BACKGROUND: Intervention trials confirm that patients with advanced cancer receiving early palliative care experience a better quality of life and show improved knowledge about and use of palliative care services. To involve patients in future health-care decisions, health professionals should understand patients' perspectives. However, little is known about how patients' experience such interventions.
AIM: To explore advanced cancer patients' experiences with a structured early palliative care intervention, its acceptability and impact on the patients' life including influencing factors.
DESIGN: Qualitative content analysis of in-depth, semi-structured interviews.
SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Patients with various advanced cancer diagnoses were enrolled in a multicenter randomized controlled trial (NCT01983956), which investigated the impact of "Symptoms, End-of-life decisions, Network, Support," a structured early palliative care intervention, on distress. Of these, 20 patients who underwent the intervention participated in this study.
RESULTS: Participants received the intervention well and gained a better understanding of their personal situation. Patients reported that the intervention can feel "confronting" but with the right timing it can be confirming and facilitate family conversations. Patients' personal background and the intervention timing within their personal disease trajectory influenced their emotional and cognitive experiences; it also impacted their understanding of palliative care and triggered actions toward future care planning.
CONCLUSION: Early palliative care interventions like "Symptoms, End-of-life decisions, Network, Support" may provoke emotions and feel "confrontational" often because this is the first time when issues about one's end of life are openly discussed; yet, advanced cancer patients found it beneficial and felt it should be incorporated into routine care.
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to identify the unmet care needs and to examine the mediating effect of unmet supportive care needs in the relationship between functional status and quality of life (QOL) in Korean patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 186 patients with ALS recruited from a tertiary hospital in Seoul, South Korea. ALS patients' functional status, unmet supportive care needs, and QOL were assessed by Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised, the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Supportive Care Needs Instrument, and the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Specific Quality of Life - Revised Instrument, respectively. Mediation analysis was tested using Baron and Kenny's regression analysis and a Sobel test.
RESULT: The mean score for functional status was 33.35 ± 8.89; for unmet supportive care needs it was 2.40 ± 0.66; and for QOL it was 4.95 ± 1.29. Functional status was significantly correlated with unmet care needs and QOL. Unmet care needs satisfaction demonstrated a complete mediating effect on the relationship between functional status and QOL of the patients with ALS (ß = –0.53, p < 0.001) and the effect was significant (Sobel test; Z = 5.48, p < 0.001).
SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: Although QOL was negatively affected by the functional status in our sample, the relationship was fully mediated via unmet supportive care needs. Because there is no cure for ALS, and the condition is rapidly progressive with a lethal outcome, providing care by meeting patients’ needs is a critical aspect of caring for these patients. Early assessment of supportive care needs, providing services, and referring ALS patients to appropriate resources could enhance their QOL.
OBJECTIVES: Music therapy has been shown to be effective for reducing anxiety and pain in people with a serious illness. Few studies have investigated the feasibility of integrating music therapy into general inpatient care of the seriously ill, including the care of diverse, multiethnic patients. This leaves a deficit in knowledge for intervention planning. This study investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of introducing music therapy for patients on 4 inpatient units in a large urban medical center. Capacitated and incapacitated patients on palliative care, transplantation, medical intensive care, and general medicine units received a single bedside session led by a music therapist.
METHODS: A mixed-methods, pre-post design was used to assess clinical indicators and the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. Multiple regression modeling was used to evaluate the effect of music therapy on anxiety, pain, pulse, and respiratory rate. Process evaluation data and qualitative analysis of observational data recorded by the music therapists were used to assess the feasibility of providing music therapy on the units and patients' interest, receptivity, and satisfaction.
RESULTS: Music therapy was delivered to 150 patients over a 6-month period. Controlling for gender, age, and session length, regression modeling showed that patients reported reduced anxiety post-session. Music therapy was found to be an accessible and adaptable intervention, with patients expressing high interest, receptivity, and satisfaction.
SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: This study found it feasible and effective to introduce bedside music therapy for seriously ill patients in a large urban medical center. Lessons learned and recommendations for future investigation are discussed.
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple myeloma, an incurable haematological cancer, often receive palliative care only late in their trajectory. Criteria for early referral are lacking.
AIM: To identify which patients might benefit from early integration, by identifying trajectories of health-related quality of life and the determinants for declining or poor Health related quality of life .
DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal cohort study.
PARTICIPANTS: Multiple myeloma patients at all stages (newly diagnosed, first-line or second-line treatment, early or later treatment-free interval, refractory disease) from in- and outpatient units at 14 hospitals in England were recruited. In addition to clinical information and standardised Health related quality of life and psychological aspects, the Myeloma Patient Outcome Scale (MyPOS) measured palliative care concerns.
RESULTS: A total of 238 patients were recruited, on average 3.5 years (SD: 3.4) post-diagnosis. Latent mixture growth models identified four Health related quality of life trajectories. Classes 3 and 4 represent trajectories of stable poor Health related quality of life or declining Health related quality of life over an 8-month period. The strongest predictors of poor outcome at the end of follow-up were general symptom level (odds ratio (OR): 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0–1.6, p = 0.028), presence of clinically relevant anxiety (OR: 1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0–1.4, p = 0.019), and presence of pain (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.0–1.1, p = 0.018), all being more predictive than demographic or clinical characteristics.
CONCLUSION: General symptom level, pain and presence of anxiety predict declining Health related quality of life in multiple myeloma. Identification of patients with palliative care needs should focus on assessing patient-reported symptoms and psychosocial well-being for identifying those at risk of deterioration.
BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is an autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disease. Few studies have been conducted regarding advance care planning in this population.
OBJECTIVE: This study explores advance care planning preferences of patients with SCA1 and their association with disease progression and quality of life.
METHODS: The study examined 12 Thai patients with SCA1 from 2 families living in Thailand. The advance care plan followed a Gold Standards Framework. The 12 patients were interviewed and recorded in video. The research team evaluated neurocognitive functions as measured by the following tests; Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA), Berg Balance Score, Mini-Mental Status Examination, and Digit Span and Category Fluency. The quality of life was measured by a Short-Form Health Survey-36 (SF-36).
RESULTS: Seven of 12 patients with SCA1 rated communication ability as most important for their quality of life. Patients identified becoming a burden on their family members and ventilator dependence as the most undesirable situations. Half of the patients preferred a hospital as their last place of care. Comparing patients prefer hospital to home has significantly high median SARA (23 vs 11.5; P = .03) and low SF-36 (41.4 vs 72.4; P = .02).
CONCLUSIONS: Those patients preferring a hospital for end-of-life care exhibited more physical disability and lower quality of life than those who preferred home care. Making assisted living health-care services in the home more readily available and affordable may alleviate concerns of patients facing more severe physical challenges.
Palliative care, unlike hospice, can be utilized concurrently with disease-modifying or curative therapies. Some of the benefits of palliative care include improved quality of life, less end-of-life treatment, and decreased medical costs. Furthermore, palliative care can help guide treatment decisions to be in line with patients' physical, psychological, and spiritual needs. On the basis of these benefits, we advocate for palliative care involvement early in the course of advanced malignancy and other terminal diagnoses.
Bereavement carries consequences for the health and socioeconomic well-being of surviving family members. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, the current study investigates whether formerly incarcerated individuals experience the death of a family member at higher rates than the general population. We find that relative to those without a history of incarceration, formerly incarcerated individuals are more likely to experience the death of an immediate family member by young adulthood. Subsequent analyses demonstrate that deaths occurring during or after a respondent was incarcerated were relevant for health and well-being.
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to examine whether a longitudinal advance care planning (ACP) intervention facilitates concordance between the preferred and received life-sustaining treatments (LSTs) of terminally ill patients with cancer and improves quality of life (QoL), anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms during the dying process.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of 795 terminally ill patients with cancer from a medical center in Taiwan, 460 were recruited and randomly assigned 1:1 to the experimental and control arms. The experimental arm received an interactive ACP intervention tailored to participants' readiness to engage in this process. The control arm received symptom management education. Group allocation was concealed, data collectors were blinded, and treatment fidelity was monitored. Outcome measures included 6 preferred and received LSTs, QoL, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms. Intervention effectiveness was evaluated by intention-to-treat analysis.
RESULTS: Participants providing data had died through December 2017. The 2 study arms did not differ significantly in concordance between the 6 preferred and received LSTs examined (odds ratios, 0.966 [95% CI, 0.653-1.428] and 1.107 [95% CI, 0.690-1.775]). Participants who received the ACP intervention had significantly fewer anxiety symptoms (β, -0.583; 95% CI, -0.977 to -0.189; P= .004) and depressive symptoms (ß, -0.533; 95% CI, -1.036 to -0.030; P= .038) compared with those in the control arm, but QoL did not differ.
CONCLUSIONS: Our ACP intervention facilitated participants' psychological adjustment to the end-of-life (EoL) care decision-making process, but neither improved QoL nor facilitated EoL care honoring their wishes. The inability of our intervention to improve concordance may have been due to the family power to override patients' wishes in deeply Confucian doctrine-influenced societies such as Taiwan. Nevertheless, our findings reassure healthcare professionals that such an ACP intervention does not harm but improves the psychological well-being of terminally ill patients with cancer, thereby encouraging physicians to discuss EoL care preferences with patients and involve family caregivers in EoL care decision-making to eventually lead to patient value-concordant EoL cancer care.
OBJECTIVES: Family caregivers of hospice patients have multiple needs as they try to cope during a stressful time. Translatable interventions effective in improving caregiver outcomes are greatly needed. Our objective was to assess the impact of a problem-solving intervention (called Problem-Solving Intervention to Support Caregivers in End-of-Life Care Settings [PISCES]) to support hospice caregivers on caregiver quality of life and anxiety, and compare its effectiveness delivered face to face and via videoconferencing.
DESIGN: In this 4-year randomized clinical trial, caregivers were randomly assigned to a group receiving standard care with added "friendly calls" (attention control [AC] group), a group receiving standard care and PISCES delivered face to face (F2F), or a group receiving standard care and PISCES delivered via videoconferencing (VC).
SETTING: Home hospice.
PARTICIPANTS: A total of 514 caregivers participated (172 in AC, 171 in F2F, and 171 in VC). Caregivers were predominantly female (75%); mean age was 60.3 years.
INTERVENTION: PISCES includes a structured curriculum delivered in three sessions and motivates caregivers to adopt a positive attitude, define problems by obtaining facts, set goals, and generate and evaluate solutions.
MEASUREMENTS: Quality of life was measured by the Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Revised; anxiety was measured by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item. Other measures included the Caregiver Reaction Assessment scale, demographic data, and an exit interview.
RESULTS: Compared with AC, caregivers in the F2F condition had postintervention reduced anxiety (-1.31 [95% confidence interval [CI] = -2.11 to .50]; p = .004) and improved social (.57 [95% CI = .19-.95]; p = .01), financial (.57 [95% CI = .21-.93]; p = .004), and physical quality of life (.53 [95% CI = .19-.87]; p = .01). There were no differences in caregivers in the VC condition compared with the AC condition.
CONCLUSION: The PISCES intervention improves caregiver outcomes and is effective when delivered in person. How to integrate technology to reduce the intervention delivery cost warrants further investigation.
Prolonged grief (PGD) is a potentially debilitating consequence of bereavement that is experienced by 7%-10% of bereaved individuals. In recent years, PGD has been the focus of increasing interest as it is associated with a range of significant negative physical and mental health outcomes. To date, however, there is little understanding of how impairment is associated with individual PGD symptom interactions. Network analysis is an innovative statistical approach that has been productively applied to examine how symptoms of psychopathology influence and reinforce each other. In this study, we examined the association between PGD symptoms and quality of life (QoL) impairments. Data from 215 bereaved individuals were used to construct networks comprising PGD symptoms and different facets of QoL. The results showed that PGD symptoms of meaninglessness and role confusion were linked with reduced psychological QoL, trust difficulties were linked with reduced social QoL, and bitterness was linked with reduced environmental QoL. These results are consistent with models that highlight the importance of self-identity and loss of meaning in PGD. By elucidating pathways of dysfunction, these findings offer clinical implications that may help to improve outcomes for persons with PGD.
PURPOSE: To describe outcomes of Electrochemotherapy as palliative treatment in patients with advanced head and neck (H&N) tumours.
METHODS: Ninety-three patients (120 treatment sessions) with H&N recurrent and/or metastatic neoplasm were treated. Treatment response was assessed 4 weeks after ECT with clinical examination and two months after the first evaluation with a CT scan of the H&N for deep lesions evaluation. The grade of bleeding and pain before, at the end of treatment and one week after ECT were evaluated.
RESULTS: Five percent of complete responses, 40% of partial responses were registered. Disease progression was seen in 20% of patients after the first ECT procedure, the remaining 34% of patients experienced stable disease. A good control of pain and bleeding was obtained, especially in patients with moderate symptoms before the treatment. No toxicities related to ECT were seen.
CONCLUSIONS: ECT is an interesting antitumoral therapy in advanced chemo and radio-refractory H&N neoplasms. ECT is able to reduce frequent symptoms, such as pain and bleeding, improving quality of life without damage to healthy tissue and with limited side effects. Moreover, ECT reduces hospitalization time and may contribute to an overall reduction in healthcare costs associated with advanced H&N cancers care.
Purpose: Head-to-head comparison of reliability, validity and responsiveness of four patient-reported outcome measures (PROMS) suitable for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in palliative care settings: EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL, FACT-G7, FACIT-Pal and short-form FACIT-Pal-14.
Methods: Secondary analysis of two phase III randomised trials: ketamine for chronic cancer pain, octreotide for vomiting in inoperable malignant bowel obstruction. Sub-groups were defined by Australia-modified Karnofsky performance status (AKPS) and participants’ global impression of change (GIC). Two aspects of reliability were assessed: internal consistency (Cronbach alpha, a); test–retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC)) of patients with stable AKPS and those who self-reported ‘no change’ on GIC. Construct validity was assessed via pre-determined hypotheses about sensitivity of PROM scores to AKPS groups and responsiveness of PROM change scores to GIC groups using analysis of variance.
Results: FACIT-Pal had better internal consistency (a ranged 0.59–0.80, 15/18 = 0.70) than QLQ-C15-PAL (0.51–0.85, 4/8 = 0.70) and FACT-G7 (0.54–0.64, 0/2 = 0.70). FACIT scales had better test–retest reliability (FACIT-Pal 11/27 ICCs = 0.70, FACT-G7 2/3 ICCs = 0.70) than QLQ-C15-PAL (2/30 ICCs = 0.70, 18/30 = 0.5). Four scales demonstrated sensitivity to AKPS: QLQ-PAL-15 Physical Functioning and Global QOL, FACT-G Functional Wellbeing and FACIT-Pal Trial Outcome Index (TOI). Nine scales demonstrated responsiveness: three in the ketamine trial population (QLQ-C15-PAL Pain, FACIT-Pal-14, FACT-G7), six in the octreotide trial population (QLQ-C15-PAL Fatigue; FACIT-Pal PalCare, TOI, Total; FACT-G Physical Wellbeing and Total).
Conclusions: No PROM was clearly superior, confirming that choosing the best PROM requires careful consideration of the research goals, patient population and the domains of HRQOL targeted by the intervention being investigated.
Advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Patients with COPD and their families experience a range of stresses and suffering from a variety of sources throughout the disease's progression. COPD is the fourth leading cause of death in the world. It exists as a significant contributor to global morbidity and mortality, and it results in substantial economic and social burden. This review provides some key facts regarding disease burden and encourages clinician to familiarize themselves and use both conventional and palliative approach early in the disease progression for a better quality of life.
BACKGROUND: Home-based palliative care is care of the patient in their home, while doctors and other healthcare providers (HCPs) make visits as required. Family involvement naturally cultivates a relationship between HCPs and the family. Once the patient dies and home-based palliative care ends, this relationship is abruptly terminated, which may be challenging to both the family and the HCPs. The objective of this study was to understand the thoughts and opinions of HCPs and families on their encountered loss of relationship at the end of home-based palliative care.
METHODS: Perceptions of 63 participants (32 HCPs and 31 family members) were explored using semi-structured interviews and the qualitative research methodologies of grounded theory. HCPs were interviewed at the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care (TLCPC), a home-based palliative care group of physicians, and 2 hospitals in Toronto, while family members were recruited from TLCPC's records of deceased patients.
RESULTS: Six overarching themes, relating to HCP-family relationship dynamics, the experience of loss of relationship, and potential solutions, were derived from the data: (I) home palliative care is intimate; (II) dissatisfaction is experienced with abrupt relationship ending; (III) families benefit from open communication, especially after patient death; (IV) HCPs recognize the insufficiency in bereavement resources; (V) benefits are recognized for a system to ease loss of relationship, and lastly; (VI) challenges with introducing such a system concern HCP.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, families and HCPs do not like the loss of relationship post-patient death, and recognize the potential benefits of an approach that would allow for communication going forward.
The use of complementary and alternative therapies is growing year after year, and Reiki therapy takes a place of choice. Reiki therapy, classed as a biofield energy therapy, raises the question of validity when applied to patients, especially in palliative care. The purpose of this review is to highlight the effects of Reiki therapy on pain, anxiety/depression and quality of life of patients, specifically in palliative care. The current article indicates that Reiki therapy is useful for relieving pain, decreasing anxiety/depression and improving quality of life in several conditions. Due to the small number of studies in palliative care, we were unable to clearly identify the benefits of Reiki therapy, but preliminary results tend to show some positive effects of Reiki therapy for the end-of-life population. These results should encourage teams working in palliative care to conduct more studies to determine the benefits of Reiki therapy on pain, anxiety/depression and quality of life in palliative care.
BACKGROUND: Persons with advanced dementia cannot initiate activities because of the executive dysfunction. The lack of activities was identified as one of the most important factors contributing to behavioral problems of these persons. The unmet needs were boredom/sensory deprivation, loneliness/need for social interaction, and need for meaningful activities. There is a need for activities designed specifically for residents with advanced dementia.
OBJECTIVE: A description of patient's needs and of programs that intend to maintain quality of life for people with dementia and facing death.
DATA SOURCES: A literature review of programs used for persons with advanced dementia and residing in long-term facilities, using the PubMed data base and collateral sources.
RESULTS: Since palliative care is appropriate for persons with advanced dementia, attention has to be paid to three following important aspects of care: Medical issues, behavioral symptoms, and meaningful activities. Medical interventions should be limited to those which have more benefits than burdens, behavioral symptoms should be distinguished according to the context in which they occur, and treated by non-pharmacological interventions that involve meaningful activities. This review describes four programs that may promote the quality of life in persons with advanced dementia and facing death. They are designed for persons with advanced dementia, taking into account their functional impairments. Most of these programs involve short infrequent sessions. In contrast, Namaste Care is a daily extended program of enhanced nursing care that can provide quality of life until the last breath.
CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to maintain quality life for people with advanced dementia if a special program of activities is available.
Cancer pain is an unrelenting symptom with the potential to alter the quality of life of patients. To adequately manage pain, nurses caring for cancer patients need to fully understand each patient's pain experience. The purpose of this study was to identify the intensity, distress, frequency, or constancy of pain in patients treated for cancer or cancer symptoms and to better understand patient barriers to pain management. This cross-sectional study included patients (N = 105) treated for cancer or cancer symptoms at 2 outpatient medical centers. Assessments included the Pain Barriers Scale, the Cancer Symptom Scale, and the Multidimensional QOL Scale–Cancer. Descriptive statistics and Spearman correlations were used to analyze the data. Sixty-nine percent of patients reported present pain of moderate to severe intensity that caused distress, was frequent/constant, or interfered with their lives. Patients with the greatest pain distress reported the greatest intensity of pain (r = 0.77) and the greatest interference (r = 0.78) with daily lives. Cancer pain was associated with significant distress and interference with life activities and occurred frequently or constantly for many study patients.
BACKGROUND: Some patients develop severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) which is therapy-refractory. The needs of these patients sometimes remain unmet by therapeutic interventions and they are at high risk of receiving care that is inconsistent with their life goals. Scholarly discourse has recently begun to address the suitability of palliative care approaches targeting at enhancing quality of life for these patients, but remains to be developed.
METHOD: A cross-sectional survey asked 1311 German-speaking psychiatrists in Switzerland (the total number of German-speaking members of the Swiss Society for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy) about the care of SPMI patients in general, and about palliative care approaches in particular. 457 (34.9%) returned the completed survey. In addition, participants were asked to evaluate three case vignettes of patients with SPMI.
RESULTS: The reduction of suffering and maintaining daily life functioning of the patient were rated as considerably more important in the treatment of SPMI than impeding suicide and curing the underlying illness. There was broad agreement that SPMI can be terminal (93.7%), and that curative approaches may sometimes be futile (e.g. 72.4% for the anorexia nervosa case vignette). Furthermore, more than 75% of the participating psychiatrists were in favour of palliative care approaches for SPMI.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study suggest that the participating psychiatrists in Switzerland regard certain forms of SPMI as posing high risk of death. Additionally, a majority of respondents consider palliative care approaches appropriate for this vulnerable group of patients. However, the generalizability of the results to all psychiatrists in Switzerland or other mental health professionals involved in the care of SPMI is limited. This limitation is important considering the reservations towards palliative care in the context of psychiatric illness, mainly because of the association with death and futility. Palliative care approaches, however, are applicable in conjunction with other therapies intended to prolong life. A next step could be to involve service users and develop a consensus of what palliative care might encompass in SPMI. A framework for identifying which patients might benefit from palliative care, should be explored for the future development of care for SPMI patients.
PURPOSE: To examine the effectiveness of an advance care planning (ACP) intervention in facilitating concordance between cancer patients' preferred and received life-sustaining treatment (LST) states and to explore modifiable factors facilitating or impeding such concordance.
METHODS: Terminal cancer patients (N=460) were randomly assigned 1:1 to the experimental and control arms of a randomized clinical trial, with 430 deceased participants comprising the final sample. States of preferred LSTs (cardiopulmonary resuscitation, intensive care unit care, chest compression, intubation with mechanical ventilation, intravenous nutrition, and nasogastric tube feeding) and LSTs received in the last month were examined by hidden Markov modeling. Concordance and its modifiable predictors were evaluated by kappa and multivariate logistic regression, respectively.
RESULTS: We identified three LST-preference states (uniformly preferring LSTs, rejecting LSTs except intravenous nutrition support, and mixed LST preferences) and three received LST states (uniformly receiving LSTs, received intravenous nutrition only, and selectively receiving LSTs). Concordance was not significantly higher in the experimental than the control arm (kappa [95% CI]:0.126 [0.032, 0.221] vs. 0.050 [-0.028, 0.128]; arm difference: odds ratio [95% CI]: 1.008 [0.675, 1.5001]). Preferred-received LST-state concordance was facilitated by accurate prognostic awareness, better quality of life, and more depressive symptoms, whereas concordance was impeded by more anxiety symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS: Our ACP intervention did not facilitate concordance between terminally ill cancer patients' preferred and received LST states, but patient value-concordant end-of-life care may be facilitated by interventions to cultivate accurate prognostic awareness, improve quality of life, support depressive patients, and clarify anxious patients' over-expectations of LST efficacy.
OBJECTIVE: Depression is an easily treatable yet frequently underdiagnosed affliction in palliative population with deleterious implications on their quality of life. It has been studied poorly in developing countries like India.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done with 234 consenting subjects attending a palliative care unit. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF), and semi-structured proforma were used by trained nonmental health professional to collect data.
RESULTS: The prevalence of major depression was 70%. Being a resident of nuclear family (p = .004), absence of insurance coverage (p = .01), presence of financial difficulties (p = .002), and absence of cancer recurrence (p = .001) were significantly associated with major depression in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, presence of financial difficulties (OR = 3.9; 95% CI, 2.00-7.61) and absence of health insurance (OR = 1.92; 95% CI, 1.02-3.7) were independently associated with major depression. The presence of depression showed significant negative correlation with physical health (p = .03), psychological health (p = .002), and environmental (p = .002) domains of the WHOQOL-BREF.
CONCLUSION: This study brings to the fore the high rates of depression and its negative impact on the quality of life of terminally ill cancer patients. An improvement in their quality of life requires measures to reduce the rate of underdiagnosed psychiatric morbidities, especially in those who are financially burdened and lack insurance coverage.