Plusieurs CSSS du Québec réfléchissent sur l’organisation des soins et services en santé mentale pour la clientèle âgée afin de mieux les desservir. Certains ont souligné leur intérêt à implanter un modèle organisationnel de services en santé mentale qui s’apparente à celui du CSSS Cavendish-CAU. Ce modèle, en place depuis plus d’une dizaine d’années, fut développé grâce à l’expertises cliniques et aux meilleures pratiques dans le domaine. Avant d’exporter ce modèle novateur de services, il apparaissait important d’analyser son évolution à travers le temps. Une analyse détaillée de plusieurs sources de données (ex. documents de travail, entrevues individuelles, focus groups, etc.) a permis de constater que les services imaginés en 1999 ont passablement changés. Cette analyse souligne plusieurs transformations positives telles que l’amélioration du continuum de soins, l’augmentation et la diversification du panier de services, mais également des changements de paradigmes et de pratiques sont questionnables. Le Plan d’action (2005) du MSSS a évacué deux concepts fondamentaux des services spécialisés en santé mentale 60 ans et plus (SSSM60+), soit l’autonomie psychosociale et les comportements à risques qui sont à la base d’une intervention plus sociale que médicale. Une attention particulière doit être accordée à ces concepts afin de les remettre à l’avant plan dans l’offre de services.
Les aîné-es trans sont une population en devenir constituée d’individus aux identités, réalités et trajectoires très diversifiées. Cet article basé sur une recension des écrits, présente tout d’abord cette diversité, notamment en ce qui a trait à l’âge, tant à l’appartenance générationnelle qu’à l’âge du début de la transition. On y traite ensuite de la santé physique des aîné-es trans, soit des problèmes et des besoins de santé qui leur sont propres, puis des barrières auxquelles ils et elles se heurtent dans leurs démarches pour avoir accès à des soins et des services de santé adéquats. Le texte relève certaines difficultés comme l’isolement et le manque de soutien qui sont souvent le lot des aînés trans ainsi que les obstacles dans leur accès aux services sociaux et aux soins liés au vieillissement. L’article propose des pistes d’action pour les personnes professionnelles dans le domaine de la santé et des services sociaux et se conclut sur des pistes de recherche.
En se basant sur le concept d’exclusion sociale, cet article soutient que le paradigme de l’État d’investissement social de même que l’accent mis par les politiques sur le vieillissement actif contribuent à l’exclusion des personnes âgées itinérantes (PAI) tant dans les politiques, les pratiques que la recherche. S’appuyant sur trois politiques et plans d’action sur l’itinérance émanant des gouvernements fédéral (canadien), provincial (québécois) et municipal (la Ville de Montréal), cet article montre comment l’exclusion des PAI se manifeste dans ces stratégies. Enfin, cet article démontre le besoin de reconnaître les multiples exclusions des PAI et conclut sur un appel à différents acteurs afin qu’ils adoptent une posture critique face aux discours et aux modèles normatifs qui concourent à l’exclusion de cette population.
Le maintien à domicile des personnes gravement malades et en fin de vie ainsi que des personnes âgées fragilisées va augmenter considérablement ces prochaines années. Cette évolution est liée à des causes démographiques, à l’organisation des soins, aux politiques de santé ainsi qu’à des désirs individuels. Mais finir sa vie à domicile reste un choix qui engage une solidarité intergénérationnelle, familiale et sociétale, qui relève à la fois d’un bénévolat naturel, celui des proches, et d’un bénévolat organisé, celui des associations. Cet accompagnement représente un défi pour JALMALV car le cadre et les conditions d’accompagnement ne sont pas les mêmes qu’en institution. Ce bénévolat nécessite donc une réflexion et une formation pour pouvoir identifier les spécificités d’un accompagnement à domicile.
Le domicile est le lieu de vie habituel de la personne malade. C’est là qu’elle a vécu, souvent depuis de longues années, parfois presque toute sa vie. Ce lieu évoque une partie de son histoire, il est rempli de souvenirs personnels. C’est aussi un lieu qui lui assure sécurité et intimité. D’une certaine façon, c’est pour lui un cocon protecteur. Quand il accueille chez lui un bénévole d’accompagnement, celui-ci est en quelque sorte son « invité ». Il sera plus à l’aise pour parler de lui-même, de son vécu, de ses expériences, de ses émotions. Il sera plus enclin à faire des confidences.
Certes, les institutions, et en particulier les EHPAD, insistent sur le caractère privé de la chambre du résident et sur la nécessité de lui garantir une certaine intimité…
BACKGROUND: The goals of palliative care are to relieve suffering and promote quality of life. Palliative care for older persons has been less prioritised than palliative care for younger people with cancer, which may lead to unnecessary suffering and decreased quality of life at the final stage of life.
AIM: To evaluate whether a palliative care intervention had any influence on the perceived quality of life of older persons (=65 years).
METHODS: This study was conducted as a complex intervention performed with an experimental crossover design. The intervention was implemented in 20 nursing homes, with a six-month intervention period in each nursing home. Twenty-three older persons (=65 years) in the intervention group and 29 in the control group were interviewed using the WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-OLD questionnaires at both baseline and follow-up. The collected data were analysed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to compare paired data between baseline and follow-up.
RESULTS: In the intervention group, no statistically significant increases in quality of life were found. This result contrasted with the control group, which revealed statistically significant declines in quality of life at both the dimension and item levels. Accordingly, this study showed a trend of decreased health after nine months in both the intervention and control groups.
CONCLUSION: It is reasonable to believe that quality of life decreases with age as part of the natural course of the ageing process. However, it seems that the palliative care approach of the intervention prevented unnecessary quality of life decline by supporting sensory abilities, autonomy and social participation among older persons in nursing homes. From the ageing perspective, it may not be realistic to strive for an increased quality of life in older people living in nursing homes; maybe the goal should be to delay or prevent reduced quality of life. Based on this perspective, the intervention prevented decline in quality of life in nursing home residents.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The high number of deaths shows the importance to identify palliative care needs in older persons at an early stage to prevent or delay deterioration of quality of life.
OBJECTIVES: Given the limited evidence regarding the longitudinal impact of widowhood on cognitive function in later life, the present study aimed to investigate the longitudinal effect of widowhood status on cognitive change among Korean older adults.
METHODS: The study sample was drawn from a nationally representative data set, the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA); it consisted of 3,660 Korean adults aged 60 and over who were married at baseline. Our dependent variable, cognitive function, was measured by the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE). Widowhood status was measured with the combination of widowhood status and duration. Growth curve models were constructed using five waves of the KLoSA (2006-2014) to examine the longitudinal trajectories of cognitive changes.
RESULTS: In the unadjusted model, widowed older adults had significantly lower cognitive function than their nonwidowed counterparts regardless of widowhood duration. Adjusting for covariates, results from the growth curve models showed that widowed older adults with widowhood duration 4 to 6 years had a significantly steeper decline in cognitive function than nonwidowed older adults (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that widowhood is detrimental for late-life cognitive function. Further research is required to understand the mechanisms underlying this relationship. Policy and practice implications are discussed according to the cultural context.
Background: Hospice is an effective end-of-life care approach for patients with incurable illnesses such as multiple myeloma; however, it has been historically underutilized. In addition to improving quality of life, hospice enrollment reduces healthcare spending in many incurable illnesses but this has been unstudied in the myeloma population to date.
Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of myeloma cases diagnosed from 2007 to 2013 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked dataset. Included patients were: diagnosed at age 65 or older, received myeloma-directed therapy, had an overall survival >3 months, and were enrolled in Medicare the month preceding death. Costs included those paid by Medicare and patient copays during the 30 days preceding death.
Results: 2075 patients were included in the analysis. 56% were enrolled in hospice at end of life. Increasing age and female gender were associated with greater odds of hospice enrollment. Non-white race, Medicaid enrollment, and increasing comorbidities were associated with decreased odds. Hospice enrollment was associated with a $13,574 (p < .0001) decrease in costs; however, the maximal savings were observed by those enrolled >14 days prior to death.
Conclusion: While improving quality of life should be the ultimate reason for increasing hospice utilization among patients with myeloma, there seems to be considerable cost implications as well.
Background: Self-rated health (SRH) and the surprise question (SQ) capture perceptions of health and are independent risk factors for poor outcomes. Little is known about their association with physiologic and functional decline.
Objective: Determine the association of SRH and SQ with frailty and functional status in older adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their utility as screening tools.
Design: Prospective cohort study.
Setting/Subjects: Two hundred seventy-two adults, age =60 years, with advanced CKD seen in nephrology clinic.
Measurements: Patients completed SRH and were evaluated for frailty (Fried criteria and Clinical Frailty Scale [CFS]) and functional status (Katz and Lawton indices of activities of daily living [ADLs] and instrumental ADLs [iADLs]). Providers completed the SQ. Correlations were evaluated using Spearman's rho.
Results: Fifteen percent of patients were frail, 8% had =1 ADL deficit, and 29% had =1 iADL deficit. SRH and SQ were moderately correlated with frailty and iADLs. A SRH of excellent, very good, or good was predictive of nonfrail status (Fried negative predictive value [NPV]: 0.92; CFS NPV: 0.92) and preserved ADL function (NPV for =1 deficit: 0.96). A SQ response of 5, 4, or 3 (i.e., surprised) was predictive of nonfrail status and preserved ADL function (CFS NPV: 0.90; ADL =1 deficit NPV: 0.95). A SQ response of 1 or 2 had a positive predictive value of 0.64 for =1 iADL deficit.
Conclusions: Subjective health measures may be useful screening tools for frailty and functional status.
BACKGROUND: Demographic characteristics play a role in influencing the decision to make end-of-life (EOL) directives among older adults living in the United States.
AIMS: To examine the associations between older adults' demographic characteristics (age, sex, marital status, residential site, and educational level) and their perceived importance of four self-care actions for EOL planning, as well as their desire and ability to perform these actions.
SETTINGS: A cross-sectional survey study of community-dwelling adults living in the southern United States from 2015 to 2016.
PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling adults aged 65 years and older (N = 123).
METHODS: A self-administered tool, the Patient Action Inventory for Self-Care and a demographic questionnaire were used. Multiple logistic regression was performed.
RESULTS: Forty-seven of (38.2%) participants lived in an urban community and 76 (61.8%) in a rural community. Demographic variables that were significant across the predictive models were older adults' residence, education levels, age, and marital status. Four demographic characteristics of living in rural areas, without a high school education, being 75 years or older, and married could be social determinants of EOL planning.
CONCLUSIONS: Older adults may need community-based support to address their end-of-life needs, especially those elders who want to remain independent in their home environment.
OBJECTIVE: South Asian migrants have a higher burden of life-threatening diseases and chronic diseases compared to other ethnic groups. Yet, knowledge gaps remain around their palliative care needs in the host countries. The aim of the review was to present results from a systematic literature review of available international evidence on experiences with and perspectives on palliative care among older South Asian migrants, relatives, and healthcare providers.
METHODS: A systematic review in accordance with PRISMA guidelines was conducted in February 2018, searching PubMed, CINAHL, PsychINFO, and EMBASE databases. PROSPERO #CRD42018093464. Studies included empirical research, providing international evidence on experiences and perspectives on palliative care of South Asian migrants and were published between 2000 and 2018. Thematic synthesis was used to analyze data.
RESULTS: A total of 30 articles were included: qualitative (24), quantitative (5), and mixed methods (1). Three main themes were discovered: 1) palliative care practice within the family, 2) trust as a precondition of palliative care, and 3) the importance of knowledge and cultural competency. All the themes, to a greater or lesser extent, are related to access to and use of palliative care services by South Asian migrant families.
SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS : Involvement of family members in palliative care decision making could improve the satisfaction of South Asian migrant families toward the service. For example, Advanced Care Planning involving family members could be a possible way to engage family members in palliative care decision making. Supportive interventions, e.g. providing knowledge, aimed at patients and their family members might improve knowledge and increase awareness among South Asian migrant families of palliative care. Knowledge gained from this review could be implemented with other ethnic minority groups.
Cognitive decline and dementia have become major concerns for many individuals reaching later life within contemporary Western societies. This fear of decline is central to the social divide between the third age embodying ideals of maintained health, activity and lifestyle choices, and the fourth age, a social imaginary encompassing the irreversible decline associated with ageing. In this article, we explore how brain-training technologies have become successful by relying on tensions between the third and fourth ages. We review current debates on the concepts contained in brain training and examine the emphasis on the moral virtue of ‘training the brain’ in later life as an extension of fitness and health management. We underline the limited consideration given to social positioning within old age itself in the literature. We further argue that using brain-training devices can support a distancing from intimations of dementia; a condition associated with an ‘ageing without agency’. Drawing on Bourdieu, we use the concept of distinction to describe this process of social positioning. We discuss the impact that such ‘technologies of distinction’ can have on people with dementia by ‘othering’ them. We conclude that the issue of distinction within later life, particularly within the field of cognitive decline, is an important aspect of the current culture of active cognitive ageing.
Gardening has well-established physical, social and emotional benefits for older adults in varied circumstances. In Detroit, Michigan (United States of America), as in many cities, policy makers, funders, researchers, community organisations and residents regard gardening as a means of transforming bodies, persons, communities, cities and broader polities. We draw on ethnographic research conducted during one gardening season with 27 older African Americans in Detroit to foreground the social dimensions of wellbeing in later life and thus develop a more robust and nuanced understanding of gardening's benefits for older adults. Based on anthropological understandings of personhood and kinship, this article expands concepts of wellbeing to include social relations across multiple scales (individual, interpersonal, community, state) and temporalities (of the activity itself, experiences of ageing, city life). Even when performed alone, gardening fosters connections with the past, as gardeners are reminded of deceased loved ones through practices and the plants themselves, and with the future, through engagement with youth and community. Elucidating intimate connections and everyday activities of older African American long-term city residents counters anti-black discourses of ‘revitalisation’. An expansive concept of wellbeing has implications for understanding the generative potential of meaningful social relations in later life and the vitality contributed by older adults living in contexts of structural inequality.
OBJECTIVES: In clinical settings, untreatable biliary sludge in the gallbladder can be observed in older adults with advanced dementia. The underlying cause of biliary sludge existence in patients with dementia is currently unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the prevalence, risk factors, and related outcomes of biliary sludge formation in the gallbladder of older adults with dementia.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
SETTING: Geriatric ward of University Hospital in Japan.
PARTICIPANTS: Inpatients aged 80 and older living with dementia.
MEASUREMENTS: We evaluated the presence of biliary sludge by diagnostic ultrasonography and collected data regarding patient demographic information, cognition (mini-mental state examination [MMSE]), physical activity (Barthel Index), oral food intake (food intake level scale [FILS]), clinical stage of dementia (functional assessment staging [FAST] of dementia), and patient performance status (Zubrod/ Karnofsky score).
RESULTS: Male sex, larger gallbladder volume and calories from oral intake were significantly associated with the presence of biliary sludge (P = .02, .02, .002, respectively). There was a significant negative correlation between the FAST stage and the FILS level in all patients (P < .001). More advanced dementia and dysphagia was more likely to be found in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) with biliary sludge, compared to patients with AD without biliary sludge (FAST 7a, FILS II and FAST 6c, FILS V, respectively, P = .06, 04). A logistic regression analysis revealed that the eating status of FILS I and II, generally called "fasting or anorexia", was a significant risk factor for forming biliary sludge in older adults with dementia (P = .031, odds ratio: 5.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.16-23.72).
CONCLUSIONS: Fasting status may be associated with the existence of biliary sludge in older adults with dementia. Therefore, supportive care for eating might be an important solution to comfortable end-of-life care for older adults with advanced dementia.
Background: Unregulated care providers (UCPs) are at the forefront of direct client care in the community. Their services are required to meet the demand for home-based palliative care from a growing older population, yet understanding of UCPs involvement in care is limited. The study aimed to identify the types and frequencies of tasks performed by UCPs in home-based palliative care to older clients (> 65 years) and their families and to describe UCPs’ engagement in care, and barriers and facilitators to their work.
Methods: A mixed method approach was used comprising a quantitative retrospective chart review of UCPs’ tasks (n = 66), qualitative content analysis of progress notes from clients’ charts (n = 85), and thematic analyses of in-depth interviews with UCPs (n = 10).
Results: A thematic structure was derived from analyses and integration of data from the chart review and interviews. The themes reflect the physical, affective, and relational aspects of UCPs involvement in the care of clients and families at the end of life. The findings indicate that although a significant proportion (63%) of the 13, 558 UCP tasks identified were directed toward meeting clients’ physical care needs, their presence in the home, made UCPs an important source of information on the client’s condition; observing and appraising the situation. Further, the nature of their work and frequent interactions with clients and families also presented opportunities for UCPs to provide emotional support; a role UCPs felt was integral to their work.
Conclusions: The study highlights the challenging nature of palliative care to older clients and their families whose needs are often complicated, situated within the unique environment of home care where supervision of UCPs is at a distance. Challenges and facilitators to UCPs’ work in this context are discussed with recommendations to support UCPs in their roles.
BACKGROUND: Funding shortages and an ageing population have increased pressures on state or insurance funded end of life care for older people. Across the world, policy debate has arisen about the potential role volunteers can play, working alongside health and social care professionals in the community to support and care for the ageing and dying.
AIMS: The authors examined self-reported levels of care for the elderly by the public in England, and public opinions of community volunteering concepts to care for the elderly at the end of life. In particular, claimed willingness to help and to be helped by local people was surveyed.
METHODS: A sample of 3,590 adults in England aged 45 or more from an online access panel responded to a questionnaire in late 2017. The survey data was weighted to be representative of the population within this age band. Key literature and formative qualitative research informed the design of the survey questionnaire, which was further refined after piloting.
RESULTS: Preferences for different models of community volunteering were elicited. There was a preference for 'formal' models with increased wariness of 'informal' features. Whilst 32% of adults said they 'might join' depending on whom the group helped, unsurprisingly more personal and demanding types of help significantly reduced the claimed willingness to help. Finally, willingness to help (or be helped) by local community carers or volunteers was regarded as less attractive than care being provided by personal family, close friends or indeed health and care professionals.
CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that if community volunteering to care for elderly people at the end of life in England is to expand it may require considerable attention to the model including training for volunteers and protections for patients and volunteers as well as public education and promotion. Currently, in England, there is a clear preference for non-medical care to be delivered by close family or social care professionals, with volunteer community care regarded only as a back-up option.
OBJECTIVES: To explore advance directive (AD) preferences and the facilitators and barriers of promoting ADs among terminally ill older patients in China.
DESIGN: A scoping review was used to identify key themes in ADs.
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Studies from 2007 to 2017 were identified from the MEDLINE and Cochrane libraries. Articles concerning important components of ADs in terminally ill older patients were selected.
MEASURES: Eligible articles concerning important components of ADs in terminally ill older patients were thematically synthesized. Later, implementation evidence was identified from core components.
RESULTS: We used 13 articles and identified key components in ADs: (1) Chinese cultural characteristics; (2) policy support; (3) advance care planning (ACP); (4) hospice-palliative care (HPC); (5) prognosis disclosure and life-sustaining treatment preference; (6) knowledge about ADs for patients and their families; (7) the prevalence of ADs; (8) implementation of ADs; (9) staff experience and training; and (10) effective communication between patients, their families, and health care professionals. Facilitators in implementing ADs included previous comfort-oriented end-of-life care experience of patients or their families, and the enactment of relevant policy. Barriers included traditional Chinese cultural beliefs; lack of policy; lack of knowledge of ADs, ACP, and HPC; and poor communication between physicians, patients, and family members.
CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Chinese patients still showed positive preferences toward ADs. The implementation of ADs could be promoted through public education about ADs, the learning of ACP and HPC, and relevant policy development in China.
Due to low levels of planned care, older adults of underrepresented communities tend to experience higher rates of unwanted treatments at end of life (EOL). The purpose of this review was to identify factors that may explain differences in EOL care preferences and planning between older adults from the general population and ethnically diverse populations. We hypothesized that culture-specific factors may be fundamental. To describe similarities and differences, we conducted a comprehensive literature search using keywords and subject headings. Findings from 14 studies were critically examined, grouped, and compared across studies and populations. While studies on general populations showed the significance of health and sociodemographic factors, studies on underrepresented groups frequently cited the importance of spirituality, belief systems, acculturation, healthcare system distrust, and social networks.
L'auteure a suivi durant huit mois la vie de neuf résidents d'un habitat collectif pour personnes âgées. Située dans la région lyonnaise, cette structure accueille des personnes atteintes de la maladie d'Alzheimer et de différents troubles psychiatriques. Les notes prises au jour le jour reflètent avec humour les soins et les difficultés qui caractérisent le quotidien de ces patients.
OBJECTIVES: Older patients with end-stage renal disease are willing participants in advance care planning but just over 10% are engaged in this process. Nephrologists fear such conversations may upset patients and so tend to avoid these discussions. This approach denies patients the opportunity to discuss their end-of-life care preferences. Many patients endure medically intensive end-of-life scenarios as a result. This study aims to explore the rationale underpinning nephrologists' clinical decision-making in the management of older patients with end-stage renal disease and to make recommendations that inform policymakers and enhance advance care planning for this patient group.
METHODS: A qualitative interview study of 20 nephrologists was undertaken. Nephrologists were asked about their management of end-stage renal disease in older patients, conservative management, dialysis withdrawal and end-of-life care. Eligible participants were nephrologists working in Ireland. Five nephrologists participated in a recorded focus group and 15 nephrologists participated in individual digitally recorded telephone interviews. Semistructured interviews were conducted; thematic analysis was used to distil the results.
RESULTS: Three key themes emerged: barriers to advance care planning; barriers to shared decision-making; and avoidance of end-of-life care discussion.
CONCLUSIONS: Advance care planning is not an integral part of the routine care of older patients with end-stage renal disease. Absence of formal training of nephrologists in how to communicate with patients contributes to poor advance care planning. Nephrologists lack clinical experience of conservatively managing end-stage renal disease and end-of-life care in older patients. Key policy recommendations include formal communication skills training for nephrologists and development of the conservative management service.