This service was launched in December, 2018, in Dushanbe, a city of 800 000 people, in the west of the country and also in the GornoBadakhshan province in the Pamir mountains in the east of the country. The government gave its approval for the launch after pilots in each of the city's four districts were deemed successful. These pilots were funded by the Open Society Institute Assistance-Foundation, Tajikistan.
Plusieurs CSSS du Québec réfléchissent sur l’organisation des soins et services en santé mentale pour la clientèle âgée afin de mieux les desservir. Certains ont souligné leur intérêt à implanter un modèle organisationnel de services en santé mentale qui s’apparente à celui du CSSS Cavendish-CAU. Ce modèle, en place depuis plus d’une dizaine d’années, fut développé grâce à l’expertises cliniques et aux meilleures pratiques dans le domaine. Avant d’exporter ce modèle novateur de services, il apparaissait important d’analyser son évolution à travers le temps. Une analyse détaillée de plusieurs sources de données (ex. documents de travail, entrevues individuelles, focus groups, etc.) a permis de constater que les services imaginés en 1999 ont passablement changés. Cette analyse souligne plusieurs transformations positives telles que l’amélioration du continuum de soins, l’augmentation et la diversification du panier de services, mais également des changements de paradigmes et de pratiques sont questionnables. Le Plan d’action (2005) du MSSS a évacué deux concepts fondamentaux des services spécialisés en santé mentale 60 ans et plus (SSSM60+), soit l’autonomie psychosociale et les comportements à risques qui sont à la base d’une intervention plus sociale que médicale. Une attention particulière doit être accordée à ces concepts afin de les remettre à l’avant plan dans l’offre de services.
En se basant sur le concept d’exclusion sociale, cet article soutient que le paradigme de l’État d’investissement social de même que l’accent mis par les politiques sur le vieillissement actif contribuent à l’exclusion des personnes âgées itinérantes (PAI) tant dans les politiques, les pratiques que la recherche. S’appuyant sur trois politiques et plans d’action sur l’itinérance émanant des gouvernements fédéral (canadien), provincial (québécois) et municipal (la Ville de Montréal), cet article montre comment l’exclusion des PAI se manifeste dans ces stratégies. Enfin, cet article démontre le besoin de reconnaître les multiples exclusions des PAI et conclut sur un appel à différents acteurs afin qu’ils adoptent une posture critique face aux discours et aux modèles normatifs qui concourent à l’exclusion de cette population.
Palliative care is one of the newer health specialties and continues to mature. While there has been remarkable progression of clinical skills and education, there has been a lack of focus on palliative care interdisciplinary leadership or development of leadership skills. This article highlights the importance of interdisciplinary palliative leadership within the 5 realms of clinical practice, research, education, policy/advocacy, and administration. A definition of leadership is offered and discussion of successful leadership skills is described. A curent review of leadership opportunities is provided.
BACKGROUND: At the end of life, about 85-90% of patients can be treated within primary palliative care (PC) provided by general practitioners (GPs). In Germany, there is no structured approach for the provision of PC by GPs including a systematic as well as timely identification of patients who might benefit from PC, yet. The project "Optimal care at the end of life" (OPAL) focusses on an improvement of primary PC for patients with both oncological and non-oncological chronic progressive diseases in their last phase of life provided by GPs and health care services.
METHODS: OPAL will take place in Hameln-Pyrmont, a rural region in Lower Saxony, Germany. Target groups are (a) GPs, (b) relatives of deceased patients and (c) health care providers. The study follows a three-phase approach in a mixed-methods and pre-post design. In phase I (baseline, t0) we explore the usual practice of providing PC for patients with chronic progressive diseases by GPs and the collaboration with other health care providers. In phase II (intervention) the Supportive and Palliative Care Indicators Tool (SPICT) for the timely identification of patients who might benefit from PC will be implemented and tested in general practices. Furthermore, a public campaign will be started to inform stakeholders, to connect health care providers and to train change agents. In phase III (follow-up, t1) we investigate the potential effect of the intervention to evaluate differences in the provision of PC by GPs and to convey factors for the implementation of SPICT in general practices.
DISCUSSION: The project OPAL is the first study to implement the SPICT-DE regionwide in general practices in Germany. The project OPAL may contribute to an overall optimisation of primary PC for patients in Germany by reducing GPs' uncertainty in initiating PC, by consolidating their skills and competencies in identifying patients who might benefit from PC, and by improving the cooperation between GPs and different health care stakeholders.
Hospice care emerged in mainland China in 1988, 30 years ago, but its development since that time has been slow. In 1994, the Ministry of Health listed hospice care into the Catalogue of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Subjects of Medical Institutions, but the public’s awareness of hospice and palliative care and the supply of it are still limited. Large numbers of people still die in acute hospitals. In recent years, hospice and palliative care has witnessed rapid development: in February 2017, the State Health Planning Commission issued a guideline for hospice care, which began to promote the work of hospice care nationwide. In May of 2019, the second batch of national pilot work on hospice care were chosen, 71 regions including whole area of Shanghai are being involved in developing local hospice care service.
CONTEXT: Palliative care improves patient and family outcomes and may reduce the cost of care, but this service is underutilized among Medicare beneficiaries.
OBJECTIVES: To describe enrollment patterns and outcomes associated with the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation expansion of a multisetting community palliative care program in North and South Carolina.
METHODS: This observational study characterizes the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation cohort's care and cost trajectories after enrollment. Program participants were age-eligible Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries living in Western North Carolina and South Carolina who enrolled in a palliative care program from September 1, 2014, to August 31, 2017. End-of-life costs were compared between enrolled and nonenrolled decedents. Program administrative data and 100% Medicare claims data were used.
RESULTS: A total of 5243 Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in the program from community (19%), facility (21%), small hospital (27%), or large hospital (33%) settings. Changes in Medicare expenditures in the 30 days after enrollment varied by setting. Adjusted odds of hospice use were 60% higher (OR = 1.60; CI = 1.47, 1.75) for enrolled decedents relative to nonenrolled decedents. Participants discharged to hospice vs. participants not had 17% (OR = 0.83 CI = 0.72, 0.94) lower costs. Among enrolled decedents those enrolled for at least 30 days vs. <30 days had 42% (OR = 0.58, CI = 0.49, 0.69) lower costs in the last 30 days of life.
CONCLUSIONS: Expansion of community palliative care programs into multiple enrollment settings is feasible. It may improve hospice utilization among enrollees. Heterogeneous program participation by program setting pose challenges to a standardizing reimbursement policy.
CONTEXT: The Cancer Control Act was passed in Japan in 2007, and various additional programs on palliative care have been implemented to improve quality of life and relieve pain and suffering in patients with cancer. However, how clinical settings have changed remains unclear.
OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of the present study was to determine changes in nurses' palliative care knowledge, difficulties, and self-reported practices between 2008 and 2015.
METHODS: This study was an analysis of two nationwide observational studies from 2008 to 2015. We conducted two questionnaire surveys for representative samples of nurses in designated cancer hospitals, community hospitals, and district nurse services. The measurements used the Palliative Care Knowledge Test (PCKT, range 1-100), the Palliative Care Difficulties Scale (PCDS, range 1-5), and the Palliative Care Self-Reported Practice Scale (PCPS, range 1-5). Comparisons were made using the nonpaired Student t-test and a multivariate linear regression model using two cohorts.
RESULTS: We analyzed survey results for 2707 nurses in 2008 and 3649 nurses in 2015. Significant improvements were seen in PCKT, PCDS, and PCPS total scores for nurses in every work location over the seven-year study period, with PCKT total scores of 53 vs. 65 (P < 0.001; effect size = 0.60), 47 vs. 55 (P < 0.001; effect size = 0.40), and 52 vs. 55 (P = 0.118; effect size = 0.13), PCDS total scores of 3.0 vs. 2.5 (P < 0.001; effect size = 0.76), 3.4 vs. 2.8 (P < 0.001, effect size = 0.91), and 3.2 vs. 2.9 (P < 0.001; effect size = 0.53), and PCPS total scores of 3.7 vs. 4.0 (P < 0.001; effect size = 0.13), 3.5 vs. 3.8 (P < 0.001; effect size = 0.42), and 3.8 vs. 4.0 (P < 0.011; effect size = 0.21) in designated cancer hospitals, community hospitals, and district nurse services, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Nurses' palliative care knowledge, difficulties, and self-reported practices improved over the seven-year study period, especially in terms of expert support in designated cancer hospitals and knowledge among nurses in designated cancer hospitals.
The aim of the study is to analyze individual legal problems of the implementation of the human right to palliative care. To achieve this goal, statistical data on the number of palliative patients, their access to medical services were analyzed. The absence of reasons for limiting the patient's right to receive palliative care, as such a right is a fundamental human right, is substantiated. An analysis of the understanding of the legal construction of "palliative care" in the scientific literature, national and international legal documents was carried out. It was revealed that the terms "hospice care", "end-of-life-care", "respite care" are components of a precise definition - "palliative care". Two groups of subjects that ensure the human right to this type of medical care are identified, their powers are indicated. In the course of the research it was established that palliative patients, more often than other patients, need medical care, including children. This category of patients faces the following problems: incomplete providing of high-quality free medical palliative care; insufficient number of palliative and hospice departments for such patients; palliative care does not meet international standards (logistical support for palliative departments, there are no specialists of a multidisciplinary team); there is no special training for medical personnel working with incurable patients; painkillers (non-narcotic and narcotic) drugs for relieving pain syndrome of such patients are not provided in full volume; there is no cooperation of state authorities in the field of palliative care with public and charitable organizations; palliative patients do not have access to free legal services (pensions, inheritance).
BACKGROUND: Migrants seem to be underrepresented in palliative care in Germany. Access barriers and challenges in care remain unclear. We aimed to provide a comprehensive insight into palliative care for migrants, using expert interviews.
METHODS: Interviews with experts on palliative and general health care for migrants were audiotaped and transcribed. Data analysis followed a qualitative content analysis method for expert interviews proposed by Meuser and Nagel.
RESULTS: In total, 13 experts from various fields (palliative and hospice care, other care, research and training) were interviewed. Experts identified access barriers on the health care system and the patient level as well as the sociopolitical level. Services don't address migrants, who may use parallel structures. Patients may distrust the health care system, be oriented towards their home country and expect the family to care for them. In care, poor adaptation and inflexibility of health care services regarding needs of migrant patients because of scarce resources, patients' preferences which may contradict professionals' values, and communication both on the verbal and nonverbal level were identified as the main challenges. Conflicts between patients, families and professionals are at risk to be interpreted exclusively as cultural conflicts. Palliative care providers should use skilled interpreters instead of family interpreters or unskilled staff members, and focus on training cultural competence. Furthermore, intercultural teams could enhance palliative care provision for migrants.
CONCLUSIONS: Though needs and wishes of migrant patients are often found to be similar to those of non-migrant patients, there are migration-specific aspects that can influence care provision at the end of life. Migration should be regarded as a biographical experience that has a severe and ongoing impact on the life of an individual and their family. Language barriers have to be considered, especially regarding patients' right to informed decision making. The reimbursement of interpreters in health care remains an open question.
As part of the health care reforms and transformation project of the Vision 2030, a group of expert healthcare professionals was tasked with the development of a model of care for patients with life-shortening illnesses in Saudi Arabia. This Care Design Group (CDG 1-3) held a series of workshops and conducted surveys and online discussions to systematically document and develop a model of care. These interventions were aimed at achieving a national standard of care. This short article is a description of this very successful process of development.
Gastric cancer (GC) is a public health issue with high incidence and mortality in Colombia due to tardy diagnosis and barriers to access to curative treatment; this leaves palliative care (PC) as the only option. Our aim is to describe the access barriers to PC perceived by adults with GC, caregivers and physician in Santander, Colombia. A qualitative study was carried out with the analysis of the grounded theory (Strauss and Corbin), through semi-structured interviews, after sampling for convenience we found that the access barriers were: administrative, economic, cultural, knowledge, communication, institutional and geographical; strategies to overcome barriers: screening programs, governmental surveillance, and investment in health. In conclusion, access to PC requires remove barriers to timely and integral access and strengthen health and education policies to facilitate procedures and services that ensure the attention required by the adult with GC.
CONTEXT: International consensus on indicators is necessary to standardize the global assessment of palliative care (PC) development.
OBJECTIVES: To identify the best indicators to assess current national-level PC development.
METHODS: Experts in PC development were invited to rate 45 indicators organized by domains of the WHO Public Health Strategy in a two-round RAND/UCLA modified Delphi process. In the first round, experts rated indicators by relevance, measurability, and feasibility (1-9). Ratings were used to calculate a Global-Score (1-9). Indicators scoring >7 proceeded to the second round for fine-tuning of Global-Scores. Median, Confidence Interval (CI), Content Validity Index (I-CVI), and Disagreement Index were calculated. Indicators scoring a lower limit 95% CI 7 and an I-CVI 0·30 were selected.
RESULTS: Twenty-four experts representing five continents and several organizations, completed the study. Twenty-five indicators showed a high content validity and level of agreement. Policy indicators (n=8) included the existence of designated staff in the national Ministry of Health, the inclusion of PC services in the basic health package and in the primary care level list of services. Education indicators (n=4) focused on processes of official specialization for physicians, inclusion of teaching at the undergraduate level, and PC professorship. Use of medicines indicators (n=4) consisted of opioid consumption, availability and prescription requirements. Services indicators (n=6) included number and type of services for adults and children. Additional indicators for professional activity (n=3) were identified.
CONCLUSION: The first list including 25 of the best indicators to evaluate PC development at a national-level has been identified.
OBJECTIVES: We examined public reaction to the proposed Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services rule reimbursing physicians for advanced care planning (ACP) discussions with patients.
METHODS: Public comments made on regulations.gov were reviewed for relevance to ACP policy and their perceived position on ACP (ie, positive, negative and neutral). Descriptive statistics were used to quantify the results.
RESULTS: A total of 2225 comments were submitted to regulations.gov. On review, 69.0% were categorised as irrelevant; among relevant comments (n=689), 81.1% were positive, 18.6% were negative and 0.002% were neutral. Individuals submitted a greater percentage of the total comments as compared to organisations (63.5% and 36.5%, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: The US Medicare programme is a tax financed social insurance programme that covers all patients 65 years of age and older, including 8 in 10 decedents annually, and it is the part of the US healthcare system most similar to the rest of world. There has been a trend globally towards recognising the importance of aligning patient preferences with care options, including palliative care to deal with advanced life limiting illness. However, ACP is not widely used in the USA, potentially reducing the use of palliative care. Reimbursing ACP discussions between physicians, patients and their family has the potential to have a large impact on the quality of life of persons near death, which can greatly impact public health and the comfort in dealing with our ultimate demise.
To implement the National End of Life Care strategy and enable more people to express and achieve their preferences about care at the end of life, senior clinicians outside palliative medicine need to make it a routine part of their practice. However, it is acknowledged that recognising that people are entering the last phase of their illness is not always straightforward, and having conversations about aims of treatment and planning for future care may not be easy. In order to begin to address these challenges, funding was sought from the Yorkshire and the Humber Strategic Health Authority (SHA), and subsequently Health Education England, Yorkshire and the Humber (HEEYH), to pilot a development programme in 2 acute trusts. 2 palliative medicine consultants shared the trainer role at each site, supporting hospital consultants from a range of specialties, with a GP to give a community perspective. The programme involved individual clinicians identifying their own learning needs and specific issues for end-of-life care in their patients. The group met together monthly in action learning sets to discuss issues in a safe yet challenging environment. Following evaluation using a combination of training needs analyses, feedback questionnaires, audits and service evaluations, it was modified slightly and repiloted in 2 further trusts as 'Rethinking Priorities'. This paper describes the programme and its outcomes, especially in relation to participants' learning, service development and leadership. It also highlights the challenges, including different learning styles, the concept of action learning, obtaining funding and dedicated time, and how to evaluate the effectiveness of a programme. Overall, it suggests that an educational initiative based on clinicians identifying their own learning needs, and using an action learning approach to explore issues with other colleagues, with the addition of some targeted sessions, can result in positive change in knowledge, behaviour and clinical practice.
Specialized palliative care teams improve outcomes for the steadily growing population of people living with serious illness. However, few studies have examined whether the specialty palliative care workforce can meet the growing demand for its services. We used 2018 clinician survey data to model risk factors associated with palliative care clinicians leaving the field early, and we then projected physician numbers from 2019 to 2059 under four scenarios. Our modeling revealed an impending "workforce valley," with declining physician numbers that will not recover to the current level until 2045, absent policy change. However, sustained growth in the number of fellowship positions over ten years could reverse the worsening workforce shortage. There is an immediate need for policies that support high-value, team-based palliative care through expansion in all segments of the specialty palliative care workforce, combined with payment reform to encourage the deployment of sustainable teams.
Palliative care is an essential aspect of care for patients with serious illness and their families, but a large proportion of the world’s population, particularly in developing countries like Botswana, do not have access to it. In Botswana and other developing countries, palliative care is often sporadic and lacks comprehensive delivery owing to a lag between policies and practice and a lack of knowledge about palliative care among health care professionals and communities. In this article, the progress of palliative care in Botswana is discussed by first evaluating at the relevance of palliative care in Botswana given the burden of diseases and resources available for disease management. Second, the palliative care delivery models and their successes and shortcomings in Botswana context are discussed. Third, the Botswana palliative care services are viewed on a global scale to illuminate progress and areas that need improvement. Thereafter, using a case as a reference, this article highlights the challenges faced by Botswana palliative care services. Finally, some areas that can be targeted to improve palliative care services in Botswana and possible solutions are discussed. Overall, palliative care is at infancy stage in Botswana and many opportunities exist in education, research, and resource support to transform it into a full-fledged service.