BACKGROUND: This case analysis describes dilemmas and challenges of ethical partnering encountered in the process of conducting a research study that explored moral and practical dimensions of palliative care in humanitarian crisis settings. Two contexts are the focus of this case analysis: Jordan, an acute conflict-induced refugee situation, and Rwanda, a protracted conflict-induced refugee setting. The study's main goal was to better understand ways humanitarian organizations and health care providers might best support ethically and contextually appropriate palliative care in humanitarian contexts. An unintended outcome of the research was learning lessons about ethical dimensions of transnational research partnerships, which is the focus of this case analysis.
DISCUSSION: There exist ongoing challenges for international collaborative research in humanitarian conflict-induced settings. Research partnerships were crucial for connecting with key stakeholders associated with the full study (e.g., refugees with life limiting illness, local healthcare providers, aid organization representatives). While important relationships were established, obstacles limited our abilities to fully attain the type of mutual partnership we aimed for. Unique challenges faced during the research included: (a) building, nurturing and sustaining respectful and equitable research partnerships between collaborators in contexts of cultural difference and global inequality; (b) appropriate ethics review and challenges of responding to local decision-maker's research needs; and (c) equity and fairness towards vulnerable populations. Research strategies were adapted and applied to respond to these challenges with a specific focus on (d) research rewards and restitution.
CONCLUSIONS: This case analysis sheds light on the importance of understanding cultural norms in all research roles, building relationships with decision makers, and developing teams that include researchers from within humanitarian crisis settings to ensure that mutually beneficial research outcomes are ethical as well as culturally and contextually relevant.
BACKGROUND: The unprecedented scale of contemporary migration across countries over the last decade means that ageing and dying occur in a more globalised, multicultural context. It is therefore essential to explore the end-of-life experiences of older people from migrant backgrounds.
METHODS: A scoping review of peer-reviewed articles published in English from 2008 to 2018. Included studies addressed end-of-life preferences, attitudes, values and beliefs of first-generation international migrants who were at least 50 years of age.
RESULTS: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria for this review, which addressed six key themes: (1) the reluctance among older migrants and their families to talk about death and dying; (2) difficult communication in patient-clinician relationships; (3) the contrast between collectivistic and individualistic norms and its associated end-of-life preferences; (4) limited health literacy in older adults from migrant backgrounds; (5) experiences with systemic barriers like time pressure, inflexibility of service provision and lack of cultural sensitivity and (6) the need for care providers to appreciate migrants' 'double home experience' and what this means for end-of-life decision-making regarding place of care and place of death.
DISCUSSION: To respond effectively to an increasingly culturally diverse population, healthcare staff, researchers and policymakers need to invest in the provision of culturally sensitive end-of-life care. Areas for improvement include: (a) increased awareness of cultural needs and the role of family members; (b) cultural training for healthcare staff; (c) access to interpreters and translated information and (d) involvement of older migrants in end-of-life discussions, research and policymaking.
Objectives: To characterize clinician experiences of hospice access and scope of services for undocumented immigrants.
Background: The 10.5 million undocumented immigrants in the United States are not covered by Medicare's hospice benefit and are at high risk for being uninsured. Limited data are available regarding hospice services for this population.
Setting/Subjects: Two hundred ninety-four interdisciplinary palliative care clinicians from across the United States.
Measurements: Participants completed a web-based survey regarding hospice access and scope of services for undocumented immigrants in their location. We used simple frequencies to report clinician responses and chi-square analysis to evaluate associations between response and location. We performed rapid qualitative analysis of free-text responses to identify common limitations in scope of services.
Results: A majority of clinicians (68%) perceived that access to hospice was limited or unavailable for undocumented immigrants in their location, and among respondents who provided data regarding hospice scope, 38% reported that services provided to undocumented immigrants were limited compared to those provided to other patients. Reports of restricted access and scope varied by region, and those in large metropolitan areas were more likely to report restricted scope of care than those in smaller towns (43% vs. 28%; p = 0.03). In our qualitative analysis of free-text responses, common limitations in hospice scope included reduced access to medications and equipment, inability to access inpatient hospice, inadequate translation services, reduced staffing, and restricted duration of services.
Conclusions: Undocumented immigrants may face barriers in accessing comprehensive hospice services. Public policy changes that improve access to hospice may improve end-of-life care for undocumented immigrants.
BACKGROUND: A sizeable cohort of Chinese migrants in high-income non-Asian countries is reaching old age and many will develop life-limiting illnesses. They may benefit from palliative care, which is integrated into universal health coverage in many of these countries, but the uptake of this care among migrant communities remains low. Cultural differences between the Chinese and the host community, and poor language skills may be barriers to access, yet understanding the reasons hindering uptake are obscure.
AIMS: To understand the cultural perspective of how first generation Chinese migrants and their families perceive the provision of palliative care, to identify what exists which may limit their access in high-income non-Asian countries.
DESIGN: A systematic review and three-stage thematic synthesis of qualitative studies. Citations and full texts were reviewed against predefined inclusion criteria. All included studies were appraised for quality.
DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and PubMed were searched to July 2019.
RESULTS: Seven qualitative studies were identified (from USA, UK, Canada and Australia). Across the studies analytical themes that impacted on the use of palliative care services were identified: (1) migrants' intrinsic perceptions of cultural practices, (2) their expectations of and preparation for care at the end of life, (3) perspectives and influences of family and (4) knowledge and communication with palliative care providers in the host country. Key elements found that challenge access to palliative care services in the host countries were: Chinese culture is rooted in the core values of the family as opposed to the individual; migrants' limited experience in their place of origin in accessing healthcare; and practical issues including a lack of language skills of their host country.
CONCLUSIONS: Palliative care services do not always match the needs of Chinese migrants in non-Asian high-income countries. Engagement and education on multiethnic cultural awareness in both the host non-migrant and the migrant communities is needed.
Background: Time at home before death is an emerging patient-centered metric of quality end-of-life care. It is unknown if immigrants who die from cancer in Ontario spend less time at home near the end of life.
Objective: Compare the number of days at home (DAH) in the last six months of life for immigrants and long-term residents (LTRs) who die from cancer.
Methods: Population-based cohort study (January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2013) using administrative databases. Participants were adults (=18 years) who died from cancer in Ontario. Immigrants were defined as those who immigrated from 1985 onward. The outcome was DAH in the last six months of life. Analysis included univariate and multivariable regression, adjusting for patient and disease characteristics. Subgroup analyses assessed DAH by immigration class, time since immigration, and region of birth. Sensitivity analyses excluded patients with breast and prostate cancer to examine for sex differences.
Results: Seventy-two thousand nine hundred eighty-eight individuals (3988 immigrants) were identified. Immigrants spent fewer DAH in the last six months (unadjusted 162 days vs. 164 days, p < 0.001). This remained statistically significant after adjusting (p = 0.0087). DAH varied by immigration class and region of birth. Sensitivity analyses suggest a sex difference in end-of-life time spent at home.
Conclusions: Immigrants who die from cancer in Ontario spend fewer DAH before death than LTRs. This may be due to patient preferences, inequitable access to services, or availability of local relatives for support. Further research is needed to understand the causes of this association.
Le deuil compliqué demeure un sujet à controverse. Bien que ce concept se retrouve dans de nombreuses cultures, peu d’études scientifiques abordent les complications du deuil dans une perspective transculturelle. Cet article, qui repose sur la présentation d’un cas clinique et une revue de la littérature, décrit les particularités du deuil selon les cultures et en contexte d’immigration. Il offre un regard transculturel sur le deuil dit compliqué et discute les limites des classifications internationales pour diagnostiquer les complications d’un deuil selon les cultures. En influençant le processus même du deuil, ses manifestations cliniques et ses complications éventuelles, la culture et la religion peuvent rendre complexe la distinction entre un deuil normal et un deuil compliqué en contexte interculturel. Le concept de deuil compliqué est discuté en mettant en avant l’importance d’une approche culturellement sensible pour en permettre une évaluation clinique appropriée. Nous soulignons la question centrale du sens donné à la mort et aux symptômes vécus en période de deuil, et la pertinence d’un regard critique sur le risque de médicalisation du deuil et les limites des classifications internationales, DSM-5 et CIM-11. Les nouvelles nosographies devraient bénéficier d’une plus grande précision concernant les complications du deuil selon les cultures non occidentales, en incluant des déterminants spécifiques liés à la culture, comme les systèmes de croyances entourant une « mauvaise mort » et les interprétations culturelles des rêves où figure une personne défunte.
Refugees are a highly vulnerable marginalized population with unique medical and psychosocial needs. Unfortunately, the Interim Federal Health Program (IFHP) in Canada partially covers the medical needs of refugee claimants but does not include hospice or home-based palliative care. This report describes the case of a refugee claimant cancer patient who was admitted to an inpatient tertiary cancer center medical oncology ward in Ontario, Canada, for [about] 11 months due to insufficient community-based palliative care resources available for patients covered by the IFHP. This case report highlights the differences in palliative care coverage between the provincial health care coverage, Ontario Health Insurance Plan, and federal health care coverage for refugees, IFHP, from a practical point of view, how this can affect the palliative care available for patients and their families, and the impact on the Canadian health care system.
Community engagement and -education are proposed to foster equity in access to care and to ensure dignity of migrant patients in the last phase of life, but evidence is lacking. We evaluated nine community educational interactive meetings about palliative care (136 participants totally)- co-created with educators from our target groups of Moroccan, Surinamese and Turkish migrants-with a mixed methods approach, including 114 questionnaires, nine observations, nine interviews with educators, and 18 pre- and post- group- and individual interviews with participants. Descriptive and thematic analysis was used. 88% of the participants experienced the meetings as good or excellent. Educators bridged an initial resistance toward talking about this sensitive topic with vivid real-life situations. The added value of the educational meetings were: (1) increased knowledge and awareness about palliative care and its services (2) increased comprehensiveness of participant's wishes and needs regarding dignity in the last phase; (3) sharing experiences for relief and becoming aware of real-life situations. Community engagement and -education about palliative care for migrants effectively increases knowledge about palliative care and is a first step towards improved access to palliative care services, capacity building and a dignified last phase of life among migrants.
With an increasingly ageing population there will be a rising demand for palliative care, including from older migrants and ethnic minorities. While many (future) physicians are unfamiliar with specific needs of older migrants and ethnic minorities regarding care and communication in palliative care, this may be challenging for them to deal with. Moreover, even many medical teachers also feel unprepared to teach palliative care and culturally sensitive communication to students. In order to support medical teachers, we suggest twelve tips to teach culturally sensitive palliative care to guide the development and implementation of teaching this topic to medical students. Drawn from literature and our own experiences as teachers, these twelve tips provide practical guidance to both teachers and curriculum designers when designing and implementing education about culturally sensitive palliative care.
Australia is one of the most successful multi-cultural countries in the world, resulting from continuous immigration for the last 70 years or so. Australia is home for people from almost 200 countries with more than one in five speaking a language other than English at home. Some people arrive in Australia seeking protection from conflict in their own country. They may seek protection as a refugee and in the meantime live in the community while awaiting the outcome of their asylum request. Drawing on a story of one asylum seeker, this paper describes some of the key considerations required in caring for an asylum seeker who is facing the end of their life, making recommendations for addressing their often-complex care needs.
Background: Patients often view “palliative care” (PC) as an approach that is synonymous with end-of-life and death, leading to shock and fear. Differing cultural and social norms and religious affiliations greatly determine perception of PC among diverse populations.
Methods: This prospective observational study aimed to explore perceptions of PC among South Asian community members at one Canadian site. Patients who identified themselves as being of South Asian origin were consented and enrolled at a PC Clinic at a community hospital in Brampton, Ontario serving a large South Asian population. Participants filled out an 18-question survey created for the study and responded to a semi-structured interview consisting of 8 questions that further probed their perceptions of PC. Survey responses and semi-structured interviews content were analyzed by four authors who reached consensus on key exploratory findings.
Results: Thirty-four participants of South Asian origin were recruited (61.8% males), and they were distributed by their age group as follows: [(30–49) - 18%; (50–64) – 21%; (65–79) - 41%; (= 80) – 21%]. Five main exploratory findings emerged: (i) differing attitudes towards talking about death; (ii) the key role of family in providing care; (iii) a significant lack of prior knowledge of PC; (iv) a common emphasis on the importance of alleviating suffering and pain to maintain comfort; and (v) that cultural values, faith, or spiritual belief do not pose a necessary challenge to acceptance of PC services.
Conclusions: Observations from this study provide a source of reference to understand the key findings and variability in perceptions of palliative care in South Asian communities. Culturally competent interventions based on trends observed in this study could assist Palliative Physicians in delivering personalized care to South Asian populations.
BACKGROUND: Preserving personal dignity is an important part of palliative care. Generally, autonomy, independency and not being a burden to others are emphasised for preserving dignity. Dignity has not been studied yet from the perspective of the growing group of patients with a migration background living in Western countries.
AIM: To gain insight into (1) what patients - and their relatives - with a Turkish, Moroccan or Surinamese background, living in the Netherlands, in their last phase of life find important aspects of dignity, and (2) how care professionals can preserve and strengthen the dignity of these patients.
DESIGN: Qualitative thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews.
PARTICIPANTS: A total of 23 patients and 21 relatives with a Turkish, Moroccan or Surinamese background were interviewed.
RESULTS: For respondents dignity encompassed surrender to God's or Allah's will and meaningful relationships with others, rather than preserving autonomy. Surrender to God or Allah meant accepting the illness, the situation and performing religious practice. A meaningful relationship meant being assisted or cared for by family members and maintaining a social role. Professionals could preserve dignity by showing respect and attention; guaranteeing physical integrity, hygiene and self-direction; and indirect communication about diagnoses and prognoses.
CONCLUSIONS: Religion and appropriate involvement of family members are important aspects of dignity in the last phase of life, in addition to autonomy and independency. Care professionals need to take these factors into account in order to provide person-centred care.
Aims: To explore the palliative care experiences of forced migrant children, families, and healthcare professionals (HCPs) highlighting successes, challenges, and associated practice implications.
Design: Systematic literature review.
Data Sources: The following search engines were searched from 2008 - 2018: Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, MEDLINE, Embase, ProQuest, Scopus, Psycinfo, and Web of Science. Extensive reference and citation checking were also conducted.
Review Methods: Systematic review followed PRISMA guidelines with prepared PROSPERO registered protocol #CRD42019129200. English language qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods studies were eligible for inclusion. Study quality was appraised using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT).
Results: Eighteen studies (reported in 20 articles) met the final inclusion criteria. Most focused on challenges to care provision. Thematic analysis following methods proposed by Braun and Clarke was undertaken. Five themes were identified: (a) divergence of beliefs and expectations; (b) communication; (c) navigating healthcare systems; (d) burdens and coping strategies; and (e) training and knowledge. A compassionate, collaborative approach with mutual respect crossed themes and was linked to high-quality care.
Conclusion: Forced migrant families have multiple needs including physical and emotional support and help in navigating complex systems. Professional interpreters can ease communication barriers when resourced appropriately. Individualized care is crucial to addressing the intricate mosaic of culture such families present. A cultural sensitivity/insensitivity framework is presented that may help guide future interactions and priorities for those working in children's palliative care.
Impact: This systematic review explored the international experiences of palliative care for forced migrant families. The findings highlight the plight of families who experience multiple traumas and increased levels of grief and loss through their migration experiences and when caring for a child with a life-limiting condition. This research has potential to have an impact on professionals working with culturally diverse families in all palliative care settings.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the factors of advance directive (AD) completion among older Chinese Americans.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey.
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Data came from 435 Chinese Americans aged 55 years and older living in 2 metropolitan areas through self-administered questionnaires and research assistant-administered interviews in 2018. Participants' average age was 75 years (standard deviation = 9.4).
METHODS: Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with AD completion.
RESULTS: Approximately 14% of participants completed an AD. Older age [odds ratio (OR) 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.12], higher level of acculturation (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.39-3.33), higher expectation for intergenerational support (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.02-2.27), and having US citizenship (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.26-7.23) were positively associated with AD completion. Physical and mental health needs were not significantly associated with AD completion.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: This study is among the first focusing on AD completion among Chinese Americans, one of the fastest-growing older minority populations in the United States. Findings highlight the influence of socioeconomic and cultural factors on AD completion and illustrate the importance of developing culturally sensitive interventions to promote end-of-life care decision making among older Chinese Americans.
OBJECTIVES: This study explored associations between birth region, socio-demographic predictors and advance care planning (ACP) uptake.
METHODS: A prospective, multi-center, cross-sectional audit study of 100 sites across eight Australian jurisdictions. ACP documentation was audited in the health records of people aged 65 years or older accessing general practice (GP), hospital and long-term care facility (LTCF) settings. Advance care directives (ACD) completed by the person ('person completed ACDs') and ACP documents completed by a health professional or other person ('health professional or someone else ACP') were counted. Hierarchical multi-level logistic regression assessed associations with birth region.
RESULTS: From 4187 audited records, 30.0% (1152/3839) were born outside Australia. 'Person completed ACDs' were less common among those born outside Australia (21.9% vs 28.9%, X2 (1, N = 3840) = 20.3, p & 0.001), while 'health professional or someone else ACP' was more common among those born outside Australia (46.4% vs 34.8%, X2 (1, N = 3840) = 45.5, p & 0.001). Strongest associations were found for those born in Southern Europe: 'person completed ACD' (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.36-0.88), and 'health professional or someone else ACP' (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.01-1.98). English-language proficiency and increased age significantly predicted both ACP outcomes.
DISCUSSION: Region of birth is associated with the rate and type of ACP uptake for some older Australians. Approaches to ACP should facilitate access to interpreters and be sensitive to diverse preferences for individual and family involvement in ACP.
Aims: This review aims to explore the extant literature on the current utilization of ACP in Kisin order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of their health disparities and to determine evidence-based best practices to integrate culturally-competent ACP for EOL care of KIs.
Design: A systematic integrative review of the literature Data Sources: Four electronic databases including PubMed, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, the Cochrane Library, and Embase.
Method: The detailed search strategy for databases implicated a combination of MeSHkeywords and associated terms, which can be found in Table A.
Results: Three themes emerged in relation to fundamental components in the integration of culturally-competent ACP for EOL of KIs: (1) cultural characteristics of KIs; (2) disparities in ethnic-oriented ACP and EOL care resources in KIs; and (3) KIs’ perspectives on ACP.
Conclusion: The findings of this review indicate that culturally-competent ACP resources for KIsare presently quite insufficient. It is determined that much future research is needed on how culturally-competent ACP can best augment the quality of EOL care for KIs, and on how specific interventions can effectively implement ACP in community settings. Impact: Such ongoing research dedicated to the development of feasible culturally competent practice guidelines is anticipated to markedly reduce health disparities and promote ACP in KIs. The recommendations in this review may support Korean primary HCPs, Korean health care center administrators, Korean health maintenance organizations (HMOs), Korean advance care nurse practitioners in hospice and palliative care, and nurse researchers in their work.
Much of the scholarly literature sees death as a taboo topic for Chinese. To test this assumption, this study held seven focus groups in the Greater Toronto Area in 2017. It found that the majority of the older Chinese immigrant participants talked about death freely using either the word death or a euphemism. They talked about various issues including medical treatment and end-of-life care, medical assistance in dying, death preparation, and so on. A small number did not talk about death, but it seemed their reluctance was related to anxiety or discomfort or simply reflected a choice of words. The study concludes death as taboo could be a myth, at least for older Chinese immigrants.
CONTEXT: Many in the rapidly-growing Chinese-American population are non-English-speaking and medically-underserved, and few engage in advance care planning (ACP). Evaluating culturally-determined factors that may inhibit ACP can inform programs designed to increase ACP engagement.
OBJECTIVES: To describe attitudes and beliefs concerning ACP in older, non-English speaking Chinese-Americans in a medically-underserved urban region.
METHODS: Patients were consecutively recruited from a primary care practice in New York City to participate in a cross-sectional survey. Attitudes and beliefs were measured using an ACP Survey tool and the validated Traditional Chinese Death Beliefs measure. Exploratory analyses evaluated associations between these two measures, and between each measure and sociodemographics, primary dialect, acculturation (using The Suinn-Lew Asian Self Identity Acculturation Scale), and health status (using the Short Form-8 Health Survey).
RESULTS: Patients (n=179) were 68.2 years on average; 55.9% were women, and 81.0% were non-English speaking (42.8% Cantonese, 15.2% Mandarin, 19.3% Toisanese, 19.3% Fuzhounese). Most had low acculturation (mean=1.7/5.0), and highly-rated physical and mental health (means=70.1/100 and 81.5/100). Few patients (15.1%) had an advance directive and 56.8% were unfamiliar with any type; 74.4% were willing to complete one in the future. Thirty-two percent "agreed" that "talking about death in the presence of a dying person would accelerate death". The analyses revealed no significant associations.
CONCLUSION: These Chinese-American older adults had low acculturation and very limited knowledge of, or engagement in, ACP. Factors that may predict culturally-determined attitudes and beliefs about ACP were not identified. Further research can inform efforts to improve ACP engagement in this population.
BACKGROUND: Immigrants to North America receive more interventions at end of life potentially due to knowledge gaps. The primary objective of this study was to measure and describe levels of perceived knowledge about palliative care among immigrants to the United States (US) compared to those born in the US. Our secondary objective was to identify trusted sources for seeking information about palliative care among immigrants and compare these trusted sources with those born in the US. We hypothesized that immigrants would have less knowledge of palliative care than those born in US and would trust different sources for information about palliative care.
METHODS: We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2018 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 5, cycle 2). Questionnaires were administered via mail between January and May 2018 to a population-based sample of adults. The primary outcome of interest was assessed using the item "How would you describe your level of knowledge about palliative care?" The secondary outcome of interest was determined using the item "Imagine you had a strong need to get information about palliative care, which of the following would you most trust as a source of information about palliative care?" Descriptive statistics were calculated, and bivariate analyses run between the outcomes of interest and sociodemographic characteristics (age, sex, education, race/ethnicity, nativity, fluency with English). Multivariable logistic regressions were conducted to assess the role of nativity, controlling for relevant sociodemographic variables. Jackknife weighting was used to generate population-level estimates.
RESULTS: About 70% of those born in the US and 77% of immigrants (weighted) responded that they had "never heard of palliative care." Trusted sources of palliative care were very similar between the groups (all P>0.05). Both groups' preferred trusted source of palliative care knowledge was "health care provider," with over 80% of respondents in each group selecting this option. Printed materials and social media were the least popular trusted sources among both groups. After adjusting for relevant sociodemographic characteristics, we found no association between poor knowledge of palliative care and nativity (P=0.22). Female respondents had 2.5-fold increased odds of reporting low levels of perceived knowledge of palliative care (OR =2.58, 95% CI, 1.76-3.78; P<0.001). Education was an important predictor of perceived knowledge of palliative care; as education level increased, so did perceived knowledge of palliative care (P<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Perceived knowledge of palliative care is poor generally, regardless of birthplace. Trusted sources for palliative care are similar between immigrants and those born in the US. Education is important and is a strong predictor of perceived knowledge of palliative care. Women perceive they have lower levels of knowledge of palliative care (PC) than men. Differences in end of life care between immigrants and non-immigrants cannot be explained by knowledge differences.
BACKGROUND: The provision of appropriate end of life care for patients who have different life experiences, beliefs, value systems, religions, languages, and notions of healthcare, can be difficult and stressful for the nurse. To date, research has focused predominately on nurses' experiences of end of life care for the Muslim patient who is an immigrant in another country.
OBJECTIVES: To critically review the literature related to the lived experiences of non-Muslim expatriate nurses providing end of life care for Muslim patients in their home country.
DESIGN: Integrative Literature Review DATA SOURCES: Comprehensive online search of Library Databases: Ovid, CINAHL, EBSCOHost; MEDLINE; Science Citation Index Expanded; PubMED; Web of Science; PROQUEST, and Scopus.
REVIEW METHODS: An integrative review of literature published within the dates January 2000 - July 2017. Included articles were published in the English language, peer reviewed/refereed, and focused on nurses' experiences. Both qualitative and mixed method studies describing the experience of non-Muslim nurses providing nursing care to Muslim patients in a country that was predominately Muslim were included.
RESULTS: Initially 74 articles were found of which nine met the inclusion criteria. Research has been conducted predominantly within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with one article from Bahrain and one other jointly from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. The research indicates that expatriate nurses view themselves as powerless patient advocates, are hindered by the nurse-patient-family-physician quadriad structure, language and differing beliefs about communicating death, and negotiating culturally safe care is emotionally challenging.
CONCLUSION: This review highlights that the stressors associated with misalignment of expectations cause emotional and physical distress for the nurses. When nurses were focused on clinical care, they were unable to accommodate cultural practices that were important to the patient and family, contributing to increasing stress. Researchers have sought to capture this distress and make some sense of its impact. How nurses can provide culturally safe care, in countries with cultural practices quite different from their own, bears further investigation.