Dans cet album, la Mort est un personnage bienveillant et attentionné. Son travail est d'aller chercher tous ceux qui vont mourir - vieux ou jeunes, insectes ou éléphants. Son rôle est indispensable, parce que sans elle il n'y aurait pas assez de place pour que de nouvelles vies puissent voir le jour. La Mort accomplit sa tâche avec le plus de soin et de douceur possible. Elle fait partie de la vie, de l'amour, et de nous tous.
Sébastien, en 4e dans un collège de ZEP, est atteint d'une sclérose en plaques. Il est persuadé qu'il va en mourir... Entre ses copains, la fille dont il est amoureux, ses parents (une mère surprotectrice et un père démissionnaire) et ses crises, il est en survie permanente, sans espoir et sans but, jusqu'à l'arrivée dans la classe d'un enfant soldat du Congo, qui détourne son pôle d'attraction et le force à sortir de sa morbidité chronique en le révélant à lui-même.
The use of multidimensional scales for assessing fear of death among nursing students can assist in teaching and evaluating the effectiveness of targeted training in thanatology. Research has demonstrated good psychometric characteristics of the Czech version of the Collett–Lester Fear of Death Scale (CL-FODS). It was applied to nursing students (N = 256), who reported as their biggest fear the process of their own dying. Greater fear of death and dying was found in students who had no experience of the dying and death of a loved one. Good internal consistency was achieved for the four subscales of the Czech CL-FODS.
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate attitudes of New Zealanders toward death and dying. We administered an online version of Collett–Lester Fear of Death Scale and Concerns about Dying Instrument subscales to a representative sample of the New Zealand population. One thousand one people responded to the survey, where the largest age-group lay between 30 and 39 years. Respondents with strong religious beliefs showed strongest agreement to being anxious about their own death compared to those who have no religious beliefs (p = .0005). Conversely, participants with strong spiritual beliefs did not feel anxious about dying (=.0005). Participants with strong family connections believed their religion/spirituality helped them think about death compared to those with weak family connections (p > .0001). Our findings show that strong religious beliefs significantly predict higher levels of death anxiety compared to participants with strong spiritual beliefs. This is probably due to the cultural identity of those sampled.
Is it possible to end one’s life well with dementia? The perception of dementia as death brought into life flows from ideas about humanness embedded in medicine’s Cartesian paradigm. Dementia as incurable brain disease exacerbates negativity. But the real impact of dementia is that it changes social relations: to live well with dementia requires a relational not Cartesian understanding of life. A relational ontology prioritizes social health: to live is to be held in connection. Negativity produces the disconnection that is death, with or without disease. When people with dementia are held in connection, they live a better life.
Death metaphors are a meaningful way to understand personal perceptions of death, an important construct affecting how people live. This study collected death metaphor data among 100 university students in Hong Kong in 2016 and compared the findings with another study reported in 2004. Interpersonally oriented death metaphors were still popular among students a decade later. There was a general decrease in positive perception of death and an increase in negative perception of death from 2004 to 2016. Death metaphors are useful tools in death education programs, especially in cultures where death is a taboo topic.
Background: The death of a child can have significant emotional effects on doctors responsible for their care. Trainee doctors working in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) may be particularly vulnerable. The aim of this study was to examine the emotional impact of, and grief reactions to, a child's death in PICU trainee doctors, along with coping strategies they used.
Methods: In a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study, qualitative and quantitative data were recorded on anonymised, written questionnaires. Grief severity was assessed using the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief. Emotional impact was assessed using the shortened Impact of Event Scale. The BriefCOPE tool was used to assess coping strategies. Qualitative data was analysed using conventional content analysis. Data are presented as median (inter-quartile range) or number (%).
Results: All invited trainee doctors (23 anaesthetists; 5 paediatricians) completed the questionnaire (age, 30 [29-34] yr; 13/28 [46%] female). Two (7%) doctors experienced severe grief (Texas Revised Inventory of Grief score <39), with five (18%) doctors severely affected by the deaths as measured by the Impact of Event Scale. Qualitative analysis revealed prominent themes of sadness, helplessness, guilt, shock, and concern for the bereaved family. There was limited use of coping strategies. Speaking with another trainee doctor was the principal coping strategy. Requests for debriefing sessions, greater psychological support and follow-up with the patient's family were frequently suggested.
Conclusions: Paediatric deaths evoke significant grief and emotional reactions in a subset of PICU trainee doctors. Trainee PICU doctors highlighted a lack of professional support and tailored debriefs.
This paper focuses on the practice of injecting patients who are dying with a relatively high dose of sedatives in response to a catastrophic event that will shortly precipitate death, something that we term 'crisis sedation.' We first present a confabulated case that illustrates the kind of events we have in mind, before offering a more detailed account of the practice. We then comment on some of the ethical issues that crisis sedation might raise. We identify the primary value of crisis sedation as allowing healthcare professionals to provide some degree of reassurance to patients, their families and the professionals who are caring for them. Next we focus on the issue of informed consent. Finally, we ask whether continuous deep sedation might be preferable to crisis sedation in scenarios where potential catastrophic events can be anticipated.
The goal of the presented research was to investigate if wisdom plays a mediating role in the relationships between meaning in life and the attitude toward death in the period of middle and late adulthood. A study was carried out that included 567 persons aged 40 to 75 years. Three measures were used: Personal Meaning Profile, Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale, and Death Attitude Profile-Revised. The conducted analyses allowed the authors to confirm the mediating role of wisdom in the relationships between meaning in life and fear of death as well as death avoidance in persons during the period of middle and late adulthood.
Humans were once considered unique in having a concept of death but a growing number of observations of animal responses to dying and dead conspecifics suggests otherwise. Complex arrays of behaviors have been described ranging from corpse removal and burial among social insects to quiet attendance and caregiving among elephants and primates. Less frequently described, however, are behavioral responses of individuals from different age/sex classes or social position toward the death of conspecifics. We describe behavioral responses of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) to the deaths of a dominant silverback and a dominant adult female from the same social group in Volcanoes National Park in Rwanda and the responses of Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla b. graueri) to the corpse of an extra-group silverback in Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo. In gorillas, interactions between groups or with a lone silverback often result in avoidance or aggression. We predicted that: (i) more individuals should interact with the corpses of same-group members than with the corpse of the extra-group silverback; (ii) adult females with infants should avoid the corpse of the extra-group silverback; and (iii) in the mountain gorilla cases, individuals that shared close social relationships with the dead individual should spend more time with the corpse than other individuals in the group. We used a combination of detailed qualitative reports, photos, and videos to describe all occurrences of affiliative/investigative and agonistic behaviors observed at the corpses. We observed similar responses toward the corpses of group and extra-group individuals. Animals in all three cases showed a variety of affiliative/investigative and agonistic behaviors directed to the corpses. Animals of all age/sex classes interacted with the corpses in affiliative/investigative ways but there was a notable absence of all adult females at the corpse of the extra-group silverback. In all three cases, we observed only silverbacks and blackbacks being agonistic around and/or toward the corpses. In the mountain gorilla cases, the individuals who spent the most time with the corpses were animals who shared close social relationships with the deceased. We emphasize the similarity in the behavioral responses around the corpses of group and extra-group individuals, and suggest that the behavioral responses were influenced in part by close social relationships between the deceased and certain group members and by a general curiosity about death. We further discuss the implications close interactions with corpses have for disease transmission within and between gorilla social groups.
We examined whether subjective nearness-to-death is associated with negative attitudes toward people with disabilities, and whether attachment patterns moderate this connection. A total of 462 Israeli adults, average age 57 years, completed scales measuring subjective nearness-to-death, negative attitudes toward people with disability, and attachment patterns. High levels of subjective nearness-to-death were associated with negative attitudes toward people with disability, and attachment patterns were significant moderators. Findings point to the theoretical importance of both perceptions of death and personal resources for coping with subjective nearness-to-death in relation to attitudes toward individuals with disabilities.
Le déterminisme chez Spinoza et Freud les empêche de croire à une pensée inconditionnée. La philosophie ne suffit plus à apprendre à mourir. Pour philosopher, il faut donc renoncer au fantasme du sujet libre ou du moi maître de lui-même. La mort apparaît ici comme une délivrance désirable.
Analyse de la pensée de Platon et de Montaigne sur la vie et la mort. L'auteur montre que chez l'idéaliste comme chez le fataliste la mort est désirable car elle délivre du faux. Mais une différence essentielle les oppose : pour Platon, la mort libère la pensée, permettant l'accès à la connaissance éternelle ; pour Montaigne, elle l'étouffe définitivement, délivrant l'homme de ses inquiétudes.
Le scientisme moderne présente les expériences de mort imminente comme un phénomène physiologique dont il percerait prochainement les secrets. L'auteur explore ce sujet à travers les travaux d'un psychologue français Paul Diel.
La mort ne serait qu'une apparence. Il existe bien quelque chose au-delà de la disparition de l'être physique. L'auteur décrit les diverses croyances sur la vie après la mort et sur les expériences qui ont été menées sur ce sujet.
BACKGROUND: For children with life-shortening illness, achieving a "good death" can be a tacit goal. There is little understanding of how different stakeholders perceive what a "good death" might be.
OBJECTIVE: To review empirical literature to construct an understanding of a "good death" for children with life-shortening conditions.
DESIGN: An integrative review approach was followed. This involved searching across Embase, Web of Science, Medline, CINAHL, and PsycINFO (no date limits set), as well as identifying eligible studies tracking reference lists. Appraisal of shortlisted articles in full text was performed, followed by data extraction, synthesis, and interpretation.
RESULTS: Analysis of articles (n = 24) yielded a dynamic and layered narrative about a good death that revolved around three themes. (1) Level of needs: includes both practical support and aspirational goals such as “do everything.” (2) The composite experience: whether positive or negative adds to produce a sense of suffering. (3) Control (preservation and letting go): moving from maintaining status quo to acceptance of the child's death, the experience of which also contributes to suffering. Framed using a health care system perspective, a concept map that interprets a good death in children with life-shortening conditions is represented.
CONCLUSIONS: A single yet holistic understanding of a good death experienced in the "real world" is suggested. Pediatric health and social care providers, and even policy makers, can use this new understanding to conceive alternative approaches to enhance support to dying children and their families.
INTRODUCTION: Mexican Americans (MAs) are the largest, fastest growing Latino subgroup in the United States, yet their use of hospice is limited. To better understand this disparity, the authors conducted an integrative review focused on MA caregiving families' end-of-life (EOL) care decisions.
METHOD: In this literature review, the authors content analyzed results and discussions of 22 research studies focused on EOL decisions, which sampled MA adults at least 50 years old and/or families. The authors used Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review process, employing constructs from the Ethno-Cultural Gerontological Nursing Model.
RESULTS: Topics included attitudes toward hospice, life-sustaining treatment, advance care planning, EOL decision making, perceptions of a good death, and life-limiting illnesses. EOL research for MA caregiving families is meager, largely atheoretical, and rarely validated by subsequent studies.
DISCUSSION: Nursing research is needed to extend theory and policy in order to skillfully match EOL care with MA caregiving families' needs.