Introduction: Older patients with hip fracture have a 20% to 30% mortality rate in the year after surgery. Nonoperative care has higher 1-year mortality rates and is generally only pursued in those with an extraordinarily high surgical risk. As the population ages, more patients with hip fracture may fall into this category. The orthopedic surgeon is typically the main consultant responsible for deciding between surgery and conservative management, and the reasoning behind one decision over the other is often poorly understood. We undertook a review to determine decision-making tools for surgery in high-risk patients with hip fracture.
Materials and Methods: A review was conducted using PubMed to determine articles published using the terms palliative care, conservative care, nonoperative, hip fracture, orthopedic procedures, fracture fixation, and surgery. Our search resulted in 13 articles to review. These were further screened to determine tools for use in surgical decision-making.
Results: Several potential decision-making tools were found in our search. The potential tools to identify patients who would benefit from nonoperative treatment included the Palliative Performance Scale for severe dementia, the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and Katz Activities of Daily Living scales for prefracture immobility, a combination of clinical signs and laboratory tests to determine risk of imminent death, and the Charlson Comorbidity Score for additional serious comorbidities. No tools have been prospectively tested in a clinical setting.
Discussion: Evaluation of each patient using a variety of decision making tools should help the orthopedic surgeon determine which patients would be better suited to non-operative management. After determining the benefit of non-operative care, they must effectively allow the fracture to heal while ameliorating pain. Palliative care physicians can fulfill this role by providing support and symptom relief.
Conclusions: Surgical decision-making for hip fracture repair in the elderly patients is not straight forward. Several tools may be helpful to the surgeon in determining who may be better suited for nonoperative care or a palliative care referral. Prospective data do not exist in these decision-making tools.
The traditional living donor was very healthy. However, as the supply-demand gap continues to expand, transplant programs have become more accepting of less healthy donors. This paper focuses on the other extreme, asking whether and when individuals who have life-limiting conditions (LLC) should be considered for living organ donation. We discuss ethical issues raised by 1) donation by individuals with progressive severe debilitating disease for whom there is no ameliorative therapy; and 2) donation by individuals who are imminently dying or would die by the donation process itself.
AIM: Identify the palliative care learning needs of healthcare students and determine the acceptability of an innovative learning strategy for palliative care named competencia para cuidar en el hogar-paliar (CUIDAR-PALIAR) aimed to increase students' competencies.
METHODS: A single-group mixed methods design was used. A questionnaire was designed and semi-structured interviews were used to determine the palliative care competencies of undergraduate students; 90 students participated in the strategy.
FINDINGS: The learning needs of students are: approaches to death and loss, how to intervene with the patient's family, understanding of the palliative care context, management of the patient's pain and symptoms and the development of therapeutic communication skills.
CONCLUSION: The strategy is highly accepted by students, and statistically significant increases in palliative care were observed before and after the intervention. These preliminary results justify future interventions due to the potential effect of the strategy CUIDAR-PALIAR in the development of competencies for palliative care in undergraduate students.
BACKGROUND: How patients preserve their sense of dignity in life is an important area of palliative care that remains to be explored.
AIMS: To describe patients' perspectives of what constitutes a dignified life within a palliative care context.
METHODS: Twelve palliative care patients were interviewed about their views on living with dignity. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis.
RESULTS: What constitutes a dignified life during end-of-life care was captured by the theme 'I may be ill but I am still a human being' and presented under the categories 'preserving my everyday life and personhood', 'having my human value maintained by others through 'coherence' and 'being supported by society at large'.
CONCLUSION: Patients' sense of dignity can be preserved by their own attitudes and behaviours, by others and through public support. Health professionals need to adopt a dignity-conserving approach, for which awareness of their own attitudes and behaviours is crucial.
This study develops and examines the validity and reliability of 2 scales, respectively, for evaluating nursing care and the experience of difficulties providing nursing care for dying patients with cancer and their families. A cross-sectional anonymous questionnaire was administered to nursing staff caring for dying patients with cancer and their families in 4 general hospitals and a university hospital in Japan. The instruments assessed were the Nursing Care Scale for Dying Patients and Their Families (NCD) and the Nurse’s Difficulty Scale for Dying Patients and Their Families (NDD). Of the 497 questionnaires sent to nurses, 401 responses (80%) were analyzed. Factor analyses revealed that the NCD and NDD consisted of 12 items with 4 subscales: "symptom management," "reassessment of current treatment and nursing care," "explanation to family," and "respect for the patient and family’s dignity before and after death." These scales had sufficient convergent and discriminative validity, sufficient internal consistency (alpha of subscales: NCD, 0.71-0.87; NDD, 0.74-0.93), and sufficient test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient of subscales: NCD, 0.59-0.81; NDD, 0.67-0.82) to be used as self-assessments and evaluation tools in education programs to improve the quality of nursing care for the dying patients and their families.
This paper focuses on the practice of injecting patients who are dying with a relatively high dose of sedatives in response to a catastrophic event that will shortly precipitate death, something that we term 'crisis sedation.' We first present a confabulated case that illustrates the kind of events we have in mind, before offering a more detailed account of the practice. We then comment on some of the ethical issues that crisis sedation might raise. We identify the primary value of crisis sedation as allowing healthcare professionals to provide some degree of reassurance to patients, their families and the professionals who are caring for them. Next we focus on the issue of informed consent. Finally, we ask whether continuous deep sedation might be preferable to crisis sedation in scenarios where potential catastrophic events can be anticipated.
Research conducted using the Haley Transcultural Strengths Assessment Interview Guide used in several studies has identified 11 sources of strength routinely utilized by parents caring for their child with intensive needs and child in hospice/palliative care. Results of past studies demonstrated this Strengths Guide (SG) interview to be an intervention bringing a heightened realization of the importance and utilization of one's inner strengths. The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term impact of this SG with a population of parents who participated in a previous study using the SG. This descriptive study was conducted using a quantitative tool, the Personal Strength Rating Scale, comparing the post-SG interview results with those results obtained 3 years later. Participants in this study were parents caring for a child receiving palliative/hospice care at home in Kenya. Results revealed the long-term retention of strengths following the SG interview 3 years previously was, for most sources of strength, equal to or greater than those obtained immediately following the SG.
The aim of this study was to explicate ways in which parents tell their adolescents about a parent's death. This study used a descriptive, qualitative design. From a large hospice in northeastern Ohio, nine adolescent children and six surviving spouses of recently deceased hospice patients were recruited. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and a semistructured individual interview. Thematic content analysis techniques were used to analyze the data. Surviving parents tell adolescents about the parent's death in ways that are intended to inform and ease the adolescents' distress. They engage in the process of disclosure in one of three ways: measured telling, matter-of-fact telling, and inconsistent telling. Findings from the current study are consistent with the ways parents told their children about an ill parent's life-threatening illness and imminent death. The findings support a framework that describes the processes of disclosure of a parent's illness, imminent death, and death to their adolescent children. Predeath findings about telling foreshadowed the postdeath findings. These results can be used to inform the development of interventions in which nurses and other health care professionals assist families with disclosure before and after death by tailoring strategies according to the family's communication style.
Toute personne majeure peut rédiger des directives anticipées pour le cas où elle serait un jour hors d'état d'exprimer sa volonté. Cet article explique la procédure de rédaction des directives anticipées puis leur prise en compte.
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La présente évaluation, réalisée selon les principes méthodologiques de l'évaluation des technologies et des modes d'intervention en santé et en services sociaux, permet une analyse critique rigoureuse des pratiques organisationnelles et cliniques de soins palliatifs dans le but de soutenir la prise de décision. Elle vise deux grands objectifs : 1) Évaluer, sur la base des données probantes disponibles, l'efficacité et les effets négatifs des équipes interdisciplinaires sur les soins palliatifs de fin de vie comparativement à d'autres approches ; 2) Évaluer, d'après le point de vue d'acteurs clés, le contexte et le degré d'intégration du fonctionnement interdisciplinaire dans les équipes de soins offerts à domicile et en unité spécialisée du CSSS de Bordeaux-Cartierville-Saint-Laurent, centre affilié universitaire. Les soins de fin de vie ont été définis comme les soins palliatifs fournis en fin de vie à une personne dont le pronostic est d'un an ou moins. Nous avons procédé à la recherche d'essais cliniques randomisés et d'autres études avec groupe contrôle publiés entre 1995 et 2013. Pour ce faire, nous avons consulté huit bases de données électroniques, cinq conférences, 15 sites web, de la littérature grise et les listes de références des études incluses de 1995 à 2013. La qualité méthodologique des études qui ont satisfait les critères d'inclusion a été indépendamment évaluée et notée à l'aide de l'outil d'évaluation de la qualité "Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies". Les données pertinentes ont été extraites en fonction des lignes directrices recommandées et résumées de façon narrative.
Origine : BDSP. Notice produite par SANTECOM mGR0xlIl. Diffusion soumise à autorisation
During an initial palliative care assessment, a dying man discloses that he had killed several people whilst a young man. The junior doctor, to whom he revealed his story, consulted with senior palliative care colleagues. It was agreed that legal advice would be sought on the issue of breaching the man's confidentiality. Two legal opinions conflicted with each other. A decision was made by the clinical team not to inform the police. In this article the junior doctor, the palliative medicine specialist, a medical ethicist, and a lawyer consider the case from their various perspectives.
Dyspnea is one of the most distressing symptoms experienced by dying patients, and it is a common reason for such patients to seek care in the emergency department. Many underlying disease states and acute illnesses cause shortness of breath at the end of life, and management tends to be symptomatic rather than diagnostic, particularly in those for whom comfort is the most important goal. Opioids are the most effective and widely studied agents available for palliation of dyspnea in this population, while adjuvant therapies such as oxygen, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, and hand-held fans may also be used. Benzodiazepines may also be helpful in select patients. The early involvement of palliative medicine specialists and/or hospice services for dying patients can facilitate optimal symptom management and transitions of care. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Emergency Medicine Practice.]
Dyspnea is one of the most distressing symptoms experienced by dying patients, and it is a common reason for such patients to seek care in the emergency department. Many underlying disease states and acute illnesses cause shortness of breath at the end of life, and management tends to be symptomatic rather than diagnostic, particularly in those for whom comfort is the most important goal. Opioids are the most effective and widely studied agents available for palliation of dyspnea in this population, while adjuvant therapies such as oxygen, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, and hand-held fans may also be used. Benzodiazepines may also be helpful in select patients. The early involvement of palliative medicine specialists and/or hospice services for dying patients can facilitate optimal symptom management and transitions of care.
Installé en février 1985, le groupe de travail "Aide aux mourants" a été chargé de réfléchir sur les conditions de la fin de la vie et de proposer des mesures concrètes pour améliorer l'accompagnement des mourants.
[Extrait début du rapport]
Current health and social care systems do not always meet the needs of the dying in our communities. As a result, patients and families are choosing to place their trust in those who can advocate for them or fill the gaps in care. Birth Doulas have been working with women during pregnancy and after birth for many years, and we are now seeing a new role, that of a Death Doula emerging in the end-of-life care space. How Death Doulas work within health and social care systems is not understood and we conducted a systematic review to explore the published literature to explore the role and potential implications for models of care delivery. Following the PRISMA recommendations, we searched the literature in January 2018 via bibliographic databases and the grey literature without search date parameters to capture all published literature. We looked for articles that describe the role/work of a death doula or a death midwife in the context of end-of-life care, or death and dying. Our search retrieved 162 unique records of which five papers were included. We analysed the papers in relation to relationship to health service, funding source, number and demand for services, training, licensing and ongoing support, and tasks undertaken. Death Doulas are working with people at the end of life in varied roles that are still little understood, and can be described as similar to that of "an eldest daughter" or to a role that has similarities to specialist palliative care nurses. Death doulas may represent a new direction for personalised care directly controlled by the dying person, an adjunct to existing services, or an unregulated form of care provision without governing oversight.