Purpose: Balancing medications that are needed and beneficial and avoiding medications that may be harmful is important to prevent drug-related problems, and improve quality of life. The aim of this study is to describe medication use, the prevalence of deprescribing of medications suitable for deprescribing, and the prevalence of new initiation of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in nursing home (NH) residents with life-limiting disease in Flanders.
Methods: NH residents aged = 65, suffering from end stage organ failure, advanced cancer, and/or dementia (n = 296), were included in this cross-sectional study with retrospective analyses of medication use at the time of data collection (t2) and 3 to 6 months before (t1). The appraisal of appropriateness of medications was done using a list of medications documented as suitable for deprescribing, and STOPPFrail criteria.
Results: Residents’ (mean age 86 years, 74% female) mean number of chronic medications increased from 7.4 (t1) to 7.9 (t2). In 31% of those using medications suitable for deprescribing, at least one medication was actually deprescribed. In 30% at least one PIM from the group of selected PIMs was newly initiated. In the subgroup (n = 76) for whom deprescribing was observed, deprescribing was associated with less new initiations of PIMs (r = - 0.234, p = 0.042).
Conclusion: Medication use remained high at the end of life for NH residents with life-limiting disease, and deprescribing was limited. However, in the subgroup of 76 residents for whom deprescribing was observed, less new PIMs were initiated.
CONTEXT: Medications commonly used for symptom control along with other known risk factors have the potential to prolong ventricular repolarization as measured by the QT interval on a standard ECG.
OBJECTIVES: To document the prevalence of a prolonged QTc interval in the palliative/oncology setting, compare automatic ECG QTc measurements with manual readings and identify any correlation between QTc prolongation and the use of drugs or other risk factors.
METHODS: A convenience sample of consecutive patients with cancer, admitted under or known to the palliative/supportive care teams in two metropolitan hospitals and willing to provide an ECG recording and basic demographic information including QTc risk factors were included. Both automated and manually calculated QTc intervals were recorded. Multivariable analysis was used to determine risk factors independently associated with prolonged QTc intervals.
RESULTS: Of the 389 participants, there was a significant difference in mean QTc between sites using automated but not manual calculations. Manual readings were therefore used with predetermined cut-offs of 0.44sec (males) and 0.46sec (females). 72 (18.5%) of participants had a prolonged QTc with 6 (1.5%) having a prolongation >0.50sec. "At-risk" drugs were being taken by 218 participants (56.0% of total cohort). Factors shown to be associated with QTc prolongation included age, gender, performance status and hypocalcaemia. No specific medication was associated with increased risk.
CONCLUSION: Although almost 20% of patients receiving palliative care had prolongation of QTc, the risk of serious consequences appeared to be low despite the frequent occurrence of risk factors.
Background: Symptoms (e.g., pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue) at the end of life (EoL) are common. Although symptoms can contribute to poor quality of life at the EoL, much remains unknown regarding their prevalence and correlates in home hospice care.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence and correlates of caregiver-reported symptoms in home hospice patients during the last week before discharge using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS).
Design: This is a cross-sectional study measuring perceived patient symptoms using caregiver proxy data. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine patient and caregiver characteristics associated with ESAS scores.
Setting/Subjects: Subjects were from an urban nonprofit home hospice organization.
Measurements: Symptoms were measured using the ESAS.
Results: The mean ESAS score was 51.2 (SD ±17.4). In bivariate analyses, higher perceived symptom score was associated with younger patient age (p < 0.001), younger caregiver age (p < 0.001), having a cancer diagnosis (p = 0.006), and lower caregiver comfort level managing symptoms (p < 0.001). Regression model analyses showed that younger patient age (p = 0.0009, p = 0.0036) and lower caregiver comfort level managing symptoms (p = 0.0047, p < 0.0001) were associated uniquely with higher symptom scores.
Conclusions: Multiple symptoms of high severity were perceived by caregivers in the last week on home hospice. Patient age and caregiver comfort level in managing symptoms were associated with higher symptom scores. Further work is needed to improve management and treatment of symptoms in this care setting.
Background: Physical and emotional burdens impair quality of life (QoL) in many adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Palliative care (PC) improves QoL in other serious illnesses, yet the full array of palliative needs amenable to PC are unknown in CF.
Methods: We surveyed 164 adults with CF using the Supportive Care Needs Survey 34 (SCNS-34) to assess unmet PC needs across five domains, the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) to assess symptom burden, and the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire—Revised (CFQ-R) to assess CF-specific QoL. We assessed associations between SCNS-34 domain scores and respondent characteristics, including symptom burden and FEV1.
Results: Median age was 29 years; 56% of respondents were male. Median FEV1 was 57% predicted. 78% of respondents reported =1 unmet PC need; physical and daily living (72%) and psychological (66%) needs were most prevalent. Symptom burden was correlated with all SCNS-34 domains scores, and strongly correlated with the physical (r = 0.79) and psychological (r = 0.72) domain scores. FEV1 was moderately inversely correlated with the physical domain score (r = -0.41). Forty-four of the 45 inverse correlations between SCNS-34 domain scores and CFQ-R domain scores were significant. Patient-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with higher scores in five and four SCNS-34 domains, respectively.
Conclusions: Adults with CF have substantial unmet PC needs. Patient-reported symptom burden is more strongly associated with reporting unmet PC needs than FEV1. Routine screening of unmet PC needs, using tools such as the SCNS-34, may enable CF care teams to optimize the provision of primary and specialist PC.
This study examines the prevalence of religiosity, death anxiety, and hope in a sample of New Zealand community hospice patients in the last 6 months of life. It explores the factors triggering distress or hope and examines whether religiosity is protective against death anxiety for this population. Early studies showed religious faith helps relieve death anxiety, but later work suggests this may only be the case in societies which are generally religious. Very little research has been conducted on this topic in New Zealand, from which recent censuses indicate is an increasingly secular country. If religion is not an important source of hope for dying, it is important to explore what factors do help relieve existential anxiety and to consider their clinical relevance. This study confirmed that organized religion was not a major support factor. Yet several people who declared themselves nonreligious scored highly for intrinsic religiosity and were among the most hopeful participants. This could suggest that spirituality may be more relevant than organized religion in relieving existential distress. The main source of hope for most participants was joyful memories and meaningful relationships. Fear of being a burden and of causing family suffering were the most significant causes of distress. Systematic spiritual assessment for all patients, not just those with a declared religious faith, a biography service, and psychotherapy, may all have a role in managing death anxiety at the end of life. Further work with larger and more diverse populations would be needed to confirm these findings.
Background: The literature describing the incidence of sleep difficulty in CNS cancers is very limited, with exploration of a sleep difficulty symptom trajectory particularly sparse in people with advanced disease. We aimed to establish the prevalence and longitudinal trajectory of sleep difficulty in populations with CNS cancers receiving palliative care nationally, and to identify clinically modifiable predictors of sleep difficulty.
Methods: A consecutive cohort of 2406 patients with CNS cancers receiving palliative care from sites participating in the Australian national Palliative Care Outcomes Collaboration were evaluated longitudinally on patient-reported sleep difficulty from point-of-care data collection, comorbid symptoms, and clinician-rated problems. Multilevel models were used to analyze patient-reported sleep difficulty.
Results: Reporting of mild to severe sleep difficulties ranged from 10% to 43%. Sleep scores fluctuated greatly over the course of palliative care. While improvement in patients' clinical status was associated with less sleep difficulty, the relationship was not clear when patients deteriorated. Worsening of sleep difficulty was associated with higher psychological distress (P < .0001), greater breathing problems (P < .05) and pain (P < .05), and higher functional status (P < .001) at the beginning of care.
Conclusions: Sleep difficulty is prevalent but fluctuates widely in patients with CNS cancers receiving palliative care. A better-tailored sleep symptom assessment may be needed for this patient population. Early interventions targeting psychological distress, breathing symptoms, and pain for more functional patients should be explored to see whether it reduces sleep difficulties late in life.
CONTEXT: Chronic pain (CP) is a major concern in cancer survivors. Often underreported by patients, it is both under-assessed and undertreated by care providers.
OBJECTIVES: To assess CP prevalence and related treatment in cancer survivors five years after diagnosis; to identify factors associated with prescribing opioids among survivors with CP, focusing on access to palliative care (PC).
METHODS: In 2015-2016, we interviewed 4,174 French patients diagnosed with cancer five years previously. Combining patient and clinical reported outcomes together with medico-administrative data, we studied factors associated with Step II and Step III opioid prescription in cancer survivors with CP. We performed multinomial logistic regression adjusting for various covariates, including self-reported health status variables and inpatient PC.
RESULTS: Five years after cancer diagnosis, 63.5% of the respondents reported current chronic pain (CP) (i.e., pain = 3 months). Of these, 64.6% and 14.4% were prescribed at least one Step II or Step III opioid, respectively. Only 1.9% had had inpatient PC since diagnosis. After adjustment for age, gender, clinical and self-reported variables, we found that the latter were more likely to receive Step III opioids (adjusted Relative Risk ratio: 5.33; 95% CI: 1.15, 24.58).
CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a high prevalence of CP five years after cancer diagnosis. Step III opioids were underprescribed but positively associated with inpatient PC. PC access in France remains limited, especially among cancer survivors. Integrating PC in oncology is essential to provide the best cancer-related symptoms management.
Background: Crises that occur in home hospice care affect family caregivers’ satisfaction with care and increase risk of disenrollment. Because hospice care focuses on achieving a peaceful death, understanding the prevalence and nature of crises that occur in this setting could help to improve end-of-life outcomes.
Objective: To ascertain the prevalence and nature of, as well as factors associated with crises in the home hospice setting as reported by family caregivers.
Design: A multiple-method approach was used. Content analysis was employed to evaluate semistructured interview responses collected from caregivers. Potential associations between crisis occurrence and caregiver and patient factors were examined.
Setting/Subjects: Family caregivers whose care recipients were discharged (dead or alive) from a nonprofit hospice organization.
Measurements: Participants were asked to identify any crisis—defined as a time of intense distress due to a physical, psychological, and/or spiritual cause—they or the patient experienced, while receiving home hospice care.
Results: Of the 183 participants, 76 (42%) experienced a perceived crisis, while receiving hospice care. Three types of crises emerged: patient signs and symptoms (n = 51, 67%), patient and/or caregiver emotional distress (n = 22, 29%), and caregiver burden (n = 10, 13%). Women were more likely than men (46% vs. 26%, p = 0.03) to report a crisis.
Conclusions: A large minority of caregivers report perceiving a crisis while their loved one was receiving home hospice care. Physical (symptoms), psychological (emotional distress) function, and caregiver burden constituted the crises reported. Further studies are needed to better understand and address these gaps in care.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate prevalence and predictors of postloss distress, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and quality of life among bereaved family caregivers of patients with advanced cancer.
METHODS: Prospective multicenter study. Family caregivers (N = 160, mean age 56.8 years, 66% female) completed validated outcome measures (Distress Thermometer, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale, Patient Health Questionnaire depression module 9-item scale, SF-8 Health Survey Questionnaire) 6 months after patient's discharge or death at specialist inpatient palliative care ward.
RESULTS: Clinically relevant distress was observed in 82% with sadness (89%), exhaustion (74%), sleeping problems (68%), loneliness (53%), and sorrows (52%) being the most common distress-causing problems. Moderate/severe anxiety and depressive symptoms were observed in 27% and 35%, respectively. Compared to an adjusted norm sample, quality of life was significantly impaired with exception of "bodily pain" and physical component score. Preloss caregiving (odds ratio [OR] 2.195) and higher preloss distress (OR 1.345) predicted high postloss distress. Utilization of psychosocial support services (OR 2.936) and higher preloss anxiety symptoms (OR 1.292) predicted moderate/severe anxiety symptoms, lower preloss physical quality of life (OR 0.952), and higher preloss depressive symptoms (OR 1.115) predicted moderate/severe depressive symptoms.
CONCLUSION: Preloss mental burden showed to be a consistent predictor for postloss burden and should be addressed during palliative care. Future research should examine specific caregiver-directed interventions during specialist palliative care.
Background: Cachexia is a complex and multifactorial syndrome defined as severe weight loss and muscle wasting which frequently goes unrecognised in clinical practice. It is a debilitating syndrome, resulting in patients experiencing decreased quality of life and an increased risk of premature death; with cancer cachexia alone resulting in 2 million deaths per annum. Most work in this field has focused on cancer cachexia, with cardiac cachexia being relatively understudied – despite its potential prevalence and impact in patients who have advanced heart failure. We report here the protocol for an exploratory study which will: 1. focus on determining the prevalence and clinical implications of cardiac cachexia within advanced heart failure patients; and 2. explore the experience of cachexia from patients’ and caregivers’ perspectives.
Methods: A mixed methods cross-sectional study. Phase 1: A purposive sample of 362 patients with moderate to severe heart failure from two Trusts within the United Kingdom will be assessed for known characteristics of cachexia (loss of weight, loss of muscle, muscle mass/strength, anorexia, fatigue and selected biomarkers), through basic measurements (i.e. mid-upper arm circumference) and use of three validated questionnaires; focusing on fatigue, quality of life and appetite. Phase 2: Qualitative semi-structured interviews with patients (n = 12) that meet criteria for cachexia, and their caregivers (n = 12), will explore their experience of this syndrome and its impact on daily life. Interviews will be digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim, prior to qualitative thematic and content analysis. Phase 3: Workshops with key stakeholders (patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals and policy makers) will be used to discuss study findings and identify practice implications to be tested in further research.
Discussion: Data collected as part of this study will allow the prevalence of cardiac cachexia in a group of patients with moderate to severe heart failure to be determined. It will also provide a unique insight into the implications and personal experience of cardiac cachexia for both patients and carers. It is hoped that robust quantitative data and rich qualitative perspectives will promote crucial clinical discussions on implications for practice, including targeted interventions to improve patients’ quality of life where appropriate.
Frailty is an emerging global health burden, with major implications for clinical practice and public health. The prevalence of frailty is expected to rise alongside rapid growth in the ageing population. The course of frailty is characterised by a decline in functioning across multiple physiological systems, accompanied by an increased vulnerability to stressors. Having frailty places a person at increased risk of adverse outcomes, including falls, hospitalisation, and mortality. Studies have shown a clear pattern of increased health-care costs and use associated with frailty. All older adults are at risk of developing frailty, although risk levels are substantially higher among those with comorbidities, low socioeconomic position, poor diet, and sedentary lifestyles. Lifestyle and clinical risk factors are potentially modifiable by specific interventions and preventive actions. The concept of frailty is increasingly being used in primary, acute, and specialist care. However, despite efforts over the past three decades, agreement on a standard instrument to identify frailty has not yet been achieved. In this Series paper, we provide an overview of the global impact and burden of frailty, the usefulness of the frailty concept in clinical practice, potential targets for frailty prevention, and directions that need to be explored in the future.
Background: One widely accepted approach to identify children with life-limiting health problems is the complex chronic conditions (CCCs) classification system. Although considered the “gold standard” for classifying children with serious illness, little is known about its performance, especially among infants.
Objective/Hypothesis: This research examined the prevalence of CCCs and the infant characteristics related to a CCC classification.
Methods: Multivariate regression analysis was conducted with 2012 Kids’ Inpatient Database, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project data files, using a national sample of infant decedents less than 1 year.
Results: Our findings showed that 40% of the infants were classified with a CCC. African Americans were negatively associated with a CCC classification (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.543-0.731). When infants had other insurance coverage, they were less likely (aOR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.537-0.748) to have a CCC classification. Infants who resided in nonurban areas (aOR = 1.21; 95% CI =1.034-1.415) and had comorbidities (aOR = 38.19; 95% CI = 33.12-44.04) had greater odds of having a CCC classification.
Conclusions: The findings suggested that the infants are not commonly classified with a CCC and highlighted the significant variation in race with African American infants exhibiting different CCC classifications than Caucasian infants. Given the importance of reducing disparities in palliative care, critical attention to using CCC classifications in research is warranted.
Persistent complex bereavement (PCBD) was entered to DSM-5. No studies have yet examined the nature, prevalence, prognostic validity, and underlying mechanisms of PCBD symptom patterns in recently bereaved people. Knowledge on these issues could improve the early identification and treatment of disturbed grief. Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups characterized by different PCBD symptom patterns among recently (=6 months) bereaved adults (n = 476). In a subgroup (n = 251), we assessed associations of class membership with PCBD severity and functional impairment assessed 3 years later. Associations between class membership and sociodemographic and cognitive-behavioral variables were also examined. We identified a resilient (50.0%), separation distress (36.1%), and high PCBD symptoms (13.9%) class. Class membership had prognostic value as evidenced by associations with PCBD severity and functional impairment assessed 3 years later. Deaths of partners/children, unexpectedness of the loss, and maladaptive cognitions and avoidance behaviors were also associated with membership of the pervasive symptom classes.
Background: Cancer is a major burden of disease and a public health problem, as it is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is estimated that 25% of cancer patients die without receiving proper pain management.
Objective: To acknowledge the epidemiological profile of first-time patients at the palliative care service of a referral center, along with the pharmaceutical treatment and social and familiar implications of the treatment costs in first-time patients.
Methods: A survey including 28 questions was conducted including 490 first-time patients at the National Cancer Institute in Mexico City.
Results: Median age was 53 years; 63.3% (n = 310) were females; 72% were married or single (50.5% and 21.2%, respectively). The most frequent diagnoses were gastrointestinal tumors, followed by urological, and skin/soft tissue carcinomas (19.8%, 12.5%, and 12%, respectively). Pain prevalence was 50.4% among the cohort. From the subgroup of participants with pain, 26.7% presented an intensity =7.
Conclusions: As most patients in our study presented pain, there is a need of strengthening public policy about opioid treatments.
Kennedy terminal ulcers, a subset of pressure injuries, are associated with the dying process. This scoping review aimed to identify and map the published literature on Kennedy terminal ulcers in terms of its definition, prevalence, assessment, treatment, management, health care costs, and quality of life for patients in all health care settings. Using the Arksey and O’Malley scoping review framework, we systematically searched the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and ProQuest databases and 5 guideline repositories between 1983 and 2018. The following search terms were used: Kennedy ulcers, Kennedy terminal ulcers, terminal ulcer, skin failure, and Skin Changes at Life’s End. Data were extracted using a purposely developed data collection tool. Initial searches yielded 2997 sources, with 32 included in this review. Most Kennedy terminal ulcer literature was published by nurses in the United States. Kennedy terminal ulcer prevalence data are limited, with no validated assessment tools available. Kennedy terminal ulcers may be misclassified as pressure injuries, potentially resulting in financial penalties to the institution. This scoping review revealed significant knowledge and clinical practice gaps in patient assessment, management, and treatment of Kennedy terminal ulcers. Timely patient education may help them to make informed care and quality end-of-life decisions. Further research is needed to inform clinical practice to improve patient care.
Objective: This unprecedented systematic review aims to unearth the rate of CG among Chinese people.
Methods: Data sources were from PsycINFO, ProQuest Databases, Web of Science, PsycARTICLES, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang, Taiwan Periodical Literature System (TPLS), HKInChiP from the inception to June 2019. The eligibility criteria for inclusion were (a) including or useful to calculate the prevalence of CG in Chinese settings, (b) published in journals, (c) containing information on sample size, (d) full texts either written in English or in Chinese are available. Thirteen studies were engaged in meta-analytic evaluation after the systematic review. They were appraised by the risk of bias (RoB) for publication-quality and synthesized through meta-analysis for identifying the prevalence of CG among Chinese people.
Results: Meta-analysis revealed a pooled estimate of CG of 22.0% (95% CI: 0.111–0.391). The studies identified in this review were of methodological heterogeneousness and focused on the population at high risk of CG. They were a moderate or high risk of bias.
Conclusion: Results warrant the need to conduct a population-based and quality study to investigate the prevalence of CG in Chinese people. Many suggestions on treatment for Chines people with CG were provided.
BACKGROUND: Emergency departments (ED) serve as a contact point for critically ill patients. According to experience, a fraction of patients visiting ED present with palliative symptoms and require palliative care; however, the prevalence of these patients has not been determined in Austria so far.
METHODS: In the ED of a tertiary care medical centre in Carinthia all adult patients presenting between 8 January 2018 and 17 January 2018 were classified on arrival with the Manchester triage system (MTS) and were afterwards assessed with a validated 2-tier screening tool for palliative care. Patient records were screened in April 2018 to find out whether they received palliative care.
RESULTS: In total 1277 patients visited the ED during the investigation period. Of these patients 1096 were screened and 145 of these patients (13.2%) showed palliative symptoms and needed a goal-oriented therapy. Of these 145 patients 10.9% were assessed by MTS as emergency, 2.7% as very urgent, 34.7% as urgent, 51% as normal, and 0.7% as not urgent. Only 8 (5.5%) of the patients with palliative medical symptoms actually received palliative care consultation.
CONCLUSIONS: More than 1 in 10 patients attending an ED suffered from palliative symptoms. Hence it is to be expected that healthcare providers in an ED in Austria will frequently encounter patients with palliative symptoms in emergency admissions. Therefore, it is necessary to develop suitable structures to provide these patients with the best possible care.
CONTEXT: Understanding the magnitude and risk-factors for symptom burden of cancer patients at the end-of-life is critical to guiding effective patient- and system-level interventions.
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the prevalence of severe patient-reported symptoms among cancer outpatients during the six months before death and to identify patient groups at a higher risk for reporting severe symptoms.
METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of cancer decedents at regional cancer centers from 2010-2016. Patient-reported Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) scores from the last six months-of-life were linked to administrative databases. The proportion of patients reporting severe symptom scores (>7) for anxiety, depression, drowsiness, lack of appetite, nausea, pain, shortness of breath, tiredness, and overall wellbeing during the six months before death was described. Multivariable modified Poisson regression analyses were used to identify risk-factors for reporting severe symptom scores.
RESULTS: 22,650 of 39,084 cancer decedents had =1 symptom record in the last six months of life, resulting in 92,757 ESAS assessments. Severe scores were highest for tiredness (56%), lack of appetite (46%), and impaired wellbeing (45%). The proportion of patients reporting severe symptom scores was stable before progressively increasing at 3 months prior to death. Elderly, women, patients with high comorbidity, immigrants, living in urban areas or with high material deprivation were at increased risk of reporting severe scores.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite an integrated symptom screening program, rates of severe patient-reported symptom scores prior to death were high for cancer outpatients. Patient subgroups at increased risk of severe symptom burden may benefit from targeted interventions. Ongoing review of routinely collected symptom data may be used to assess the supportive care needs and guide targeted interventions at the health-system level.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of do-not-resuscitate status, assess the epidemiologic trends of do-not-resuscitate status, and assess the factors associated with do-not-resuscitate status in children after in-hospital cardiac arrest using large, multi-institutional data.
DESIGN: Generalized estimating equations logistic regression model was used to evaluate the trends of do-not-resuscitate status and evaluate the factors associated with do-not-resuscitate status after cardiac arrest.
SETTING: American Heart Association's Get With the Guidelines-Resuscitation Registry.
PATIENTS: Children (< 18 yr old) with an index in-hospital cardiac arrest and greater than or equal to 1 minute of documented chest compressions were included (2006-2015). Patients with no return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest were excluded.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In total, 8,062 patients qualified for inclusion. Of these, 1,160 patients (14.4%) adopted do-not-resuscitate status after cardiac arrest. We found low rates of survival to hospital discharge among children with do-not-resuscitate status (do-not-resuscitate vs no do-not-resuscitate: 6.0% vs 69.7%). Our study found that rates of do-not-resuscitate status after cardiac arrest are highest in children with Hispanic ethnicity (16.4%), white race (15.0%), and treatment at institutions with larger PICUs (> 50 PICU beds: 17.8%) and at institutions located in North Central (17.6%) and South Atlantic/Puerto Rico (17.1%) regions of the United States. Do-not-resuscitate status was more common among patients with more preexisting conditions, longer duration of cardiac arrest, greater than 1 cardiac arrest, and among patients requiring extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We also found that trends of do-not-resuscitate status after cardiac arrest in children are decreasing in recent years (2013-2015: 13.8%), compared with previous years (2006-2009: 16.0%).
CONCLUSIONS: Patient-, hospital-, and regional-level factors are associated with do-not-resuscitate status after pediatric cardiac arrest. As cardiac arrest might be a signal of terminal chronic illness, a timely discussion of do-not-resuscitate status after cardiac arrest might help families prioritize quality of end-of-life care.
OBJECTIVES: In clinical settings, untreatable biliary sludge in the gallbladder can be observed in older adults with advanced dementia. The underlying cause of biliary sludge existence in patients with dementia is currently unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the prevalence, risk factors, and related outcomes of biliary sludge formation in the gallbladder of older adults with dementia.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
SETTING: Geriatric ward of University Hospital in Japan.
PARTICIPANTS: Inpatients aged 80 and older living with dementia.
MEASUREMENTS: We evaluated the presence of biliary sludge by diagnostic ultrasonography and collected data regarding patient demographic information, cognition (mini-mental state examination [MMSE]), physical activity (Barthel Index), oral food intake (food intake level scale [FILS]), clinical stage of dementia (functional assessment staging [FAST] of dementia), and patient performance status (Zubrod/ Karnofsky score).
RESULTS: Male sex, larger gallbladder volume and calories from oral intake were significantly associated with the presence of biliary sludge (P = .02, .02, .002, respectively). There was a significant negative correlation between the FAST stage and the FILS level in all patients (P < .001). More advanced dementia and dysphagia was more likely to be found in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) with biliary sludge, compared to patients with AD without biliary sludge (FAST 7a, FILS II and FAST 6c, FILS V, respectively, P = .06, 04). A logistic regression analysis revealed that the eating status of FILS I and II, generally called "fasting or anorexia", was a significant risk factor for forming biliary sludge in older adults with dementia (P = .031, odds ratio: 5.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.16-23.72).
CONCLUSIONS: Fasting status may be associated with the existence of biliary sludge in older adults with dementia. Therefore, supportive care for eating might be an important solution to comfortable end-of-life care for older adults with advanced dementia.