Objective: Characterize hospice staff practices and perspectives on discussing end-of-life care preferences with patients/families, including those desiring intensive treatment and/or full code.
Background: Patients in the United States can elect hospice while remaining full code or seeking intensive interventions, for example, blood transfusions, or chemotherapy. These preferences conflict with professional norms, hospice philosophy, and Medicare hospice payment policies. Little is known about how hospice staff manage patient/family preferences for full-code status and intensive treatments.
Methods: We recruited employees of four nonprofit US hospices with varying clinical and hospice experience for semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Open-ended questions explored participants' practices and perceptions of discussing end-of-life care preferences in hospice, with specific probes about intensive treatment or remaining full code. Interdisciplinary researchers coded and analyzed data using the constant comparative method.
Results: Participants included 25% executive leaders, 14% quality improvement administrative staff, 61% clinicians (23 nurses, 21 social workers, 7 physicians, and 2 chaplains). Participants reported challenges in engaging patients/families about end-of-life care preferences. Preferences for intensive treatment or full-code status presented an ethical dilemma for some participants. Participants described strategies to navigate such preferences, including educating about treatment options, and expressed diverse reactions, including accepting or attempting to shift enrollee preferences.
Discussion: This study illuminates a rarely studied aspect of hospice care: how hospice staff engage with enrollees choosing full code and/or intensive treatments. Such patient preferences can produce ethical dilemmas for hospice staff. Enhanced communication training and guidelines, updated organizational and federal policies, and ethics consult services may mitigate these dilemmas.
Long-term care (LTC) nurses are a critical nexus for patient communication and vital to advance care planning due to their professional role and breadth of patient relationships. The current study's aim was to explore the communication strategies Midwestern LTC nurses use to clarify patients' end-of-life (EOL) care preferences. Two focus groups used a phenomenological framework to elucidate the experiences of 14 RNs. Data analysis revealed two themes grounded in time: (a) nurses use time to assess patients' EOL situation and assist patients to discern care options; and (b) nurses educate patients about EOL care, adjust care plans, and develop trusting relationships. Two themes were grounded in clinical experience: (a) nurses become persistent advocates and educators to initiate and sustain EOL communication; and (b) nurses learn consistency in communication, including awareness of patients' nonverbal communication. Nurses shared that EOL communication is never "done"; time frames to assess, educate, and clarify are continuous.
The Advancing American Kidney Health (AAKH) Initiative aims to promote high-value patient-centered care by improving access to and quality of treatment options for kidney failure. The 3 explicit goals of the initiative are to reduce the incidence of kidney failure, increase the number of available kidneys for transplantation, and increase transplantation and home dialysis. To ensure a patient-centered movement toward home dialysis modalities, actionable principles of palliative care, including systematic communication and customized treatment plans, should be incorporated into this policy. In this perspective, we describe 2 opportunities to strengthen the patience-centeredness of the AAKH Initiative through palliative care: (1) serious illness conversations should be required for all dialysis initiations in the End-Stage Renal Disease Treatment Choices model, and (2) conservative kidney management should be counted as a home modality alongside peritoneal dialysis and home hemodialysis. A serious illness conversation can help clinicians discern whether a patient's goals and values are best respected by a home dialysis modality or whether a nondialytic strategy such as conservative kidney management should be considered. An intensive and careful patient- and family-centered selection process will be necessary to ensure that no patient is pressured to forego conventional dialysis.
Objective: Increasingly the views of young people are sought when improving healthcare; however, it is unclear how they shape policy or practice. This paper presents a consultation with young people commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) to inform clinical guidelines for paediatric palliative care (end-of-life care for infants, children and young people).
Methods: The consultation involved qualitative thematic analysis of data from 14 young people (aged 12–18 years) with a life-limiting or life-threatening condition who took part in focus groups or interviews. The topics explored were predefined by NICE: information and communication; care planning; place of care; and psychological care. Data collection consisted of discussion points and activities using visual cues and was informed by a pilot consultation group with five young adults (aged 19–24 years). Findings were shared with participants, and feedback helped to interpret the findings.
Results: Four overarching themes were identified, cutting across the predetermined topic areas: being treated as individuals with individual needs and preferences; quality of care more important than place; emotional well-being; and living as a young person. Importantly, care planning was viewed as a tool to support living well and facilitate good care, and the young people were concerned less about where care happens but who provides this.
Conclusion: Young people’s priorities differ from those of parents and other involved adults. Incorporating their priorities within policy and practice can help to ensure their needs and preferences are met and relevant research topics identified.
Background: Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are often involved in end-of-life circumstances, yet little is known about how EMS interfaces with advance directives to forego unwanted resuscitation (Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR)). We evaluated the frequency of these directives involved in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and how they impact care.
Methods: We conducted a cohort investigation of adult, EMS-attended OHCA from January 1 to December 31, 2018 in King County, WA. DNAR status was ascertained from dispatch, EMS, and hospital records. Resuscitation was classified according to DNAR status: not initiated, initiated but ceased due to the DNAR, or full efforts.
Results: Of 3152 EMS-attended OHCA, 314 (9.9%) had a DNAR directive. DNAR was present more often among those for whom EMS did not attempt resuscitation compared to when EMS provided some resuscitation (13.2% [212/1611] vs 6.6% [101/1541], (p < 0.05).
Of those receiving resuscitation with a DNAR directive (n = 101), the DNAR was presented on average 6 min following EMS arrival. A total of 82% (n = 83) had EMS efforts ceased as a consequence of the DNAR while 18% (n = 18) received full efforts. Full-efforts compared to ceased-efforts were more likely to have a witnessed arrest (67% vs 36%), present with shockable rhythm (22% vs 6%), achieve spontaneous circulation by time of DNAR presentation (50% vs 4%), and have family contradict the DNAR (33% vs 0%) (p < 0.05 for each comparison).
Conclusions: Approximately 10% of EMS-attended OHCA involved DNAR. EMS typically fulfilled this end-of-life preference, though wishes were challenged by delayed directive presentation or contradictory family wishes.
Older adults' preference regarding where they want to spend their end-of-life (EOL) has been reported to be a significant predictor of the actual EOL location. Home-care nurses have often been reported to try involving single older adults' neighbours in the support network of the older adults (community involvement activities) to allow them to stay at home. Hence, nurses' community involvement activities may be among the significant factors of older adults' preference to stay at home during EOL. Therefore, this study explored home-care nurses' community involvement activities and its association with single older adults' EOL preference. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted with older adults (aged 65 years or older) who lived alone and used home-care nursing services for more than 6 months, their home-care nurses, and managers of their home-care nursing agencies. Questions included participants' characteristics, nurses' community involvement activities and older adults' preference to remain at home during EOL. We conducted multiple logistic regression analyses to explore the relationship between nurses' community involvement activities and older adults' preference to remain at home during EOL while controlling for their demographic variables. In total, 103 pairs of home-care nurses and single older adults from 27 home-care nursing agencies participated. Approximately 70% of older adults preferred to remain at home during EOL, and 50% of nurses implemented community involvement activities. Older adults' preference to remain at home during EOL was associated with implementation of community involvement activities (Odds Ratio [OR]: 3.4; 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]:1.1-9.8), home-care nurses' higher practical clinical ability (OR: 1.4, 95%CI:1.0-1.8), and older adult's longer use of home-care nursing service (OR: 2.2, 95%CI:1.2-4.1). Community involvement activities may be essential in helping single older adults to stay at home as per their preference for EOL.
Communication is as important as the drug and the knife in medical care, particularly when patients are facing life-threatening conditions. However, the ability to communicate effectively has been commonly associated with strong emotional barriers among healthcare professionals and family members. Studies that have focused on paediatric oncology have showed that openness about the transition from curative to palliative care is frequently avoided. As long ago as the 1980s a paper in this journal reported that children often wanted to share their thoughts and feelings at the end of life, but that adults often failed to recognise that need.
With increased therapeutic capabilities in healthcare today, many patients with multiple progressive comorbidities are living longer. They experience recurrent hospitalizations and often undergo procedures that are not aligned with their personal goals. That is why it is essential to discuss and document healthcare preferences prior to an acute event when significant interventions could occur, especially for patients with serious and progressive illness. Completion of an advance directive and a physician order for life-sustaining treatment (POLST) supports provision of goal-concordant care. Further, for patients who have do not attempt resuscitation (DNAR) orders or are diagnosed with advanced dementia, having a POLST is essential. This may be best accomplished with hospitalization discharge plans. Our 896-bed academic medical center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, launched a quality initiative in 2015 to complete POLSTs for patients being discharged with DNAR status or with dementia returning to a skilled nursing facility. As part of interdisciplinary progression of care rounds, emphasis was placed on those patients for whom POLST completion was indicated. Proactive, facilitated discussions with patients, family members, and attending physicians were initiated to support POLST completion. The completed forms were then uploaded to the electronic health record. Individual units and physicians received regular feedback on POLST completion rates, and the data were later shared at medical staff quality improvement meetings.During the initiative, POLST completion rates for DNAR patients discharged alive rose from 41% in fiscal year (FY) 2014 to 75% in FY 2019. Similar improvement was seen for patients with dementia discharged to skilled nursing facilities, regardless of code status (rising from 14% in FY 2014 to 54% in FY 2019). Subsequently, we have expanded our efforts to include early discussion and completion of these advanced care planning documents for patients recently diagnosed with high mortality cancers (ovarian, pancreatic, lung, glioblastoma), focusing on the completion of advanced care planning documentation and palliative care referrals.
Background: Emergency department (ED) visits are common for older patients with chronic, life-limiting illnesses and may offer a valuable opportunity for clinicians to initiate proactive goals of care conversations (GoCC) to ensure end-of-life care that aligns with the patients' values, goals, and preferences.
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to assess whether GoCC are occurring with patients in Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) EDs, to characterize these patients' goals of care and life-sustaining treatment (LST) decisions, and to examine the extent to which palliative or hospice consultations occur following the ED visit.
Design: We conducted a cross-sectional retrospective study using health record data.
Settings/Subjects: A total of 10,780 patients receiving care in VA, whose first GoCC occurred during an ED visit.
Results: Of the patients in the study, approximately half were at least 70 years of age, three-quarters were white, and half had multiple serious disease comorbidities. The percentage of patients who desired cardiopulmonary resuscitation was lower among the highest risk (i.e., of hospitalization and death) patients (64% vs. 51%). The percentage of patients wanting other LSTs (e.g., mechanical ventilation) was higher among the lowest risk patients; and the percentage of patients requesting limits to LSTs was highest among higher risk patients. Eighteen percent of patients had a palliative or hospice care consult within three months of their ED visit.
Conclusions: In this study, we verified that GoCC are being initiated in the ED with Veterans at differing stages in their illness trajectory and that higher proportions of higher risk patients preferred to limit LSTs.
BACKGROUND: Progress in advance care planning (ACP) in China has been hindered for decades compared with other countries.
AIMS: To describe knowledge of ACP, end-of-life care preferences and the predictors of their preference for ACP and who should mention ACP among Chinese lung cancer patients.
METHODS: Questionnaire-based interview were carried out. 258 lung cancer patients were recruited when first admitted in Tongji Hospital from October 2017 to November 2018. Social-demographic factors, which may influence patients' preference on ACP decisions and who should mention ACP, were evaluated by multivariate Logistic Regression analysis.
RESULTS: 91.1% of the patients (n = 235) favoured ACP on End of life (EOL) issues. 160 (60%) patients wish to make EOL decisions on their own. Only 10% of patients were familiar with Advance Directions. 82 (31.8%) patients were familiar with Do not resuscitate/Do not intubate (DNR/DNI) directions. ACP was not mentioned in 92.2% of patients. Gender (men, OR = 4.87 (2.16-5.83)), tumour stage (Stage III, OR = 0.108 (0.06-0.51); Stage IV, OR = 1.780 (1.02-2.11)) and the number of children (every increase in the number of children, OR = 0.267 (0.09-0.93)) were the significant predictors of the preference for autonomous ACP. Female patients and patients currently receiving treatment are 2.743 and 1.8 times respectively, more willing to need ACP initiated by doctors.
CONCLUSIONS: Chinese patients showed preferences toward ACP but with inadequate knowledge. More assistance is needed on ACP among those patients especially for females, patients with one child and early-stage lung cancer. For female patients and patients receiving treatment, doctors may initiate ACP dialogue first.
PURPOSE: To explore advance care planning (ACP) awareness, experiences, and preferences of people with cancer and support people of someone with cancer, in Australia.
METHODS: Descriptive analysis and independent group t tests were used to examine data from a national, online cross-sectional survey.
RESULTS: Of 705 respondents (440 people with cancer, 265 support people), 48.5% of participants had heard of ACP prior to the survey and 65% had discussed their values or preferences with someone. Significantly more people aged under 65 years had discussed their preferences than their older counterparts. Most (93%) discussions occurred with family or friends, but only 3.7% occurred with a health professional. A total of 33% had documented their preferences, with support people, women, and people aged under 65 years significantly more likely to have signed a legal document appointing someone to make medical decisions on their behalf. Views varied about the preferred timing of ACP and end-of-life care discussions (38.3% when cancer is incurable compared to 20% at diagnosis). Only 3.0% did not want to discuss ACP at all. Topics discussed were significantly different based on cohort, gender, age group, treatment status, and region.
CONCLUSION: Despite increasing community awareness of ACP, understanding remains low amongst cancer patients and support people, who generally rely on discussions with family and friends rather than health professionals. ACP should be introduced early across multiple interactions with health professionals, discuss a broad range of ACP relevant topics, and involve the cancer patient and their support person.
This paper explores the concept of the completed life outlined in recent writing in the Netherlands on euthanasia and assisted suicide and its implications for ageing studies. Central to this theme is the basic right of people to self-determine the length of their later life, linked with the subsidiary right to assistance in achieving such self-determination. Although the notion of weariness with life has a long history, the recent advocacy of a self-limited life seems shaped by the new social movements presaged upon individual rights together with what might be called a distinctly third-age habitus, giving centre stage to autonomy over the nature and extent of a desired later life, including choice over the manner and timing of a person's ending. In exploring this concept, consideration is given to the notion of a ‘right to die’, ‘rational suicide’ and the inclusion of death as a lifestyle choice. While reservations are noted over the unequivocal good attached to such self-determination, including the limits to freedom imposed by the duty to avoid hurt to society, the article concludes by seeing the notion of a completed life as a challenge to traditional ideas about later life.
A 55-year-old man undergoes emergent exploratory laparotomy and splenectomy following a motorcycle collision. Following surgery, he is found to have a traumatic brain injury requiring decompressive craniectomy and intracranial pressure monitoring. The patient then continues to have complications throughout his hospital course. Using the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program guidelines, the surgical team has early and ongoing primary palliative care discussions to foster communication and determine goals of care for the patient. As the patient deteriorates, the surgical team continues meeting with the patient’s surrogate decision makers to discuss the best case and worst case scenarios regarding the patient’s prognosis and expected quality of life.
Background: The Western individualistic understanding of autonomy for advance care planning is considered not to reflect the Asian family-centered approach in medical decision-making. The study aim is to compare preferences on timing for advance care planning initiatives and life-sustaining treatment withdrawal between terminally-ill cancer patients and their family caregivers in Taiwan.
Methods: A prospective study using questionnaire survey was conducted with both terminally-ill cancer patient and their family caregiver dyads independently in inpatient and outpatient palliative care settings in a tertiary hospital in Northern Taiwan. Self-reported questionnaire using clinical scenario of incurable lung cancer was employed. Descriptive analysis was used for data analysis.
Results: Fifty-four patients and family dyads were recruited from 1 August 2019 to 15 January 2020. Nearly 80% of patients and caregivers agreed that advance care planning should be conducted when the patient was at a non-frail stage of disease. Patients’ frail stage of disease was considered the indicator for life-sustaining treatments withdrawal except for nutrition and fluid supplements, antibiotics or blood transfusions. Patient dyads considered that advance care planning discussions were meaningful without arousing emotional distress.
Conclusion: Patient dyads’ preferences on the timing of initiating advance care planning and life-sustaining treatments withdrawal were found to be consistent. Taiwanese people’s medical decision-making is heavily influenced by cultural characteristics including relational autonomy and filial piety. The findings could inform the clinical practice and policy in the wider Asia–Pacific region.
Background: End-of-life (EOL) conversations are highly important for patients living with life-threatening diseases and for their relatives. Talking about the EOL is associated with reduced costs and better quality of care in the final weeks of life. However, there is therefore a need for further clarification of the actual wishes of patients and their relatives concerning EOL conversations in an acute hospital setting.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to explore the wishes of patients and their relatives with regard to talking about the EOL in an acute hospital setting when living with a life-threatening disease.
Methods: This study is a qualitative study using semi-structured in-depth interviews. A total of 17 respondents (11 patients and six spouses) participated. The patients were identified by the medical staff in a medical and surgical ward using SPICT™. The interview questions were focused on the respondents’ thoughts on and wishes about their future lives, as well as on their wishes regarding talking about the EOL in a hospital setting.
Results: This study revealed that the wish to talk about the EOL differed widely between respondents. Impairment to the patients’ everyday lives received the main focus, whereas talking about EOL was secondary. Conversations on EOL were an individual matter and ranged from not wanting to think about the EOL, to being ready to plan the funeral and expecting the healthcare professionals to be very open about the EOL. The conversations thus varied between superficial communication and crossing boundaries.
Conclusion: The wish to talk about the EOL in an acute hospital setting is an individual matter and great diversity exists. This individualistic stance requires the development of conversational tools that can assist both the patients and the relatives who wish to have an EOL conversation and those who do not. At the same time, staff should be trained in initiating and facilitating EOL discussions.
Strategies to increase appropriateness of EoL care, such as shared decision making (SDM), and advance care planning (ACP) are internationally embraced, especially since the COVID-19 pandemic. However, individuals preferences regarding EoL care may differ internationally. Current literature lacks insight in how preferences in EoL care differ between countries and continents. This study's aim is to compare Dutch and Japanese general publics attitudes and preferences toward EoL care, and EoL decisions.
Methods: a cross-sectional survey design was chosen. The survey was held among samples of the Dutch and Japanese general public, using a Nationwide social research panel of 220.000 registrants in the Netherlands and 1.200.000 in Japan. A quota sampling was done (age, gender, and living area). N = 1.040 in each country.
More Japanese than Dutch citizens tend to avoid thinking in advance about future situations of dependence (26.0% vs 9.4%; P = .000); say they would feel themselves a burden for relatives if they would become dependent in their last phase of life (79.3% vs 47.8%; P = .000); and choose the hospital as their preferred place of death (19.4% vs 3.6% P = .000). More Dutch than Japanese people say they would be happy with a proactive approach of their doctor regarding EoL issues (78.0% vs 65.1% JPN; P = .000).
Preferences in EoL care substantially differ between the Netherlands and Japan. These differences should be taken into account a) when interpreting geographical variation in EoL care, and b) if strategies such as SDM or ACP – are considered. Such strategies will fail if an international “one size fits all” approach would be followed.
End of life discussions frequently take place in surgical intensive care units, as a significant number of patients die while admitted to the hospital, and surgery is common during the last month of life. Multiple barriers exist to the initiation of these conversations, including: miscommunication between clinicians and surrogates, a paternalistic approach to surgical patients, and perhaps, conflicts of interest as an unwanted consequence of surgical quality reporting. Goal discordant care refers to the care that is provided to a patient that is incapacitated and that is not concordant to his/her wishes. This is a largely unrecognized medical error with devastating consequences, including inappropriate prolongation of life and non-beneficial therapy utilization. Importantly, hospice and palliative care needs to be recognized as quality care in order to deter the incentives that might persuade clinicians from offering these services.
BACKGROUND: Most terminally ill cancer patients prefer to die at home, but a majority die in institutional settings. Research questions about this discrepancy have not been fully answered. This study applies artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques to explore the complex network of factors and the cause-effect relationships affecting the place of death, with the ultimate aim of developing policies favouring home-based end-of-life care.
METHODS: A data mining algorithm and a causal probabilistic model for data analysis were developed with information derived from expert knowledge that was merged with data from 116 deceased cancer patients in southern Switzerland. This data set was obtained via a retrospective clinical chart review.
RESULTS: Dependencies of disease and treatment-related decisions demonstrate an influence on the place of death of 13%. Anticancer treatment in advanced disease prevents or delays communication about the end of life between oncologists, patients and families. Unknown preferences for the place of death represent a great barrier to a home death. A further barrier is the limited availability of family caregivers for terminal home care. The family's preference for the last place of care has a high impact on the place of death of 51%, while the influence of the patient's preference is low, at 14%. Approximately one-third of family systems can be empowered by health care professionals to provide home care through open end-of-life communication and good symptom management. Such intervention has an influence on the place of death of 17%. If families express a convincing preference for home care, the involvement of a specialist palliative home care service can increase the probability of home deaths by 24%.
CONCLUSION: Concerning death at home, open communication about death and dying is essential. Furthermore, for the patient preference for home care to be respected, the family's decision for the last place of care seems to be key. The early initiation of family-centred palliative care and the provision of specialist palliative home care for patients who wish to die at home are suggested.
Introduction : La plupart des Français souhaitent mourir à domicile mais peu d’entre eux y décèdent réellement. L’expression par le patient de son souhait sur le lieu de son décès en favorise le respect, mais les médecins connaissent peu ces souhaits. L’objectif de l’étude est de recueillir la façon dont les personnes en situation palliative à domicile envisagent d’aborder le lieu de décès avec leur médecin généraliste.
Méthode : Une étude qualitative a été réalisée par entretiens individuels semi-dirigés au domicile des personnes atteintes d’une pathologie incurable avec un pronostic vital entre 4 semaines et 2 ans.
Résultats : 15 entretiens ont été menés. La plupart des personnes interrogées souhaitent mourir à la maison, proche des leurs, mais le besoin d’être accompagné et de préserver leur entourage semble être plus important pour elles. Elles attendent que le médecin traitant aborde la fin de vie et le lieu de décès avec disponibilité, écoute et bienveillance, et qu’il y montre de l’intérêt. L’émergence de trois profils (paternaliste, autonomiste et intermédiaire) illustre la façon dont elles envisagent ces discussions avec leur médecin traitant.
Discussion : Les personnes en situation palliative à domicile attendent que le médecin traitant aborde la fin de vie avec une attitude adaptée au profil de chacun. Une consultation dédiée permettrait au médecin généraliste de créer des conditions favorables afin de donner au malade une opportunité d’aborder ce sujet sensible et de respecter ses souhaits.
Conclusion : Les malades souhaitent une implication du médecin généraliste dans les discussions anticipées.
BACKGROUND: Structured advance care planning (ACP) program is an important service in the end-of-life care for patients with advanced medical illness. We pioneered a structured and coordinated ACP program for patients with advanced malignancies and end-stage organ failure in Hong Kong. This study investigated the impact of a structured ACP program on the concordance rate for patients' final wishes, patient/family satisfaction, and the number of acute admissions (AA) and length of stay (LOS) in hospital.
METHODS: Patients with advanced malignancy or end-stage organ failure who were able to complete ACP forms during the current admission to medical units were recruited. Patients who could not complete ACP forms or <18 years of age were excluded. The ACP program comprised the following components: (I) baseline education (workshop/role play) in ACP sessions for linked nurses of different medical units; (II) structured ACP discussions with recruited patients and their proxies during admission, after any change in clinical status, and also at monthly intervals; (III) formal structured review of patients' goals at regular team meetings; (IV) "flagging" of advance directive (AD) in hospital computer system and (V) feedback to linked nurse on the congruence of care. Mentally competent patients who did not receive ACP and matched for disease and demographics were selected as controls in a 1:2.5 ratio.
RESULTS: Two hundred forty-three patients were included for analysis between August 2016 and July 2017, of which 69 patients joined the ACP program and 174 of them did not. Two hundred and one patients (83%) had advanced cancer. All had done do-not-attempt-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation (DNACPR) order in the ACP group. The concordance rates for patients' wishes on quality of life, end-of-life and funeral arrangements were 95%, 100% and 100% respectively. Over 70% of patients and their families (N=10) showed satisfaction with the program. The ACP group also had lower mean AA and shorter LOS (0.78±0.23 vs. 1.2±0.8 episode/patient, 4.6±1.7 vs. 7.5±2.5 days, P=0.037 and P=0.023 respectively) in the last 3 months of life compared with the non-ACP group.
CONCLUSIONS: This ACP program achieved high concordance rate for patients' wish items and reduced healthcare utilization.