in secondary and tertiary hospital settings were purposively selected and interviewed. Transcriptions were coded and analysed for themes using a mainly inductive, cross-comparative approach.
Results: Five inter-related factors were identified as contributing to the likelihood of patients’ receiving end of life care/dying in hospital: the complex nature of haematological diseases and their treatment; close clinician-patient bonds; delays to end of life discussions; lack of integration between haematology and palliative care services; and barriers to death at home.
Conclusions: Hospital death is often determined by the characteristics of the cancer and type of treatment. Prognostication is complex across subtypes and hospital death perceived as unavoidable, and sometimes the preferred option. Earlier, frank conversations that focus on realistic outcomes, closer integration of palliative care and haematology services, better communication across the secondary/primary care interface, and an increase in out-of-hours nursing support could improve end of life care and facilitate death at home or in hospice, when preferred.
Previous studies have revealed that there is significant geographical variation in place of death in (PoD) England, with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics explaining = 25% of this variation. Service factors, mostly modifiable, may account for some of the unexplained variation, but their role had never been evaluated systematically. A national population-based observational study in England, using National Death Registration Database (2014) linked to area-level service data from public domains, categorised by commissioning, type and capacity, location and workforce of the services, and the service use. The relationship between the service variables and PoD was evaluated using beta regression at the area level and using generalised linear mixed models at the patient level. The relative contribution of service factors at the area level was assessed using the per cent of variance explained, measured by R2. The total impact of service factors was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The independent effect of service variables was measured at the individual level by odds ratios (ORs)., Among the 431,735 adult deaths, hospitals were the most common PoD (47.3%), followed by care homes (23.1%), homes (22.5%) and hospices (6.1%). One-third (30.3%) of the deaths were due to cancer and two-thirds (69.7%) were due to non-cancer causes. Almost all service categories studied were associated with some of the area-level variation in PoD. Service type and capacity had the strongest link among all service categories, explaining 14.2–73.8% of the variation; service location explained 10.8–34.1% of the variation. The contribution of other service categories to PoD was inconsistent. At the individual level, service variables appeared to be more useful in predicting death in hospice than in hospital or care home, with most AUCs in the fair performance range (0.603–0.691). The independent effect of service variables on PoD was small overall, but consistent. Distance to the nearest care facility was negatively associated with death in that facility. At the Clinical Commissioning Group level, the number of hospices per 10,000 adults was associated with a higher chance of hospice death in non-cancer causes (OR 30.88, 99% confidence interval 3.46 to 275.44), but a lower chance of hospice death in cancer causes. There was evidence for an interaction effect between the service variables and sociodemographic variables on PoD., This study was limited by data availability, particularly those specific to palliative and end-of-life care; therefore, the findings should be interpreted with caution. Data limitations were partly due to the lack of attention and investment in this area., A link was found between service factors and PoD. Hospice capacity was associated with hospice death in non-cancer cases. Distance to the nearest care facility was negatively correlated with the probability of a patient dying there. Effect size of the service factors was overall small, but the interactive effect between service factors and sociodemographic variables suggests that high-quality end-of-life care needs to be built on service-level configuration tailored to individuals’ circumstances., A large data gap was identified and data collection is required nationally on services relevant to palliative and end-of-life care. Future research is needed to verify the identified links between service factors and PoD., The National Institute for Health Research Health Services and Delivery Research programme.